Thursday, March 20, 2008

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51 comments:

Shiela Anne B. Abundo said...

Shiela Anne B. Abundo
BSIOP III-3
Rizal
TUESDAY & FRIDAY 9:00-10:30am
"THE INDOLENCE OF THE FILIPINO PEOPLE"

Indolence is defined as the disposition to be idle or, put another way, the lack of inclination to work. More than a hundred years ago, Jose Rizal wrote a brilliant essay in defence of the Indio, whose Spanish colonial master had called indolent. With flawless logic and irrefutable examples, Rizal demonstrated that the supposed indolence was an effect of the dehumanising conditions in which the Indio was forced to live. Still following the logic of cause-and-effect Rizal, in fact, twisted the knife back to the accuser and showed that the Spanish colonizers were the indolent ones. Thus, Rizal added one more definition of “indolence”: the inclination to live off the labor of others.

The Spanish colonizers were the indolent ones, not the Indio, because the Peninsulares and the Filipinos preferred the good life without working for it. It was justifiably easy to enrich themselves because they could always say, “What are we in power for?” Let the Indio work for the honor of Spain and for us who labor to see that Spain and Mother Church is obeyed at all times and without question.

The hapless Indio had to secure a permit in order to work their farms. Quoting Morga, Rizal wrote, “The natives were not allowed to go to their labors, that is, their farms, without permission of the governor, or of his agents and officers, and even of the priests. Rizal also quoted Gaspar de San Agustin who wrote that in 1690, the people of Bacolor had fewer people because of the uprising during Don Sabinianano Manrique de Lara’s time, and because of continual labor of cutting timber for his Majesty’s shipyards, which hindered them from cultivating the very fertile plains they have These two quotes show clearly that 1) the Indio was totally controlled by the Spanish which included forced labor but, 2) the Indio was capable of rising in armed rebellion against their colonial master.

It is strangely curious that when the natives succeeded in breaking the chains of slavery, they were no longer the “Indio” and took the name of their colonizer, the Filipino or the Spanish who were born in the Philippine islands. One would think that the enslaved would take a name farthest from the memory of the hated master. Instead, the Indio became the new Filipino and one wonders if the Indio inherited not only the name but its master’s cultural characteristics too, particularly indolence.

Shakespeare wrote that a rose is a rose by whatever name it is called. Even so, the Peninsulares who came direct from Spain held the Filipinos in lower esteem because they were born in the colony and therefore “less Spanish”. They had the same Spanish blood flowing in their veins but the accident of birth made the Peninsulares feel more superior. The ilustrado class—the Indio with wealth and education—personified by Emilio Aguinaldo, took over the revolution from that poor Indio named Andres Bonifacio whom they believed should not have aspired to be other than cannon fodder. Well, the ilustrado class won the revolution and, therefore, it is to the ilustrado class that present-day Filipinos owe that dubious honor of being named after the colonial masters. The descendants of that ilustrado class and of the original Filipinos continue to be the ruling class in the Philippines; sharing what power they will with the Catholic hierarchy. What about the descendants of those below the ilustrado class, are they still Indio? No, of course not, they are Filipino citizens. However, since the socio-political structure has not changed except for the takeover of the ilustrado class from the colonizer, the Indio is still an Indio by whatever name he is called. The present-day Indio comprises about 80% of the population. No matter, there is no loss of face in that, for as Rizal had proven, the Indio is not indolent. In fact, the Indio shall redeem the Philippines from the enemy within—the affluent and the politicians who make a mockery of democracy and justice.

As it was then, so is it now. Separated from the rest of the population by an insurmountable wall of wealth and political power, the Filipino ruling class easily make a great show of benevolent paternalism under the guise of democracy in order to hide the indolence they have inherited. They wrote a Philippine Constitution by and for themselves, which, of course, they invoke or subvert according to how it serves their interest. Obedient and trusting as always, the masses continue to believe that they actually elected a democratic government despite the chronic cheating in the polls.

It was easier then to identify the enemy because it was foreign. First came the Spanish colonizers and then came the Americans. With the declaration of Philippine Independence in 1946 the Filipinos were finally free to determine how the country shall be governed. It also removed the excuse of blaming a foreign power for the idiocies and the greed of the new political cliques. In the early 1950s, the Philippines was considered the richest nation in SouthEast Asia with the highest GNP per capita. Today, the Philippines is second only to Bangladesh that is at the bottom of the list of the ten most impoverished countries. What has happened, or what did not happen? Who made this happen, or who did not make it happen?

Scapegoats are necessary where nobody wants to face the truth of their own failure. It is ridiculous that the Marxist groups in the Philippines blame everything on the USA, as if everything that is wrong or evil in government is due to American machinations, blithely ignoring the direct hand and the initiative of the corrupt politicians. Ang Bayan, both the print and the online editions, continue to mouth the “party line” of revolution and the overthrow of the American stranglehold on the Philippines. The sad fact is there is no stranglehold except that made by the government officials, from the President down to the mayor of the smallest town.

This essay does not at all mean to be an apologist for the late President Ferdinand Marcos, but he was really the only president who had a vision for the country. He was brilliant. Marcos had an iron will that could turn to ruthlessness, and his enemies were powerless against his wit and charm. One morning in September 1972, Filipinos woke up to find that there was no radio and no newspapers. Martial law has been declared. Everyone was in the grip of fear, and because they were afraid, they obeyed. Marcos called for discipline and he believed that “this nation can be great again”. At first, corrupt officials curbed their greed, for fear of being arrested. Then they became what was called the “backsliders” and then more and more went back to their old bad habits, until the usual cycle of graft and corruption was back in place. In 1986, the Filipinos went to the streets and ousted the 20-year dictator through what has been called “People Power.”

For the first time since the Philippine Revolution in 1896, the masses rallied to the call of the leaders and again put their lives in the hands of those in power. Once again the people were betrayed. No sooner were the Marcoses out of the country than the old politicians and the oligarchy came crawling like worms out of the woodwork. As the masses went to the streets and created what could have been a real revolution called EDSA People Power, the disenfranchised politicians appeared on television and gave speeches by radio, clearly meaning to take over the vacuum. They did. Today, it seems that the people no longer care or perhaps they are now in the depths of hopelessness and helplessness. So, the question arises, is the Filipino indolent now at the time when they could least afford to be so?

Clearly the Filipino masses have lost faith in politicians and they clearly indicated this by voting an actor as President of the Republic, Joseph “Erap” Estrada. According to an exclusive article written in October 30, 2002 by the Daily Tribune editor and publisher, Ninez Cacho Olivares, a group that calls itself “Omerta”, “composed of representatives of business groups and Catholic Church leaders as well as representatives of celebrated personalities, came together and met formally early this month to fine tune the plan to "constitutionally" oust President Estrada under "Oplan Excelsis." They succeeded. Gloria Arroyo, who was herself also under impeachment charges at the time, now occupies Malacañan. Now, the Philippines is worse off than under Estrada and everybody believes that the solution is in having a new and incorruptible president.

Nobody seems to realize that it is far more difficult to eradicate corruption in the government institutions like the BIR and the DPWH, than it is to oust a duly elected President. Apparently, most Filipinos believe that the Philippine President should be no less than a superman and a miracle worker who will put everything to right. Nobody seems to ask himself what he should do as an individual and as a citizen of that country. Governance is every citizen’s business, particularly in a democracy. It’s like everybody is to blame except himself. A corrupt system will not continue unless the people knowingly or unknowingly support it. The corruption is so ingrained that if one were to give all civil service employees a test on corruption, very few will it. This only means that the citizenry tolerate this corruption in one way or the other. Here is an anecdote to illustrate this.

A young man was driving his mother to her appointment when a traffic policeman stopped them. The young man was sure he had not violated a traffic law but he stopped and, before the policeman came to the car, he took out a one-hundred pesos bill from his wallet. Aghast, the mother asked him if he were thinking of bribing the policeman. Calmly, the son said, “I have no choice. You know, I know, and that policeman knows that I did not violate any traffic rule. But if I let him give me a ticket, they will simply make it harder for me and I won’t be able to drive through this area again without being victimized by that same policeman or his colleagues.” The young man then folded the money and inserted it in the plastic holder of his driving license. The policeman came, wrote something on a little notebook, told the young man to be more observant of traffic rules, and left. The young man then showed the plastic holder to his mother; the money was gone.

It would not be a distant analogy to compare this incident to what an Indio farmer would have done if confronted with similar circumstances. The feeling of helplessness against prevalent corruption has gone from bad to worse that, really, nobody quite knows where to begin. The Indio of today is not powerless like the Indio during the Spanish colonial period, but the same feeling of helplessness prevails. According to statistics, the Philippines has an 83% literacy rate, but how much of this is functional literacy? Each year, schools and colleges graduate thousands of young people, but how many of them can and actually use what they have learned?

Today’s Indio is not helpless. He has, in fact, more education and access to modern and traditional technologies that would give him a fighting chance to battle against the socio-political evils that has dragged the Philippines deep into the muck. The problem is that individual and group efforts have not been coordinated into one united front.

In Part 3 of his long essay, “The Indolence of the Filipinos”, Rizal wrote,

Man works for an object. Remove the object and you reduce him to inaction. The most active man in the world will fold his arms from the instant he understands that it is madness to bestir himself, that this work will be the cause of his trouble, that for him it will be the cause of vexations at home and of the pirate's greed abroad

Filipinos are not lazy, nor are they indolent by whatever definition. Even so, it is apparent that they work only for themselves and their family, not because they are indifferent to the fate of their country. It is because they see no object worth their labor. The present socio-political structure has robbed the Filipino in the same way that the Spanish colonizer had robbed the Indio of an object to work for. There are no scapegoats available, except those in the fantasy of Ang Bayan; there is no bogeyman either as the Church would have the Filipinos believe. There is only the Filipino individual who should work together with his countrymen. There is no lack of Filipino individuals and groups working for the betterment of the Philippines, but they must organize. In short, they must put their act together. Only then can we truly say with Rizal that the Filipino is not indolent.

Indolence of the Filipino People

I

Doctor Sanciano, in his Progreso de Filipinas, has taken up this question, agitated, as he calls it, and relying upon facts and reports furnished by the very same Spanish authorities that ruled the Philippines has demonstrated that such indolence does not exist, and that all said about it does not deserve a reply or even passing choice.

Nevertheless as discussion of it has been continued, not only by government employees who make it responsible for their own shortcomings, not only by the friars who regard it as necessary in order that they may continue to represent themselves as indispensable, but also by serious and disinterested persons: and as evidence of greater or less weight may be adduced in opposition to that which Dr. Sanciano cites, it seems expedient to us to study this question thoroughly, without superciliousness or sensitiveness, without prejudice, without pessimism. As as we can only serve our country by telling the truth, however, bitter it be, just as flagrant and skillful negation cannot refute a real and positive fact, in spite of the brilliance of the arguments; as mere affirmation is not sufficient to create something possible, let us calmly examine the facts, using on our part all the impartiality of which a man is capable who is convinced that there is no redemption except upon solid bases of virtue.

The word indolence has been greatly misused in the sense of little love for work and lack of energy, while ridicule has concealed the misuse. This much-discussed question has met with the same fate as certain panaceas and specifics of the quacks who by ascribing to them impossible virtues have discredited them. In the Middle Ages, and even in some Catholic countries now, the devil is blamed for everything that superstitious folk cannot understand or the perversity of mankind is loath to confess. In the Philippines one's and another's faults, the shortcomings of one, the misdeeds of another, are attributed to indolence. And just as in the Middle Ages he who sought the explanation of phenomena outside of infernal influences was persecuted, so in the Philippines worse happens to him who seeks the origin of the trouble outside of accepted beliefs.

The consequence of this misuse is that there are some who are interested in stating it as a dogma and others in combating it as a ridiculous superstition, if not a punishable delusion. Yet it is not to be inferred from the misuse of a thing that it does not exist.

We think that there must be something behind all this outcry, for it is incredible that so many should err, among whom we have said there are a lot of serious and disinterested persons. Some act in bad faith, though levity, through levity, through want of sound judgment, through limitation in reasoning power, ignorance of the past, or other cause. Some repeat what they have heard, without examination or reflection; others speak through pessimism or are impelled by that human characteristic which paints as perfect everything that belongs to oneself and defective whatever belongs to another. But it cannot be denied that there are some who worship truth, or if not truth itself at least the semblance thereof which is truth in the mind of the crowd.

Examining well, then, all scenes and all the men that we have known from childhood; and the life of our country, we believe that indolence does exist there. The Filipinos, who can measure up with the most active peoples in the world, will doubtless not repudiate his admission, for it is true there one works and struggles against the climate, against nature and against men. But we must not take the exception for the general rule, and should rather seek the good of our country by stating what we believe to be true. We must confess that indolence does actually and positively exist there, only that, instead of holding it to be the cause of the backwardness and the trouble, we regard it as the effect of the trouble and the backwardness, by fostering the development of a lamentable predisposition.

Those who have as yet treated of indolence, with the exception of Dr. Sancianco, have been content to deny or affirm it. We know of no one who has studied its causes. Nevertheless, those who admit its existence and exaggerate it more or less have not therefore failed to advise remedies taken from here and there, from Java, from India, from other English or Dutch colonies, like the quack who saw a fever cured with a dozen sardines and afterwards always prescribed these fish at every rise in temperature that he discovered in his patient.

We shall proceed otherwise. Before proposing a remedy we shall examine the causes, and even though strictly speaking a predisposition is not a cause, let us, however, study at its true value this predisposition due to nature.

The predisposition exists? Why shouldn't it?

A hot climate requires of the individual quiet and rest, just as cold incites to labor and action. For this reason the Spaniard is more indolent than the Frenchman; the Frenchman more so than the German. The Europeans themselves who reproach the residents of the colonies so much (and I am not now speaking of the Spaniards but of the Germans and English themselves), how do they live in tropical countries? Surrounded by a numerous train of servants, never-going afoot but riding in a carriage, needing servants not only to take off their shoes for them but even to them! And yet they live and eat better, they work for themselves to get rich, with the hope of a future, free and respected, while the poor colonist, the indolent colonist, is badly nourished, has no hope, toils for others, and works under force and compulsion! Perhaps the reply to this will be that white men are not made to stand the severity of the climate. A mistake! A man can live in any climate, if he will only adapt himself to its requirements and conditions. What kills the European in hot countries is the abuse of liquors, the attempt to live according to the nature of his own country under another sky and another sun. We inhabitants of hot countries live well in northern Europe whenever we take the precautions of the people there do. Europeans can also stand the torrid zone, if only they would get rid of their prejudices.

The fact is that in tropical countries violent work is not a good thing as it is in cold countries, there it is death, destruction, annihilation. Nature knows this and like a just mother has therefore made the earth more fertile, more productive, as a compensation. An hour's work under that burning sun, in the midst of pernicious influences springing from nature in activity, is equal to a day's work in a temperate climate; it is, then, just that the earth yields a hundred fold! Moreover, do we not see the active European, who feels the fresh blood of spring boil in his veins, do we not see him abandon his labors, during the few days of his variable summer, close his office -- where the work is not violent and amounts for many to talking and gesticulating in the shade beside a lunch stand -- flee to watering places, sit in the cafes or stroll about. What wonder then that the inhabitant of tropical countries, worn out and with his blood thinned by the continuous and excessive heat is reduced to inaction? Who is the indolent one in the Manila offices? Is it the poor clerk who comes in at eight in the morning and leaves at one in the afternoon with only his parasol, who copies and writes and works for himself and for his chief, or is it the chief, who comes in a carriage at ten o'clock, leaves before twelve, reads his newspaper while smoking and with his feet cocked up on a chair or a table, or gossiping about all his friends? What is indolent, the native coadjutor, poorly paid and badly treated, who has to visit all the indigent sick living in the country, or the friar curate who gets fabulously rich, goes about in a carriage, eats and drinks well, and does not put himself to any trouble without collecting an excessive fee?

Without speaking further of the Europeans in what violent labor does the Chinaman engage in tropical countries, the industrious Chinaman, who flees from his own country driven by hunger and whose whole ambition is to amass a small fortune? With the exception of some porters, an occupation that the natives also follow, he nearly always engages in the trade, in commerce; so rarely does he take up agriculture that we do not know of a single case. The Chinaman who in other colonies cultivates the soil does so only for a certain number of years and then retires.

We find, then, the tendency to indolence very natural, and have to admit and bless it, for we cannot alter natural laws, and without it the race would have disappeared. l Man is not a brute, he is not a machine, his object is not merely to produce, in spite of the pretensions of some Christian whites who would make of the colored Christian a kind of motive power somewhat more intelligent and less costly than steam. Man's object is not to satisfy the passions of another man, his object is to seek happiness for himself and his kind by traveling along the road of progress and perfection.

The evil is not that indolence exists more or less latently but that it is fostered and magnified. Among men, as well as among nations, there exist not only, aptitudes but also tendencies good and evil. To foster the good ones and aid them, as well as correct the evil and repress them, would be the duty of society and government, if less noble thoughts did not occupy their attention. The evil is that the indolence in the Philippines is a magnified indolence, an indolence of the snowball type, if we may be permitted the expression, an evil that increases in direct proportion to the periods of time, and effect of misgovernment and of backwardness, as we have said, and not a cause thereof. Others will hold the contrary opinion, especially those who have a hand in the misgovernment, but we do not care; we have made an assertion and are going to prove it.

II

When in consequence of a long chronic illness the condition of the patient is examined, the question may arise whether the weakening of the fibers and the debility of the organs are the cause of the malady's continuing or the effect of the bad treatment that prolongs its action. The attending physician attributes the entire failure of his skill to the poor constitution of the patient, to the climate, to the surroundings, and so on. On the other hand, the patient attributes the aggravation of the evil to the system of treatment followed. Only the common crowd, the inquisitive populace, shakes its head and cannot reach a decision.

Something like this happens in the case of the Philippines. Instead of a physician, read government, that is friars, employees, etc. Instead of patient, Philippines; instead of malady, indolence.

And just as happens in similar cases when the patient gets worse, everybody loses his head, each one dodges the responsibility to place it upon somebody else, and instead of seeking the causes in order to combat the evil in them, devotes himself at best to attacking the symptoms; here a blood-letting, a tax; there a plaster, forced labor, further on a sedative, a trifling reform. Every new arrival proposes a new remedy; one, seasons of prayer, the relics of a saint, the viaticum, the friars; another shower-bath; still another, with pretensions to modern ideas, a transfusion of blood. "It's nothing, only the patient has eight million indolent red corpuscles; some few white corpuscles in the form of an agricultural colony will get us out of the trouble."

So, on all sides there are groans, gnawing of lips, clenching of fists, many hollow words, great ignorance, a deal of talk, a lot of fear. The patient is near his finish!

Yes, transfusion of blood, transfusion of blood! New life, new vitality! Yes, new white corpuscles that you are going to inject into its veins, the new white corpuscles that were a cancer in another organism will withstand all the depravity of the system, will have more stamina than all the degeneration, all the trouble in the principal organs. Be thankful if they do not become coagulations and produce gangrene, be thankful if they do not reproduce the cancer!

While the patient breathes, we must not lose hope, and however late we may be, a judicious examination is never superfluous; at least the cause of death may be known. We are not trying to put all the blame on the physician, and still less on the patient, for we have already spoken of a predisposition, in the absence of which the race would disappear, sacrificed to excessive labor in a tropical country.

Indolence in the Philippines is a chronic malady, but not a hereditary one. The Filipinos have not always been what they are, witnesses whereto are all the historians of the first years after the discovery of the Islands.

Before the arrival of the Europeans, the Malayan Filipinos carried on an active trade, no only among themselves but also with all the neighboring countries. A Chinese manuscript of the 13th century, translated by Dr. Hirth (Globus, September, 1889), which we will take up at another time, speaks of China's relations with the islands, relations purely commercial, which mention is made of the activity and honesty of the traders of Luzon, who took the Chinese products and distributed them throughout all the islands, for the merchandise that the Chinaman did not remember to have given them. The products which they in exchange exported from the islands were crude wax, cotton, pearls, tortoise shell, betel-nuts, dry goods, etc.

The first thing noticed by Pigafetta who came with Magellan in 1521, on arriving at the first island of the Philippines, Samar, was the courtesy and kindness of the inhabitants and their commerce. "To honor our captain," he says, "they conducted him to their boats where they had their merchandise, which consisted of cloves, cinnamon, pepper, nutmegs, mace, gold and other things; and they made us understand by gestures that such articles were to be found in the islands to which we were going."

Further on he speaks of the vessels and utensils of solid gold that he found in Butuan where the people worked in mines. He describes the silk dresses, the daggers with long gold hilts and scabbards of carved wood, the gold sets of teeth, etc. Among cereals and fruits he mentions rice, millet, oranges, lemons, panicum, etc.

That the islands maintained relations with neighboring countries and even with distant ones is proven by the ships from Siam, laden with gold and slaves, that Magellan found in Cebu. These ships paid certain duties to the king of the island. In the same year, 1521, the survivors of Magellan's expedition met the son of the Rajah of Luzon, who, as captain-general of the Sultan of Borneo and admiral of his fleet, had conquered for him the great city of Lave (Sarawak ?). Might this captain, who was greatly feared by all his foes, have been the Rajah Matanda whom the Spaniards afterwards encountered in Tondo in 1570?

In 1539 the warriors of Luzon took part in the formidable contests of Sumatra, and under the orders of Angi Sity Timor, Rajah of Batta, conquered and overthrew the terrible Alzadin, Sultan of Atchin, renowned in the historical annals of the Far East. (Marseen, History of Sumatra, chapter 20)

At that time, that sea where float the islands like a set of emeralds on a paten of bright glass, that sea was everywhere traversed by junks, paraus, barangays, vintas, vessels swift as shuttles so large that they could maintain a hundred rowers on a side (Morga); that sea bore everywhere commerce, industry, agriculture, by the force of the oars moved to the sound of warlike songs of the genealogies and achievements of the Philippine divinities. (Colin, Chapter 15)

Wealth abounded in the islands. Pigafetta tells us of the abundance of foodstuffs in Pragua and of its inhabitants, who nearly all tilled their own fields. At this island the survivors of Magellan's expedition were well received and provisioned. A little later, these same survivors captured a vessel, plundered and sacked it and took prisoner in it the chief of the Island of Paragua with his son and brother.

In this same vessel they captured bronze lombards, and this is the first mention of artillery of the Filipino, for these lombards were useful to the chief of Paragua against the savages of the interior.

They let him ransom himself within seven days, demanding 400 measures (cavanes ?) of rice, 20 pigs, 20 goats, and 450 chickens. This is the first act of piracy recorded in Philippine history. The chief of Paragua paid everything, and moreover, voluntarily added coconuts, bananas, and sugar-cane jars filled with palm wine. When Caesar was taken prisoner by the corsairs and required to pay twenty-five talents ransom, he replied, "I'll give you fifty, but later I'll have you crucified!" The chief of Paragua was more generous: he forgot. His conduct, while it may reveal weakness, also demonstrates that the islands ere abundantly provisioned. This chief was named Tuan Mahamud; his brother, Guantil, and his son, Tuan Mahamud. (Martin Mendez, Purser of the ship Victoria: Archivo de Indias.)

A very extraordinary thing, and one that shows the facility with which the natives learned Spanish, is that fifty years before the arrival of the Spaniards in Luzon, in that very year 1521, when they first came to the islands, there were already natives of Luzon who understood Castilian. In the treaties of peace that the survivors of Magellan's expedition made with the chief of Paragua, when the servant-interpreter died they communicated with one another through a Moro who had been captured in the island of the King of Luzon and who understood some Spanish (Martin Mendez; op cit.) Where did this extemporaneous interpreter learn Castilian? In the Moluccas? In Malacca, with the Portuguese? Spaniards did not reach Luzon until 1571.

Legazpi's expedition met in Butuan various traders of Luzon with their boats laden with iron, cloths, porcelain, etc. (Gaspar de San Agustin) plenty of provisions, activity, trade, movement in all the southern islands.

They arrived at the Island of Cebu, "abounding in provisions, with mines and washings of gold, and peopled with natives, "as Morga says: "very populous, and at a port frequented by many ships that came from the islands and kingdoms near India," as Colin says: and even though they were peacefully received discord soon arose. The city was taken by force and burned. The first destroyed the food supplies and naturally famine broke out in that town of a hundred thousand people, as the historians say, and among the members of the expedition, but the neighboring islands quickly relieved the need, thanks to the abundance they enjoyed.

All the histories of those first years, in short, abound in long accounts about the industry and agriculture of the natives; mines, gold-washings, looms, farms, barter, naval construction, raising of poultry and stock, weaving of silk and cotton, distilleries, manufactures of arms, pearl fisheries, the civet industry, the horn and hide industry, etc., are things encountered at every step, and considering the time and the conditions in the islands, prove that there was life, there was activity, there was movement.

And if this, which is deduction, does not convince any minds imbued with unfair prejudices perhaps, of some avail may be the testimony of the oft-quoted Dr. Morga, who was Lieutenant-Governor of Manila for seven years and after rendering great service in the Archipelago was appointed criminal judge of the Audiencia of Mexico and Counselor of the Inquisition. His testimony, we say, is highly credible, not only because all his contemporaries have spoken of him in terms that border on veneration but also because his work, from which we take these citations, is written with great circumspection and care, as well with reference to the authorities in the Philippines as to the errors they committed. "The natives," says Morga, in Chapter Seven, speaking of the occupations of the Chinese, "are very far from exercising those trade and have forgotten much about farming, raising poultry, stock and cotton, and weaving cloth. As they used to do in their Paganism and for a long time after the country was conquered."

The whole Chapter 8 of his work deals with this moribund activity, this much forgotten industry, and yet in spite of that, how long is his eighth chapter!

And not only Morga, not also Chirinco, Colin, Argensola, Gaspar de San Agustin and others agree to this matter, but modern travelers, after two hundred and fifty years, examining the decadence and misery, assert the same thing. Dr. Hans Meyer, when he saw the tribes not subdued cultivating beautiful fields and working energetically, asked if they would not become indolent when they in turn should accept Christianity and a paternal government.

Accordingly, the Filipinos in spite of the climate, in spite of their few needs (they were less then than now), were not the indolent creatures of our time, and, as we shall see later on, their ethics and their mode of life were not what is not complacently attributed to them.

How then, and in what way, was that active and enterprising infidel native of ancient times converted into the lazy and indolent Christian, as our contemporary writers say?

We have already spoken of the more or less latent predisposition which exists in the Philippines toward indolence, and which must exist everywhere, in the whole world, in all men, because we all hate work more or less, as it may be more or less hard, more ore less unproductive. The dolce far niente of the Italian, the rascarse la barriga of the Spaniard, the supreme aspiration of the bourgeois to live on his income in peace and tranquility, attest this.

What causes operated to awake this terrible predisposition from its lethargy? How is it that the Filipino people, so fond of its customs as to border on routine, has given up its ancient habits of work, of trade, of navigation, etc., even to the extent of completely forgetting its past?

III

A fatal combination of circumstances, some independent of the will in spite of men's efforts, others in offspring of stupidity and ignorance, others the inevitable corollaries of false principles, and still others the result of more or less base passions, has induced the decline of labor, an evil which instead of being remedies by prudence, mature reflection and recognition of the mistakes made, through a deplorable policy, through regrettable blindness and obstinacy, has gone from bad to worse until it has reached the condition in which we now see it.

First came the wars, the internal disorders which the new change of affairs naturally brought with it. It was necessary to subject the people either by cajolery or force; there were fights, there was slaughter; those who had submitted peacefully seemed to repent of it; insurrections were suspected, and some occurred; naturally there were executions, and many capable laborers perished. Add to this condition of disorder the invasion of Li-Mahong; add continual wars into which the inhabitants of the Philippines were pledged to maintain the honor of Spain, to extend the sway of her flag in Borneo, in the Moluccas and in Indo-China; to repel the Dutch foe; costly wars, fruitless expeditions, in which each time thousands and thousands of native archers and rowers were recorded to have embarked, but whether they returned to their homes was never stated. Like the tribute that once upon a time Greece sent to the Minotaur of Crete, the Philippine youth embarked for the expedition, saying goodbye to their country forever; on their horizon were the stormy sea, the interminable wars, the rash expeditions. Wherefore, Gaspar de San Agustin says: "Although anciently there were in this town of Dumangas many people, in the course of time they have very greatly diminished because the natives are the best sailors and most skillful rowers on the whole coast, and so the governors in the port of Iloilo take most of the people from this town for the ships that they send abroad . . . When the Spaniards reached this island (Panay) it is said that there were on it more than fifty thousand families; but these diminished greatly . . . and at present they may amount to some fourteen thousand tributaries." From fifty thousand families to fourteen thousand tributaries in little over half a century!

We would never get through, had we to quote all the evidence of the authors regarding the frightful diminution of the inhabitants of the Philippines in the first years after the discovery. In the time of their first bishop, that is, ten years after Legazpi. Philip II said that they had been reduced to less than two-thirds.

Add to these fatal expeditions that wasted all the moral and material energies of the country, the frightful inroads of the terrible pirates from the south, instigated and encouraged by the government, first in order to get a complaint and afterwards disarm the islands subjected to it, inroads that reached the very shores of Manila, even Malate itself, and during which were sen to set out for captivity and slavery, in the baleful glow of burning villages, strings of wretches who had been unable to defend themselves, leaving behind them the ashes of their homes and the corpses of their parents and children. Morga, who recounts the first piratical invasion, says: "The boldness of these people of Mindanao did great damage to the Visayan Island, as much by what they did in them as by the fear and fright which the native acquired, because the latter were in the power of the Spaniards who held them subject and tributary and unarmed, in such manner that they did not protect them from their enemies or leave the means with which to defend themselves, AS THEY DID WHEN THERE WERE NO SPANIARDS IN THE COUNTRY." These piratical attacks continually reduce the number of the inhabitants of the Philippines, since the independent Malays were especially notorious for their atrocities and murders, sometimes because they believed that to preserve their independence it was necessary to weaken the Spaniard by reducing the number of his subjects, sometimes because a greater hatred and a deeper resentment inspired them against the Christian Filipino who, being of their own race, served the stranger in order to deprive them of their precious liberty. These expeditions lasted about three centuries, being repeated five and ten times a year, and each expedition cost the island over eight hundred prisoners.

"With the invasions of the pirates from Sulu and Mindanao," says Padre Gaspar de San Agustin, (the island of Bantayan, near Cebu) "has greatly reduced, because they easily captured the people there, since the latter had no place to fortify themselves and were far from help from Cebu. The hostile Sulus did great damage in this island in 1608, leaving it almost depopulated." (Page 380)

These rough attacks, coming from without, produced a counter effect in the interior, which, carried out medical comparisons was like a purge or diet in an individual who has just lost a great deal of blood. In order to make headway against so many calamities, to secure their sovereignty and take the offensive in these disastrous contests, to isolate the warlike Sulus from their neighbors in the south, to care for the needs of the empire of the Indies (for one of the reasons why the Philippines were kept, as contemporary documents prove, ws their strategic position between New Spain and the Indies), to wrest from the Dutch their growing colonies of the Molluccas and get red of some troublesome neighbors, to maintain, in short, the trade of China and New Spain, it was necessary to construct new and large ships which, as we have seen, costly as they were to the country for their equipment and the rowers they required, were not less so because of the manner in which they were constructed. Padre Fernando de lost Rios Coronel, who fought in these wards and later turned priest, speaking of these King's ships, said, "As they were so large, the timber needed was scarcely to be found in the forests (of the Philippines?), and thus it was necessary to seek it with great difficulty in the most remote of them, where, once found, in order to haul and convey it to the shipyard the towns of the surrounding country had to be depopulated of natives, who get it out with immense labor, damage, and cost to them. The natives furnished the masts for a galleon, according to the assertion of the Franciscans, and I heard the governor of the province where they were cut, which is Laguna de Bay, say that to haul them seven leagues over very broken mountains 6,000 natives were engaged three months, without furnishing them food, which the wretched native had to seek for himself!"

And Gaspar de San Agustin says: "In these times (1690), Bacolor has not the people that it had in the past because of the uprising in that province when Don Sabiniano Manrique de Lara was Governor of these islands and because of the continual labor of cutting timber for his Majesty's shipyards, which hinders them from cultivating the very fertile plain they have.

If this is not sufficient to explain the depopulation of the islands and the abandonment of industry, agriculture and commerce, then add "the natives who were executed, those who left their wives and children and fled in disgust to the mountains, those who were sold into slavery to pay the taxes levied upon them," as Fernando de los Rios Coronel says; add to all this what Philip II said in reprimanding Bishop Salazar about "natives sold to some encomenderos to others, those flogged to death, the women who are crushed to death by their heavy burdens, those who sleep in the fields and bear and nurse their children and die bitten by poisonous vermin, the many who are executed and left to die of hunger and those who eat poisonous herbs . . . and the mothers who kill their children in bearing them," and you will understand how in less than thirty years the population of the Philippines was reduced one-third. We are not saying this: it was said by Gaspar de San Agustin, the preeminently anti-Filipino Augustinian, and he confirms it throughout the rest of his work by speaking every moment of the state of neglect in which lay the farms and field once so flourishing and so well cultivated, the town thinned that had formerly been inhabited by many leading families!

How is it strange, then, that discouragement may have been infused into the spirit of the inhabitants of the Philippines, when in the midst of so many calamities they did not know whether they would see sprout the seed they were planting, whether their field was going to be their grave or their crop would go to feed their executioner? What is there strange in it, when we see the pious but impotent friars of that time trying to free their poor parishioners from the tyranny of the encomenderos by advising them to stop work in the mines, to abandon their commerce, to break up their looms, pointing out to them heaven for their whole hope, preparing them for death as their only consolation?

Man works for an object. Remove the object and you reduce him to inaction. The most active man in the world will fold his arms from the instant he understands that it is madness to bestir himself, that this work will be the cause of his trouble, that for him it will be the cause of vexations at home and of the pirate's greed abroad. It seems that these thoughts have never entered the minds of those who cry out against the indolence of the Filipinos.

Even were the Filipino not a man like the rest, even were we to suppose that zeal in him for work was as essential as the movement of a wheel caught in the gearing of others in motion; even were we to deny him foresight and the judgment that the past and present form, there would still be left us another reason to explain the attack of the evil. The abandonment of the fields by their cultivators, whom the wars and piratical attacks dragged from their homes was sufficient to reduce to nothing the hard labor of so many generations. In the Philippines abandon for a year the land most beautifully tended and you will see how you will have to begin all over again: the rain will wipe out the furrows, the floods will drown the seeds, pants and bushes will grow up everywhere, and on seeing so much useless labor the hand will drop the hoe, the laborer will desert his plow. Isn't there left the fine life of the pirate?

Thus is understood that sad discouragement which we find in the friar writers of the 17th century, speaking of once very fertile plains submerged, of provinces and towns depopulate, of leading families exterminated. These pages resemble a sad and monotonous scene in the night after a lively day. Of Cagayan, Padre Agustin speaks with mournful brevity: "A great deal of cotton, of which they made good cloth that the Chinese and Japanese every year bought and carried away." In the historian's time, the industry and the trade had come to an end.

It seems that there are causes more than sufficient to breed indolence in the midst of a beehive. Thus is explained why, after thirty-two years of the system, the circumspect and prudent Morga said that the natives have forgotten much about farming, raising poultry, stock and cotton and weaving cloth, as they used to do in their paganism and for a long time after the country had been conquered!"

Still they struggled a long time against indolence, yes: but their enemies were so numerous that at last they gave up!

We recognize the causes that awoke the predisposition and provoked the evil: now let us see what foster and sustain it. In this connection government and governed have to bow our heads and say: "We deserve our fate."

We have already truly said that when a house becomes disturbed and disordered, we should not accuse the youngest child or the servants, but the head of it, especially if his authority is unlimited. He who does not act freely is not responsible for his actions; and the Filipino people, not being master of its liberty, is not responsible for either its misfortunes or its woes. We say this, it is true, but, as well as seen later on, we also have a large part in the continuation of such a disorder.

The following other causes contributed to foster the evil and aggravate it; the constantly lessening encouragement that labor has met with in the Philippines. Fearing to have the Filipinos deal frequently with other individuals of their own race, who were free and independent, as the Borneans, the Siamese, the Cambodians, and the Japanese, people who in their customs and feeling differ greatly from the Chinese, the government acted toward these others with great mistrust and great severity, as Morga testifies in the last pages of his work, until they finally ceased to come to the country. In fact, it seems that once an uprising planned by he Borneans was suspected: we say; suspected, for there was not even an attempt, although there were many executions. And as thse nations wee the very ones that consumed Philippine products, when all communication with them had been cut off, consumption of these products also ceased. The only two countries with which the Philippines continued to have relations were China and Mexico, or New Spain, and from this trade only China and a few private individuals in Manila got any benefit. In fact, the Celestial Empire sent her junks laden with merchandise, that merchandise which shut down the factories of Seville and ruined the Spanish industry, and returned laden in exchange with the silver that was every year sent from Mexico. Nothing from the Philippines at that time went to China, not even gold, for in those years the Chinese trades would accept no payment but silver coin. To Mexico went a little more: some cloth and dry goods which the encomenderos took by force or bought from the natives at a paltry; price, wax, amber, gold, civet, etc; but nothing more, and not even in great quantity, as is stated by Admiral Don Jeronimo de Benelos y Carrilo, when he begged the King that "the inhabitants of the Manilas be permitted (1) to load as many ships as they could with native products, such as wax, gold, perfumes, ivory, cotton cloths, which they would have to buy from the natives of the country. . . Thus friendship of these peoples would be gained, they would furnish New Spain with their merchandise and the money that is brought to Manila would not leave this place."

The coastwise trade, so active in other times, had to die out, thanks to the piratical attacks of the Malays of the south; and trade in the interior of the islands almost entirely disappeared, owing to restrictions, passports and other administrative requirements.

Of no little importance were the hindrance and obstacles that from the beginning were thrown in the farmer's way by the rules, who were influenced by childish fear and saw everywhere signs of conspiracies and uprisings. The natives were not allowed to go to their labors, that is, their farms, without permission of the governor, or of his agents and officers, and even of the priests as Morga says. Those who know the administrative slackness and confusion in a country where the officials work scarcely two hours a day; those who know the cost of going to and returning form the capital to the little tyrants will well understand how with this crude arrangement it is possible to have the most absurd agriculture. True it is that for sometime this absurdity which would be ludicrous had it not been so serious, had disappeared; but even if the words have gone out of use other facts and other provisions have replaced them. The Moro pirate has disappeared but there remains the outlaw who infests the fields and waylays the farmer to hold him for ransom. Now then, the government, which has a constant fear of the people, denies to the farmers even the use of a shotgun, or if it does allow it does so very grudgingly and withdraws it at pleasure; whence it results with the laborer, who, thanks to his means of defense, plants his crops and invests his meager fortune in the furrows that he has so laboriously opened, that when his crop matures it occurs to the government, which is impotent to suppress brigandage, to deprive him of his weapon; and then, without defense and without security, he is reduced to inaction and abandons his field, his work, and takes to gambling as the best means of securing a livelihood. The green cloth is under the protection of the government, it is safer! A mournful counselor is fear, for it not only causes weakness but also in casting aside the weapons, strengthens the very persecutor!

The sordid return the native gets from his work has the effect of discouraging him. We know from history that the encomenderos, after reducing many to slavery and forcing them to work for their benefit, made others give up their merchandise for a trife or nothing at all, or cheated them with the measures.

Speaking of Ipion, in Panay, Padre Gaspar de San Agustin says: "It was in ancient times very rich in gold . . . but provoked by he annoyances they suffered from some governors they have ceased to get it out, preferring to live in poverty than to suffer such hardships." (page 378) Further on, speaking of other towns, he says: "Boaded by ill treatment of the encomenderos who in administering justice have treated the natives as thier slaves and not as their children, and have only looked after their own interests at the expense of the wretched fortunes and lives of their charges. . . (Page 422) Further on, "In Leyte, they tried to kill an encomendero of the town of Dagami on account of the great hardships he made them suffer by exacting tribute of wax from them with a steelyard which he had made twice as long as others. . ."

This state of affairs lasted a long time and still lasts, in spite of the fact that the breed of encomenderos has become extinct. A term passes away but the evil and the passions engendered do not pass away so long as reforms are devoted solely to changing the names.

The wars with the Dutch, the inroads and piratical attacks of the people of Sulu land Mindanao disappeared; the people have been transformed; new towns have grown up while others have become impoverished; but the frauds subsisted as much as or worse than they did in those early years. We will not cite our own experiences for aside from the fact that we do not know which to select, critical persons may reproach us with partiality; neither will we cite those of other Filipinos who write in the newspapers, but we shall confine ourselves to translating the words of a modern French traveler who as in the Philippines for a long time.

"The good curate," he says with reference to the rosy picture a friar had given him of the Philippines, "had not told me about the governor, the foremost official of the district, who was too much taken up with the ideal of getting rich to have time to tyrannize over his docile subjects; the governor, charged with ruling the country and collecting the various taxes in the government's name, devoted himself almost wholly to trade; in his hands the high and noble functions he performs are nothing more than instruments of gain. He monopolizes all the business and instead of developing on his part the love of work, instead of stimulating the too natural indolence of the natives, he with abuse of his powers thinks only of destroying all competition that may trouble him or attempts to participate in his profits. It maters little to him that the country is impoverished, without cultivation, without commerce, without industry, just so the governor is quickly enriched."

Yet the traveler has been unfair in picking out the governor especially. Why only the governor?

We do not cite passages from other authors, because we have not their works at hand and do not wish to quote from memory.

The great difficulty that every enterprise encountered with the administration contributed not a little to kill off all commercial and industrial movement. All the Filipinos, as well as all those who have tried to engage in business in the Philippines, know how many documents, what comings, how many stamped papers, how much patience is needed to secure from the government a permit for an enterprise. One must count upon the good will of this one, on the influence of that one, on a good bribe to another in order that the application be not pigeon-holed, a present to the one further on so that it may pass it on to his chief; one must pray to God to give him good humor and time to see and examine it; to another, talent to recognize its expediency; to one further on sufficient stupidity not to scent behind the enterprise an insurrectionary purpose land that they may not all spend the time taking baths, hunting or playing cards with the reverend friars in their convents or country houses. And above all, great patience, great knowledge of how to get along, plenty of money, a great deal of politics, many salutations, great influence, plenty of presents and complete resignation! How is it strange that the Philippines remain poor in spite of the fertile soil, when history tells us that the countries now the most flourishing date their development from the day of their liberty and civil rights? The most commercial and most industrious countries have been the freest countries. France, England and the United States prove this. Hong Kong, which is not worth the most insignificant of the Philippines, has more commercial movement than all the islands together, because it is free and is well governed.

The trade with China, which was the whole occupation of the colonizers of the Philippines, was not only prejudicial to Spain but also the life of her colonies; in fact, when the officials and private persons in Manila found an easy method of getting rich they neglected everything. They paid no attention either to cultivating the soil or to fostering industry; and wherefore? China furnished the trade, and they had only to take advantage of it and pick up the gold that dropped out on its way from Mexico toward the interior of China, the gulf whence it never returned. The pernicious example of the dominators in surrounding themselves with servants and despising manual or corporal labor as a thing unbecoming the nobility and chivalrous pride of the heroes of so many centuries; those lordly airs, which the natives have translated into tila ka castila, and the desire of the dominated to be the equal of the dominators, if not essentially, at least in their manners; all this had naturally to produce aversion to activity and fear or hatred of work.

Moreover, "Why work?" asked the natives. The curate says that the rich man will not go to heaven. The rich man on earth is liable to all kinds of trouble, to be appointed a cabeza de barangay, to be deported if an uprising occurs, to be forced banker of the military chief of the town, who to reward him for favors received seizes his laborers and his stock in order to force him to beg money and thus easily pays up. Why be rich? So that all the officers of justice may have a lynx eye on your actions, so that at the least slip enemies may be raised up against you, you may be indicted, a whole complicated and labyrinthine story may be concocted against you, for which you can only get away, not by the tread of Ariadme but by Dane's shower of gold, and still give thanks that you are not kept in reserve for some needy occasion. The native, whom they pretend to regard as an imbecile, is not so much so that he does not understand that it is ridiculous to work himself to death to become worse off. A proverb of his says the pig is cooked in its own lard, and as among his bad qualities he has the good one of applying to himself all the criticisms and censures he refers to live miserable and indolent rather than play the part of the wretched beast of burden.

Add to this the introduction of gambling. We do not mean to say that before the coming of the Spaniards the natives did not gamble: the passion for gambling is innate in adventuresome and excitable races, and such is the Malay, Pigafetta tells us of cockfights and of bets in the Island of Paragua. Cock-fighting must also have existed in Luzon and in all the islands, for in the terminology of the game are two Tagalog words: sabong and tari (cockpit and gaff). But there is not the least doubt that the fostering of this game is due to the government, as well as the perfecting of it. Although Pigafetta tells us of it, he mentions it only in Paragua, and ot in Cebu nor in any other island of the south, where he stayed a long time. Morga does not speak of it, in spite of his having spent seven years in Manila, and yet he does describe the kinds of fowl, the jungle hens and cocks. Neither does Morga speak of gambling, when he talks about vices and other defects, more or lest concealed, more or less insignificant. Moreover excepting the two Tagalog words sabong and tari, the others are of Spanish origan as soltada (setting the cocks to fight, then the fight itself), pusta (apusta, bet), logro (winning), pago (payment), etc. We say the same about gamblilng; the word sugal (jugar, to gamble), like kumpistal (confesar, to confess to a priest), indicates that gambling was unknown in the Philippines before the Spaniards. The word laro (Tagalog: to play) is not the equivalent of the word sugal. The word play (baraja, playing card) proves that the introduction of playing cards was not due to the Chinese, who have a kind of playing cards also, because in that case they would have taken the Chinese name. l Is nto this enough? The word taya (tallar, to bet), paris-paris (Spanish, pares, pairs of cards), politana (napolitana a winning sequence of cards), sapote (to stack the cards), kapote (to slam), monte, and so on, all prove the foreign origin of this terrible plant, which only produces vice and which has found in the character of the native a fit soil, cultivated circumstances.

Along with gambling, which breeds dislike for steady and difficult toil by its promise of sudden wealth and its appeal to the emotions, with the lotteries, with the prodigality and hospitality of the Filipinos, went also, to swell the train of misfortunes, the religious functions, the great number of fiestas, the long masses for the women to spend their mornings and the novenaries to spend their afternoons, and the nights for the processions and rosaries. Remember, that lack of capital and absence of means paralyze all movement, and you will see how the native was perforce to be indolent for if any money might remain to him from the trials, imposts and exactions, he would have to give it to the curate for bulls, scapularies, candles, novenaries, etc. And if this does not suffice to form an indolent character, if the climate and nature are not enough in themselves to daze him and deprive him of all energy, recall then that the doctrine of his religion teach him to irrigate his fields in the dry season, not by means of canals but with amasses and prayers; to preserve his stock during an epidemic with holy water, exorcisms and benedictions that cost five dollars an animal, to drive away the locusts by a procession with the image of St. Augustine, etc. It is well, undoubtedly, to trust greatly in God; but it is better to do what one can not trouble the Creator every moment, even when these appeals redound to the benefit of His ministers. We have noticed that the countries which believe most in miracles are the laziest, just as spoiled children are the most ill-mannered. Whether they believe in miracles to palliate their laziness or they are lazy because they believe in miracles, we cannot say; but he fact is the Filipinos were much less lazy before the word miracle was introduced into their language.

The facility with which individual liberty is curtailed, that continual alarm of all from the knowledge that they are liable to a secret report, a governmental ukase, and to the accusation of rebel or suspect, an accusation which, to be effective, does not need proof or the production of the accuser. With the lack of confidence in the future, that uncertainty of reaping the reward of labor, as in a city stricken with plague, everybody yields to fate, shuts himself in his house or goes about amusing himself in an attempt to spend the few days that remain to him in the least disagreeable way possible.

The apathy of the government itself toward everything in commerce and agriculture contributes not a little to foster indolence. Three is no encouragement at all for the manufacturer or for the farmer, the government furnishes no aid either when a poor crop comers, when the locusts sweep over the fields, or when cyclone destroys in its passage the wealth of the soil; nor does it take any trouble to seek a market for the products of its colonies. Why should it do so when these same products are burdened with taxes and imposts and have no free entry into the ports of the mother country, nor is their consumption there encouraged? While we see all the walls of London covered with advertisements of the products of its colonies, while the English make heroic efforts to substitute Ceylon for Chinese tea, beginning with the sacrifice of their taste and their stomach, in Spain, with the exception of tobacco, nothing from the Philippines is known; neither its sugar, coffee, hemp, fine cloths, nor its Ilocano blankets. The name of Manila is known only from those cloths of China or Indo-China which at one time reached Spain by way of Manila, heavy silk shawls, fantastically but coarsely embroidered, which no one has thought of imitating in Manila since they are so easily made; but the government has other cares, and the Filipinos do not know that such objects are more highly esteemed in the Peninsula than their delicate piña embroideries and their vey fine jusi fabrics. Thus disappeared our trade in indigo, thanks to the trickery of the Chinese, which the government could not guard against, occupied as it was with other thoughts; thus die now the other industries, the fine manufacturers of the Visayas are gradually disappearing from trade and even from use; the people, continually getting poorer, cannot afford the costly cloths, and have to be contented with calico or the imitations of the Germans, who produce imitations even of the work of our silversmiths.

The fact that the best plantations, the best tracts of land in some provinces, those that from their easy access are more profitable than others, are in the hands of the religious corporations, whose desideratum is ignorance and condition of semi-starvation of the native, so that they may, continue to govern him and make themselves necessary to his wretched existence, is one of the reasons why many tows do not progress in spite of the efforts of their inhabitants. We will be met with the objection, as an argument on the other side, that the towns which belong to the friars are comparatively richer than those which do not belong to them. They surely are! just as their brethren in Europe, in founding their convents, knew how to select the best valleys, the best uplands for the cultivation of the vine or the production of beer, so also the Philippine monks have known how to selecte the best towns, the beautiful plains, the well-watered fields, to make of them rich plantations. For some time the friars have deceived many by making them believe that if these plantations were prospering, it was because they were under their care, and the indolence of the natives was thus emphasized; but they forget that in some provinces where they have not been able for some reason to get possession of the best tracts of land, their plantations, like Bauan and Liang, are inferior to Taal, Balayan, and Lipa, regions cultivated entirely by the natives without any monkish interference whatsoever.

Add to this lack of material inducement the absence of moral stimulus and you will see how he who is not indolent in that country must needs be a madman or at least a fool. What future awaits him who distinguishes himself, him who studies, who rise above the crowd? At the cost of study and sacrifice a young man becomes a great chemist, and after a long course of training, wherein neither the government nor anybody has given him the least help, he concludes his long stay in the University. A competitive examination is held to fill a certain position. The young man wins this through knowledge and perseverance, and after he has won it, it is abolished, because. . . we do not care to give the reason, but when a municipal laboratory is closed in order to abolish the position of director, who got his place by competitive examination, while other officers, such as the press censor, are preserved, it is because the belief exists that the light of progress may injure the people more than all the adulterated foods. In the same way, another young man won a a prize in a literary competition, and as long as his origin was unknown his work was discussed, the newspapers praised it and it was regarded as a masterpiece but the sealed envelopes were opened, the winner proved to be a native, while among the losers there are Peninsulars; then all the newspapers hasten to extol the losers! Not one word from the government, nor from anybody, to encourage the native who with so much affection has cultivated the language and letters of the mother country!

Finally passing over many other more or less insignificant reasons, the enumeration of which would be interminable, let us close this dreary list with the principal and most terrible of all: the education of the native.

From his birth until he sinks into his grave, the training of the native is brutalizing, depressive and anti-human (the word "inhuman" is not sufficiently explanatory; whether or not the Academy admits it, let it go). There is no doubt that the government, some priests like the Jesuits and some Dominicans like Padre Benavides, have done a great deal by founding colleges, schools of primary instruction, and the like. But this is not enough; their efforts is neutralized. They amount ot five or ten years (years of a hundred and fifty days at most) during which the youth comes in contact with books selected by those very priests who boldly proclaim that it is evil for the natives to know Castilian, that the native should not be separated from his carabao, that he should not value any further aspirations, and so on; five to ten years during which the majority of the students have grasped nothing more than that no one understands what the books say, nor even the professors themselves perhaps; and these five to ten years have no offset the daily preachment which lowers the dignity of man, which by degrees brutally deprives him of the sentiment of self-esteem, that eternal, stubborn, constant labor to bow the native's neck, to make him accept the yoke, to place him on a level with the beast -- a labor aided by some persons, with or without the ability to write, which if it does not produce in some individuals the desired effect in others it has the opposite effect, like that of breaking of a cord that is stretched too tightly. Thus while they attempt to make of the native a kind of animal, yet in exchange they demand of him divine actions. And we say divine actions, because he must be a god who does not become indolent in that climate, surrounded by the circumstances mentioned. Deprive a man, then, of his dignity, and you not only deprive him of his moral strength but you also make useless for those who wish to make use of him. Every creature has its stimulus, its mainspring; man's is his self-esteem. Take it away from him and he is a corpse, and he who seeks activity in a corpse will encounter only worms.

Thus is explained how the natives of the present time are no longer the same as those of the time of the discovery, neither morally nor physically.

The ancient writers, like Chirino, Morga, and Colin, take pleasure in describing them a well-featured, with good aptitudes for any thing they take up, keen and susceptible and of resolute will, very clean and neat in their persons and clothing, and of good mien and bearing (Morga). Others delight in minute accounts of their intelligence and pleasant manners, of their aptitude for music, the drama, dancing and singing, of the faculty with which they learned, not only Spanish but also Latin, which they acquired almost by themselves (Colin); others of their exquisite politeness in their dealings and in their social life, others, like the first Augustinians, whose accounts Gaspar de San Agustin copies, found them more gallant and better mannered than the inhabitants of the Moluccas. "All live off their husbandry," adds Morga, "their farms, fisheries and enterprises, for they travel from island to island by sea and from province to province by land."

In exchange, the writers of the present time, without being more gallant than Herman Cortez and Salcedo, nor more prudent than Legazpi, nor more manly than Morga, nor more prudent than Colin and Gaspar de San Agustin, our contemporary writers we say find that the native is a creature something more than a monkey but much less than a man, an anthropoid, dull-witted, stupid, timid, dirty, cringing, ill-clothed, indolent, lazy brainless, immoral, etc. etc.

To what is this retrogression due? Is it the delectable civilization, the religion of salvation of the friars, called of Jesus Christ by euphemism, that has produced this miracle that has atrophied his brain, paralyzed his heart and made of the man this sort of vicious animal that the writers depict?

Alas! The whole misfortune of the present Filipinos consists in that they have become only half-way brutes. The Filipino is convinced that to get happiness it is necessary for him to lay aside his dignity as a rational creature, to attend mass, to believe what is told him, to pay what is demanded of him, to pay and forever to pay; to work, suffer, and be silent, without aspiring any thing, without aspiring to know or even to understand Spanish, without separating himself from his carabao, as the priests shamelessly say, without protesting against any injustice, against any arbitrary action, against an assault, against an insult; that is, not to have heart, brain, or spirit; a creature with arms and a purse of gold. . . there's the ideal native! unfortunately, or because of the brutalization is not yet complete and because the nature of man is inherent in his being in spite of his condition, the native protests; he still has aspirations, he thinks and strives to rise, and there's the trouble!

IV

In the preceding chapter we set forth the causes that proceed from the government in fostering and maintaining the evil we are discussing. Now it falls to us to analyze those that emanate from the people. Peoples and governments are correlated and complementary: a stupid government would be an anomaly among righteous people, just as a corrupt people cannot exist under just rulers and wise laws. Like people, like government, we will say in paraphrase of a popular adage.

We can reduce all these causes to two classes: to defects of training and lack of national sentiment.

Of the influence of climate we spoke at the beginning, so we will now treat of the effects arising from it.

The very limited training in the home, the tyrannical and sterile education of the rare centers of learning that blind subordination of the youth to one of greater age, influence the mind so that a man may not aspire to excel those who preceded him but must merely be content to go along with a march behind them. Stagnation forcibly results from this, and as he who devotes himself merely to copying divests himself of other qualities suited to his own nature, he naturally becomes sterile; hence decadence. Indolence is a corollary derived from the lack of stimulus and of vitality.

That modesty infused into the convictions of everyone, or, to speak more clearly, that insinuated inferiority, a sort of daily and constant depreciation of the mind so that it may not be raised to the regions of life, deadens the energies, paralyzes all tendencies toward advancement, and of the least struggle a man gives up without fighting. If by one of those rare incidents, some wild spirit, that is some active one, excels, instead of his example stimulating, it only causes others to persist in their inaction. "There's one who will work for us; let's sleep on!" say his relatives and friends. True it is that the spirit of rivalry is sometimes awakened, only that then it awakens with bad humor in the guise of envy, and instead of being a lever for helping, it is an obstacle that produces discouragement.

Nurtured by the example of anchorites of a contemplative and lazy life, the natives spend theirs in giving their gold to the Church in the hope of miracles and other wonderful things. Their will is hypnotized: from childhood they learned to act mechanically, without knowledge of the object, thanks to the exercise imposed upon them from the most tender years of praying for whole hours in an unknown tongue, of venerating things that they do not understand, of accepting beliefs that are not explained to them, to having absurdities imposed upon them, while the protests of reason are repressed. Is it any wonder that with this vicious dressage of intelligence and will the native, of old logical and consistent -- as the analysis of his past and of his language demonstrates -- should now be a mass of dismal contradictions? That continual struggle between reason and duty, between his organism and his new ideals, that civil war which disturbs the peace of his conscience all his life, has the result of paralyzing all his energies, and aided by the severity of the climate, makes that eternal vacillation, of the doubts in his brain, the origin of his indolent disposition.

"You can't know more than this or that old man!" "Don't aspire to be greater than the curate!" "You belong to an inferior race!" "You haven't any energy!" This is what they tell the child and they repeat it so often, it has perforce to become engraved in the mind and thence mould and pervade all his action. The child or youth who tries to be anything else is blamed with vanity and presumption; the curate ridicules him with cruel sarcasm, his relatives look upon him with fear, strangers regard him with great compassion. No forward movement -- Get back in the ranks and keep in line!

With his spirit thus molded the native falls into the most pernicious of all routines: routine not planned but imposed and forced. Note that the native himself is not naturally inclined to routine but his mind is disposed to accept all truth, just as his house is open to all strangers. The good and the beautiful attract him, seduce and captivate him although like the the Japanese he often exchanges the good for the evil, if it appears to him garnished and gilded. What he lacks is in the first place liberty to allow expansion to his adventuresome spirit, and good examples, beautiful prospects for the future. It is necessary that his spirit, although it may be dismayed and cowed by the elements and the fearful manifestation of their mighty forces, store up energy, seek high purposes, in order to struggle against obstacles in the midst of unfavorable natural conditions. In order that he may progress it is necessary that a revolutionary spirit, so to speak, should boil in his veins, since progress necessarily requires the present; the victory of new ideas over the ancient and accepted one. It will not be sufficient to speak to his fancy, to talk nicely to him, nor that the light illuminate him like the ignis fatuus that leads travelers astray at night: all the flattering promises of the fairest hopes will not suffice, so long as his spirit is not free, his intelligence is not respected.

The reasons that originate in the lack of natural sentiment are still more lamentable and more transcendental.

Convinced by the insinuation of his inferiority, his spirit harassed by his education, if that brutalization of which we spoke above can be called education, in that exchange of usages and sentiments among different nations, the Filipino, to whom remain only his susceptibility and his poetical imagination, allows himself to be guided by his fancy and his self-love. It is sufficient that the native product for him to hasten to make the change, without reflecting that everything has its weak side and the most sensible custom is ridiculous in the eyes of those who do not follow it. They have dazzled him with tinsel, with strings of colored glass beads, with noisy rattles, shining mirrors and other trinkets, and he has given in return his gold, his conscience, and even his liberty. He changed his religion for the external practices of another cult; the convictions and usages derived from his climate and needs, for other convictions that developed under another sky and another inspiration. His spirit, well-disposed toward everything that looks good to him, was then transformed, at the pleasure of the nation that forced upon him its God and its law, and as the trader with whom he dealt did not bring a cargo of useful implements of iron, hoes to till the fields, but stamped papers, crucifixes, bulls and prayer-books, as he did not have for ideal and prototype the tanned and vigorous laborer, but the aristocratic Lord carried in a luxurious litter, the result was that the imitative people became bookish, devout, prayerful; it acquired ideas of luxury and ostentation, without thereby improving the means of its substance to a corresponding degree.

The lack of national sentiment brings another evil, moreover which is the absence of all opposition to measures prejudicial to the people and the absence of any initiative in whatever may redound to its good. A man in the Philippines is only an individual, he is not a member of a nation. He is forbidden and denied the right of association, and is, therefore, weak and sluggish. The Philippines is an organism whose cells seem to have no arterial system to irrigate it or nervous system to communicate its impressions; these cells must, nevertheless, yield their product, get it where they can; if they perish, let them perish. In the view of some this is expedient so that a colony may be a colony; perhaps they are right, but not the effect that a colony may flourish.

The result of this is that if a prejudicial measure is ordered, no one protests, all goes well apparently until later the evils are felt. Another blood-letting, as as the organism has neither nerves nor voice the physician proceeds in the belief that the treatment is not injuring it. It needs a reform, but as it must not speak, it keeps silent and remains with the need. The patient wants to eat, it wants to breathe the fresh air, but as such desires may offend the susceptibility of the physician who thinks that he has already provided everything necessary, it suffers and pines away from fear of receiving a scolding, of getting another plaster and a new blood-letting and so on indefinitely.

In addition to this, love of peace and the honor many have of accepting the few administrative positions which fall to the Filipinos on account of the trouble and annoyance these cause them places at the head of the people the most stupid and incapable men, those who submit to everything, those who can endure all the caprices and exactions of the curate and of the officials. Will this inefficiency in the lower spheres of power and ignorance and indifference in the upper, with the frequent changes and the eternal apprenticeships, with great fear and many administrative obstacles, with a voiceless people that have neither initiative nor cohesion, with employees who nearly all strive to amass a fortune and return home, with inhabitants who live in great hardship from the instant they begin to breathe, create prosperity, agriculture and industry, found enterprises and companies, things that still hardly prosper in free and well-organized communities?

Yes, all attempt is useless that does not spring from a profound study of the evil that afflicts us. To combat this indolence, some have proposed increasing the native's needs and raising the taxes. What has happened? Criminals have multiplied, penury has been aggravated. Why? Because the native already has enough needs with his functions of the Church, with his fiestas, with the public offices forced on him, the donations and bribes that he had to make so that he may drag out his wretched existence. The cord is already too taut.

We have heard many complaints, and every day we read in the papers about the efforts the government is making to rescue the country from its condition of indolence. Weighing its plans, its illusions and its difficulties, we are reminded of the gardener who spent his days tending and watering the handful of earth, he trimmed the plant frequently, he pulled at it to lengthen it and hasten its growth, he grafted on its cedars and oaks, until one day the little tree died, leaving the man convinced that it belonged to a degenerate species attributing the failure of his experiment to everything except the lack of soil and his own ineffable folly.

Without education and liberty, which are the soil and the sun of man, no reform is possible, no measure can give the result desired. This does not mean that we should ask first for the native the instruction of a sage and all imaginable liberties, in order then to put a hoe in his hand or place him in a workshop; such a pretension would be an absurdity and vain folly. What we wish is that obstacle be not put in his way, not to increase the many his climate and the situation of the islands already create for him that instruction be not begrudged him for fear that when he becomes intelligent he may separate form the colonizing nation or ask for the rights of which he makes himself worthy. Since some day or other he will become enlightened, whether the government wishes it or not, let his enlightenment be as a gift received and not as conquered plunder. We desire that the policy be at once frank and consistent, that is highly civilizing, without sordid reservations, without distrust without fear or jealously, wishing the good for the sake of the good, civilization without ulterior thoughts of gratitude, or else boldly exploiting tyrannical and selfish, without hypocrisy or deception, with a whole system well-panned and studied out for dominating by compelling obedience, for commanding to get rich, to be happy. If the former, the government may act with the security that some day or other it will reap the harvest and will find people its own in heart and interest; there is nothing like a favor for securing the friendship or enmity of man, according to whether it be conferred with good will or hurled into his face and bestowed upon him in spite of himself. If the logical and regulated system of exploitation be chosen, stifling with the jingle of gold and the sheen of opulence the sentiments of independence in the colonies, paying with its wealth for its lack of liberty, as the English do in India, who moreover leave the government to native rulers, then build roads, lay out highways, foster the freedom of trade; let the government heed material interests more than the interests of four orders of friars; let it send out intelligent employees to foster industry; just judges, all well paid, so that they be not venal pilferers, and lay aside all religious pretext. This policy has the advantage in that while it may not lull the instincts of liberty wholly to sleep yet the day when the mother country loses her colonies she will at least have the gold amassed and not the regret of having reared ungrateful children.

JOSÉ RIZAL

-http://joserizal.info/Reflections/enemywithin.htm
-http://www.geocities.com/mcc_joserizal/work_indolence.html

''lourdes'' said...

Ma. Lourdes R. Demo
BSIOP 3-3
RIZAL
Tuesday&Friday 9:00-10:00am
NOVELS: "Noli Me Tangere"

Unang nobela ni Rizal ang Noli Me Tangere. Inilathala ito noong 26 taong gulang siya. Makasaysayan ang aklat na ito at naging instrumento upang makabuo ang mga Pilipino ng pambansang pagkakakilanlan. Sa di-tuwirang paraan, nakaimpluwensiya ang aklat ni Rizal sa rebolusyon subalit si Rizal mismo ay isang nananalig sa isang mapayapang pagkilos at isang tuwirang representasyon sa pamahalaang Kastila. Sinulat sa wikang Kastila ang Noli, ang wika ng mga edukado noong panahong yaon.

Sinimulang sulatin ni Dr. Jose P. Rizal ang mga unang bahagi ng "Noli Me Tangere" noong 1884 sa Madrid noong siya ay nag-aaral pa ng medisina. Nang makatapos ng pag-aaral, nagtungo siya sa Paris at doon ipinagpatuloy ang pagsusulat nito. At sa Berlin natapos ni Rizal ang huling bahagi ng nobela.

Ang pagsusulat ng "Noli Me Tangere" ay bunga ng pagbasa ni Rizal sa "Uncle Tom's Cabin" ni Harriet Beacher Stowe, na pumapaksa sa kasaysayan ng mga aliping Negro sa kamay ng mga panginoong putting Amerikano. Inilarawan dito ang iba't ibang kalupitan at pagmamalabis ng mga Puti sa Itim. Inihambing niya ito sa kapalarang sinapit ng mga Pilipino sa kamay ng mga Kastila.

Sa simula, binalak ni Rizal na ang bawat bahagi ng nobela ay ipasulat sa ilan niyang kababayan na nakababatid sa uri ng lipunan sa Pilipinas at yaon ay pagsasama-samahin niyang upang maging nobela. Ngunit hindi ito nagkaroon ng katuparan, kaya sa harap ng kabiguang ito, sinarili niya ang pagsulat nang walang katulong.

Ipinaliwanag ni Rizal sa kanyang liham sa matalik niyang kaibigang si Dr. Ferdinand Blumentritt ang mga dahilan kung bakit niya isinulat ang "Noli." Ang lahat ng mga ito ay maliwanag na inilarawan sa mga kabanata ng nobela.

Ang pamagat ng "Noli Me Tangere" ay salitang Latin na ang ibig sabihin sa Tagalog ay "Huwag Mo Akong Salingin" na hango sa Ebanghelyo ni San Juan Bautista. Itinulad niya ito sa isang bulok sa lipunan na nagpapahirap sa buhay ng isang tao.

Bumuo ng kontrobersya ang nobelang ito kung kaya't pagkatapos lamang ng ilang araw na pagbalik ni Rizal sa Pilipinas, tinanggap ni Gobernador-Heneral Terrero sa Malacañang at inabisuhang puno ng subersibong ideya ang Noli. Pagkatapos ng usapan, ang napayapa ang liberal na Gobernador Heneral ngunit nabanggit niya na wala siyang magagawa sa kapangyarihan ng simbahan na gumawa ng kilos laban sa nobela ni Rizal. Mahihinuha ang persekusyon sa kaniya sa liham ni Rizal sa Litoměřice:


http://www.joserizal.ph/no02.html

http://tl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noli_Me_Tangere

honeylet said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
honeylet said...

Honeylet C. Bautista
BSIOP III-3
Rizal
TUESDAY & FRIDAY 9:00-10:30am
" Rizals Homecoming "


Injustices to Rizal’s Family

His family had more trouble over their land without waiting for the outcome of the lawsuit the Governor General, no more remembered for his honesty in the Philippines than he is in Cuba for his humanity. "Butcher" Weyler, had sent troops to Kalamba. The litigants were told they must carry away their buildings and sugar mills but could bring them back again should the lawsuits be decided in their favor. As this meant the destruction of their improvements naturally no one removed anything and, under protection of his soldiers by Weyler's authority, all the houses were torn apart valued at about 150,000 pesos. Twenty-five Kalambans, including Rizal's father, brother, brothers-in law and two sisters were banished to a distant part of the Archipelago, by Weyler's order.

Dr. Rizal went to Hong Kong and, from there, asked permission of his parents and of the new governor general, Despujol, to return to the Islands. Meantime he practiced medicine in Hong Kong. He wrote, too, some articles on the Kalamba trouble for the "Hong Kong Telegraph" and made a short visit to British North Borneo. There he obtained the promise of land for a Filipino colony through the influence of his recommendations from Europe, especially of his London friend, Dr. Roth, editor of Truebner's Monthly of which Rizal had contributed while in England.

Despujol was proving the best governor general the Philippines had had in many years and Rizal wrote to him again, expressing appreciation of his work and notifying him of his own intention of returning to take his relatives to North Borneo. The governor general's reply, through the Spanish consul of Hong Kong, was that any one who observed the laws might live in Philippines but with the scarcity of labor there was little patriotism in taking any of its people to foreign lands.

Rizal left in Hong Kong, two letters to be opened after his death. The one to the Filipino people said that there were those who no longer permitted him to serve the Philippines, an illusion to the jealousy of the del Pilar faction, so his duty was now to his family who had suffered so much and through his death possibly these could live in their own country undistributed. Then there would be higher respect, too, for Philippine patriots, and evidently he considered these did not stand very high then, if one should show enough disinterested patriotism to die for his country. The letter to the family regretted their sufferings but showed no regret over his own troubled life or the prospect of his death.


BANISHMENT TO DAPITAN

The confidential file of Despujol is now public to prove that there was a trap laid for Rizal. He brought with him to Manila a scheme for a cooperative society to develop resources of the Philippines after the plan of Spain's Masonic cooperative society, C. Kadosh y Compañia, which he had worked out at the suggestion of J.M. Basa, a Cavite '72 exile resident in Hong Kong. After Rizal had seen the Governor General and received the pardon of his brother and sisters who had been ordered into banishment in the South by Weyler, he took a trip up the new railway, then completed as far as Tarmac, and showed himself greatly interested in the progress Masonry was making among Filipinos. In Manila he was the guest of honor at a banquet given by the masters and wardens of the Filipino lodges and he had frequent consultations with the leading members. These activities can hardly be called political and the Masons suffered in the Philippines through the arbitrary power of unfriendly governors the society was not an unlawful one.

In the provinces Rizal seems to have been investigating the scandals connected with the raising of funds for propaganda. He had personally been a heavy sufferer as of the considerable amounts received from sales of "Noli Me Tangere" only a few pesos ever came to him.

While able to make a good living by his profession, he had saved over 5000 dollars during half-a-year's practice in his '87 visit, he gave his time to the cause of his country with a disregard for money which did not characterize all of his compatriots. So he was popular and it was easy to raise subscriptions in his name, the more often than not the funds never came into his possession.

The subject of a Filipino colony in British North Borneo was taken up with his numerous relatives, most of whom had suffered persecution for the relationship, and he proposed to charter a ship to take them all to al land not far from their old home but where they would live under a free government. "New Kalamba" was to be the name of the colony and the British government had made very liberal concessions so that by industry they could soon have homes as good as those they were abandoning because the law's injustice was making the Philippines intolerable. Especially was the contract of the English law system with the Spanish judicial iniquity pointed out as an inducement.

Dr. Rizal during all these journeys was constantly watched and the houses he visited were immediately afterwards searched, but it was not until the visits had been finished that he was arrested.

A memorandum in Governor General Despujol's handwriting still remains in the government archives to prove the unfair treatment planed for Rizal. The Governor General says he has heard that Dr. Rizal had been naturalized as a German subject and wants a legal opinion as to whether in that event he could be held a prisoner without a trial. He must have found out that Rizal was still a Filipino and so subject to his arbitrary power for the arrest was made and no trial or even hearing ever took place.

The charge was the pretended finding of five circulars entitled "Poor Friars" in the roll of bedding used by his sister on the steamer, a discovery reported to have been made in the custom house examination of the baggage, Rizal was ordered banished to Dapitan, in Northern Mindanao, while Dispujol wrote an apologetic decree which he commanded should not be shown to Rizal and evidently only intended for effect in Hong Kong. The newspapers there, however, were so outspoken that the Spanish consul found it necessary to assure them that Dr. Rizal was being treated with every consideration. The British consul general is said to have urged very strongly that he was at a loss to understand severe treatment without trial of a gentlemen whom his government had found worthy of the confidence shown in the North Borneo arrangement.

Rizal in Dapitan was given considerable liberty. He had his medical practice and put up a small hospital, bought a farm and planted on an ambitious scale, and carried on a school for fourteen boys of the neighborhood. The dam built by Dr. Rizal and his pupils, pioneers in industrial education in the Philippines, with the conduit supplying Dapitan with water and the raised map of Mindanao in the town plaza, as well as the exile's house, have recently been placed in a national reservation by the Commission in the exercise of its delegated power from the President.

Besides he made natural history collections that he exchanged with European friends for late books in science. He started a study, in English, of the Tagalog language because apparently he believed that of the European languages the English construction most nearly resembled his native tongue. He carried on, too, a discussion about religion with one of the Jesuit Fathers whom he had known at the Ateneo.

A little occurrence during this time shows something of Rizal's genius for learning languages. In addition to acquaintance with Greek, Latin, Hebrew, Sanskrit, and Arabic he could use Spanish, French, German, and English almost equally well, and read easily in Dutch, Swedish, Portuguese and Italian. He could act and did as interpreter in Japanese, could make himself understood in Canton, Amoy and Mandarin Chinese, in Catalan Spanish and had studied Malay and the Polynesian languages, besides translating the poetry of Schiller into his native Tagalog and knowing a good deal of Bisayan and some Ilocano. So it is no wonder that from a stray novel in that language which happened to come in to his hands in Dapitan he picked up Russians. As a linguist he was the marvel of his teachers both in the Philippines and in Europe.

Attempts were made by his friends to communicate with him but he no longer would take any action in politics. With his retirement the del Pilar influence had become all-powerful and from it had grown up an active revolutionary society with the common people and the new society told its members that he was their honorary president, hanging his portrait in the meeting room. Finally those who had been paying said it was time something else should be done.

A Dr. Valenzuela with a blind man to give an excuse, was sent to Dapitan to interview Rizal about a rebellion, but was so hotly upbraided for daring to use the Dapitan exile's name in such a mad enterprise that he hastily returned to Manila. He reported the failure of his mission to his chief, Andres Bonfacio, but the warehouse porter, who had gone revolution-mad from reading about France's reign of terror, said Rizal was a coward and forbade his lieutenant speaking to any one else of the matter Valenzuela, however, did in confidence tell a few and the Katipunan lost a number of members.

Rizal had tried to have his place of banishment changed to Northern Luzon, principally for the benefit of his health, and the denial of his petition he ascribed to the influence of Filipino politicians who feared that with the return of the people's idol, which they knew Rizal was, they would lose their importance. Dr. Blumentritt, an Austrian professor who was the most intimate of his friends, wrote that there was great suffering among the Spanish soldiers, so Dr. Rizal offered his services to Governor General Blanco to go to Cuba as a volunteer surgeon, a service of humanity which he considered a doctor's duty though undoubtedly in the warfare his sympathies were with the Cubans.

With the acceptance of the offer he was transferred to Manila and while on board a cruiser in the harbor awaiting the sailing of the mail steamer for Spain, the Katipunan revolt broke out. Nevertheless he was placed on the next boat with letters of recommendation praising his exemplary conduct as a prisoner and especially mentioning that he deserved the more credit that he was in no way concerned with the recent uprising. He was a passenger and went ashore at Singapore but refused to remain in that English territory saying his conscience was clear and he had no motive to flee. Pedro P. Roxas, who did desert the ship there and urged Rizal that in times of danger Spain forgot justice in her fear, lived to see his prophecy realized and was later acquitted of all guilt by an investigation held after the excitement had subsided.


http://www.geocities.com/mcc_joserizal/life.html


Source:
Craig, A. (1909). The Story of Jose Rizal.Manila, Philippine Education Publishing Co.

sheaan said...

Sheaan Navarro
BSIOP III-3
Rizal
TUESDAY & FRIDAY 9:00-10:30am

LAST DAYS OF RIZAL'S DEATH

Dec. 29, 1896 6:00 – 7:00 a.m.
Sr. S. Mataix asks Rizal’s permission to interview him. Capt. Dominguez reads death sentence to Rizal. Source of information: cablegram of Mataix to EL Heraldo De Madrid, "Notes" of Capt. Dominguez and Testimony of Lt. Gallegos.

7:00 – 8:00 a.m.
Rizal is transferred to his death cell. Fr. Saderra talks briefly with Rizal. Fr. Viza presents statue of the Sacred hearth of Jesus and medal of Mary. Rizal rejects the letter, saying , "Im little of a Marian, Father." Source: Fr. Viza.

8:00 – 9:00 a.m.
Rizal is shares his milk and coffee with Fr. Rosell. Lt. Andrade and chief of Artillery come to visit Rizal who thanks each of them. Rizal scribbles a note inviting his family it visit him. Sources: Fr. Rosell and letter of Invitation.

9:00 – 10:00 a.m.
Sr. Mataix, defying stringent regulation, enters death cell and interviews Rizal in the presence of Fr. Rosell. Later, Gov. Luengo drops in to join the conversation. Sources: Letter of Mataix ti Retana Testimony of Fr. Rosell.

10:00 – 11:00 a.m.
Fr. Faura persuades Rizal to put down his rancours and order to marry josephine canonically. a heated discussion on religion occurs between them ion the hearing of Fr. Rosell. Sources: El Imparcial and Fr. Rosell .

11:00 – 12:00 noon.
Rizal talks on "various topics" in a long conversation with Fr. Vilaclara who will later conclude (with Fr. Balaguer, who is not allowed to enter the death cell) that Rizal is either to Prostestant or rationalist who speaks in "a very cold and calculated manner" with a mixture of a "strange piety." No debate or discussion on religion is recorded to have taken place between the Fathers mentioned and Rizal. Sources: El Imarcial and Rizal y su Obra.

12:00 – 1:00 p.m.
Rizal reads Bible and Imitation of Christ by Kempis, then meditates. Fr. Balaguer reports to the Archbishop that only a little hope remains that Rizal is going to retract for Rizal was heard saying that he is going to appear tranquilly before God. Sources: Rizal’s habits and Rizal y su Obra.

1:00 – 2:00 p.m.
Rizal denies (probably, he is allowed to attend to his personal necessities). Source: "Notes" of Capt. Dominguez.

2:00 – 3:00 p.m.
Rizal confers with Fr. March and Fr. Vilaclara. Sources: "Notes" of Capt. Dominguez in conjunction with the testimonies of Fr. Pi and Fr. Balaguer.

3:00 – 4:00 p.m.
Rizal reads verses which he had underlined in Eggers german Reader, a book which he is going to hand over to his sisters to be sent to Dr. Blumentritt through F. Stahl. He "writes several letters . . . ,with his last dedications," then he "rest for a short." Sources: F. Stahl and F. Blumentritt, Cavana (1956) – Appendix 13, and the "Notes" of Capt. Dominguez.

4:00 – 5:30 p.m.
Capt. Dominguez is moved with compassion at the sight of Rizal’s kneeling before his mother and asking pardon. Fr. Rosell hears Rizal’s farewell to his sister and his address to those presents eulogizing the cleverness of his nephew. The other sisters come in one by one after the other and to each Rizal’s gives promises to give a book, an alcohol burner, his pair of shoes, an instruction, something to remember. Sources "notes" of Capt. Dominguez and Fr. Rosell, Diaro de Manila.

5:30 – 6:00 p.m.
The Dean of the Cathedral, admitted on account of his dignity, comes to exchange views with Rizal. Fr. Rosell hears an order given to certain "gentlemen" and "two friars" to leave the chapel at once. Fr. Balaguer leaves Fort Santiago. Sources: Rev. Silvino Lopez-Tuñon, Fr. Rosell, Fr. Serapio Tamayo, and Sworn Statement of Fr. Balaguer.

6:00 – 7:00 p.m.
Fr. Rosell leaves Fort Santiago and sees Josephine Bracken. Rizal calls for Josephine and then they speak to each for the last time. Sources: Fr. Rosell, El Imparcial, and Testimony of Josephine to R. Wildman in 1899.

7:00 – 8:00 p.m.
Fr. Faura returns to console Rizal and persuades him once more to trust him and the other professors at the Ateneo. Rizal is emotion-filled and, after remaining some moments in silence, confesses to Fr. Faura. Sources: El Imparcial.

8:00 – 9:00 p.m.
Rizal rakes supper (and, most probably, attends to his personal needs). Then, he receives Bro. Titllot with whom he had a very "tender" (Fr. Balaguer) or "useful" (Fr. Pi) interview. Sources: Separate testimonies of Fr. Balaguer and Fr. Pi on the report of Bro. Titllot; Fisal Castaño.

9:00 – 10:00 p.m.
Fiscal Castaño exchanges views with Rizal regarding their respective professors. Sources: Fiscal Castaño.

10:00 – 11:00 p.m.
Rizal manifests strange reaction, asks guards for paper and pen. From rough drafts and copies of his poem recovered in his shoes, the Spaniards come to know that Rizal is writing a poem. Sources: El Imparcial and Ultimo Adios; probably, Fiscal Castaño.

11:00 – 12:00 midnight
Rizal takes time to his hide his poem inside the alcohol burner. It has to be done during night rather than during daytime because he is watched very carefully. He then writes his last letter to brother Paciano. Sources: Testimonies and circumstantial evidence.

12:00 – 4:00 a.m.
Rizal sleeps restfully because his confidence in the goodness of God and the justness of his cause gives him astounding serenity and unusual calmness.

Dec. 30, 1986 4:00 – 5:00 a.m.
Rizal picks up Imitation of Christ, reads, meditates and then writes in Kempis’ book a dectation to his wife Josephine and by this very act in itself he gives to her their only certificate of marriage.

5:00 – 6:15
Rizal washes up, takes breakfast, attends to his personal needs. Writes a letter to his parents. Reads Bible and meditates. Josephine is prohibited by the Spanish officers from seeing Rizal, according to Josephine’s testimony to R. Wildman in 1899.

6:15 – 7:00
Rizal walks to the place of execution between Fr. March and Fr. Vilaclara with whom he converses. Keeps looking around as if seeking or expecting to see someone. His last word, said in a loud voice: "It is finished"

7:00 – 7:03
Sounds of guns. Rizal vacillates, turns halfway around, falls down backwards and lies on the ground facing the sun. Silence. Shouts of vivas for Spain.

source: http://www.joserizal.ph/lh01.html

joanne said...

Joanne Belando
BSIOP III-3
Rizal
TUESDAY & FRIDAY 9:00-10:30am
"The Philippines a Century Hence"

1
Following our usual custom of facing squarely the most difficult and delicate questions related to the Philippines, without weighing the consequences that our frankness may bring upon us, we shall in the present article treat of their future.

In order to read the destiny of a people, it is necessary to open the book of its past, and this, for the Philippines may be reduced in general terms to what follows.

Scarcely had they been attached to the Spanish crown than they had sustained with their blood and the efforts of their sons the wars and ambitions, and conquest of the Spanish people, and in these struggles, in that terrible crisis when a people changes its form of government, its laws, usages, customs, religion and beliefs; the Philippines was depopulated, impoverished and retarded -- caught in their metamorphosis without confidence in their past, without faith in their present and with no fond home of the years to come. The former rulers who had merely endeavored to secure the fear and submission of their subjects, habituated by them to servitude, fell like leaves from a dead tree, and the people, who had no love for them nor knew what liberty was, easily changed masters, perhaps hoping to gain something by the innovation.

Then began a new era for the Filipinos. They gradually lost their ancient traditions, their recollections, -- they forgot their writings, their songs, their poetry, their laws in order to learn by heart other doctrines, which they did not understand, other ethics, other tastes, different from those inspired in their race by their climate and their way of thinking. Then there was a falling-off, they were lowered in their own eyes, they became ashamed of what was distinctively their own, in order to admire and praise that was foreign and incomprehensible; their spirit was broken and they acquiesced.

Thus years and centuries rolled on. Religious shows, rites that caught the eye, songs, lights, images arrayed with gold, worship in a strange language, legends, miracles and sermons, hypnotized the already naturally superstitious spirits of the country but did not succeed in destroying it altogether, in spite of the whole system afterwards developed and operated with unyielding tenacity.

When the ethical abasement of the inhabitants had reached this stage, when they had become disheartened and disgusted with themselves, an effort was made to add the final stroke for reducing so many dormant wills and intellects to nothingness, in order to make of the individual a sort of toiler, a brute, a beast of burden and to develop a race without mind or heart. “Then the end sought was revealed, it was taken for granted, and the race was insulted, an effort was made to deny it every virtue, every human characteristic, and there were even writers and priests who pushed the movement still further by trying to deny to the natives of the country not only capacity for virtue but also even the tendency to vice.

Then this which they had thought would be death was sure salvation. Some dying persons are restored to health by a heroic remedy.

So great endurance reached its climax with the insults, and the lethargic spirit woke up to life. His sensitiveness, the chief trait of the native, was touched, and while he had the forbearance to suffer and die under a foreign flag, he had it not when they whom he served repaid his sacrifices with insults and jests. Then he began to study himself and to realize his misfortune. Those who had not expected this result, like all despotic masters, regarded as a wrong every complaint, every protest, and punished it with death, endeavoring thus to stifle every cry of sorrow with blood, and they made mistake after mistake.

The spirit of the people was not thereby cowed, and even though it had been awakened in only a few hearts, its flame nevertheless was surely and consumingly propagated, thanks to abuses and the stupid endeavors of certain classes to stifle noble and generous sentiments. Thus when a flame catches a garment, fear and confusion propagate it more and more, and each shake, each blow, is a blast from the bellows to fan it into life.

Undoubtedly during all this time there were not lacking generous and noble spirits among the dominant race that tried to struggle for the rights of humanity and justice, or sordid and cowardly ones among the dominated that aided the debasement of their own country. But both were exceptions and we are speaking in general terms.

Such is an outline of their past. We know their present. Now what will their future be?

Will the Philippine Islands continue to be a Spanish colony, and if so, what kind of colony? Will they become a province of Spain, with or without autonomy? And to reach this stage, what kind of sacrifices will have to be made?

Will they be separated from the mother country to live independently, to fall into the hands of other nations, or to ally themselves with neighboring powers?

It is impossible to reply to these questions, for to all of them both yes and now may be answered, according to the time desired to be covered. When there is in nature no fixed condition, how much less must there be in the life of a people, being endowed with mobility and movement! So, it is that in order to deal with those questions, it is necessary to presume an unlimited period of time, and in accordance therewith try to forecast future events.

II

What will become of the Philippines within a century? Will they continue to be a Spanish colony?

Had this question been asked three centuries ago, when at Legazpi’s death the Malayan Filipinos began to be gradually undeceived and, finding the yoke heavy, tried in vain to shake it off without any doubt whatsoever the reply would have been easy. To a spirit enthusiastic over the liberty of the country, to those unconquerable Kagayanes who nourished within themselves the spirit of Mgalats, to the descendants of the heroic Gat Pulintang and Gat Salakab of the Province of Batangas, independence was assured, it was merely a question of getting together and making a determination. But for him who, disillusioned by sad experience, saw everywhere discord and disorder, apathy and brutalization in the lower classes, discouragement and disunion in the upper, only one answer presented itself, and it was: extend his hands to the chains, bow his neck beneath the yoke and accept the future with the resignation of an invalid who watches the leaves fall and foresees a long winter amid whose snows he discerns the outlines of his grave. At the time discord justified pessimism -- but three centuries passed, the meek had become accustomed to the yoke, and each new generation, begotten in chains, was constantly better adapted to the new order of things.

Now then, are the Philippines in the same condition they were three centuries ago?

For the liberal Spaniards the ethical condition of the people remains the same, that is, the native Filipinos have not advanced; for the friars and their followers the people have been redeemed from savagery, that is, they have progressed; for many Filipinos ethics, spirit and customs have decayed, as decay all the good qualities of a people that falls into slavery that is, they have retrograded.

Laying aside these considerations, so as not to get away from our subject let us draw the brief parallel between the political situation then and the situation at present, in order to see if what was not possible at that time can be so now, or vice versa.

Let us pass over the loyalty the Filipinos may feel for Spain; let us suppose for a moment, along with Spanish writers, that there exist only motives for hatred and jealousy between the two races; let us admit the assertions flaunted by many that three centuries of domination have not awakened in the sensitive heart of the native a single spark of affection or gratitude; and we may see whether or not the Spanish cause has gained ground in the Islands.

Formerly the Spanish authority was upheld among the natives by a handful of soldiers, three to five hundred at most, many of whom were engaged in trade and were scattered about not only in the Islands but also among the neighboring nations, occupied in long wars against the Mohammedans in the south, against the British and Dutch, and ceaselessly harassed by Japanese, Chinese, or some tribes in the interior. Then communication with Mexico and Spain was slow, rare and difficult; frequent and violent the disturbances among the ruling powers in the Islands, the treasury nearly always empty, and the life of the colonists dependent upon one frail ship that handled the Chinese trade. Then the seas in those regions were infested with pirates, all enemies of the Spanish name, which was defended by an impoverished fleet, generally manned by rude adventurers, when not by foreigners and enemies, which was checked and an expedition of Gomez Perez Dasmariñas, which was checked and frustrated by the mutiny of the Chinese rowers, who killed him and thwarted all his plans and schemes. Yet in spite of so many adverse circumstances the Spanish authority had been upheld for more than three centuries and, though it has been curtailed, still continues to rule the destinies of the Philippine group.

On the other hand, the present situation seems to be gilded and rosy -- as we might say, a beautiful morning compared to the vexed and stormy night of the past. The material forces at the disposal of the Spanish sovereign have now been trebled; the fleet relatively improved: there is more organization in both civil and military affairs; communication with the sovereign country is swifter and surer; she has no enemies abroad; her possession is assured and the country dominated seems to have less spirit, less aspiration for independence, a world that is to it almost incomprehensible. Everything then at first glance presages another three centuries, at least, of peaceful domination and tranquil suzerainty.

But above the material considerations are arising others, invisible, of an ethical nature, far more powerful and transcendental.

Orientals and the Malays, in particular, are a sensitive people: delicacy of sentiment is predominant with them. Even now, in spite of contact with the Occidental nations, who have ideas different from his, we see the Malayan Filipino sacrifice everything -- liberty, ease, welfare, name for the sake of an aspiration or a conceit sometimes scientific, or of some other nature but at the least word which wounds his self-love he forgets all his sacrifices, the labor expended, to treasure in his memory and never forget the slight he thinks he has received.

So the Philippine peoples have remained faithful during three centuries, giving up their liberty and their independence, sometimes dazzled by the hope of the Paradise promised, sometimes cajoled by the friendship offered them by a noble and generous people like the Spanish, sometimes also compelled by superiority of arms of which they were ignorant and which timid spirits invested with a mysterious character, or sometimes because the invading foreigner took advantage of internecine feuds to step in as the peacemaker in discord and thus after to dominate both parties and subject them to his authority.

Spanish domination once established, was firmly maintained, thanks to the attachment of the people, to their mutual dissensions, and to the fact that the sensitive self-love of the native had not yet been wounded. Then the people saw their own countrymen in the higher ranks of the army, their general officers fighting beside the heroes of Spain and sharing their laurels, begrudged neither character, reputation nor consideration; then fidelity and attachment to Spain, love for the fatherland, made of the native encomendero and even general, as during the English invasion; then there had not yet been invented the insulting and ridiculous epithets with which recently the most laborious and painful achievements of the native leaders have been stigmatized; not then had it become the fashion to insult and slander in stereotyped phrase, in newspapers and books published with governmental and superior ecclesiastical approval, the people that paid, fought and poured out its blood for the Spanish name, nor was it considered either noble or witty to offend a whole race, which was forbidden to reply or defend itself, and if there were religious hypochondriacs who in the leisure of their cloisters dared to write against it, as did the Augustinian Gaspar de San Agustin and the Jesuit Velarde, their loathsome abortions never saw the light, and still less were they themselves rewarded with miters and raised to high offices. True it is that neither were the natives of that time such as we are now: three centuries of brutalization and obscurantism have necessarily had some influence upon us, the most beautiful work of divinity in the hands of certain artisans may finally be converted into a caricature.

The priests of that epoch, wishing to establish their domination over the people, got in touch with it and made common cause with it against the oppressive encomenderos. Naturally, the people saw in them learning and some prestige and placed its confidence in them, followed their advice, and listened to them in the darkest hours. If they wrote, they did so in defense of the rights of the native and made his cry reach even to the distant steps of the Throne. And not a few priests, both secular and regular, undertook dangerous journeys, as representatives of the country, and this, along with the strict and public residencia then required of the governing powers, from the captain-general to the most insignificant official, rather consoled and pacified the wounded spirits, satisfying, even though it were only in form, all the malcontents.

All this has passed away. The derisive laughter penetrates like mortal poison into the heart of the native who pays and suffers and it becomes more offensive the more immunity it enjoys. A common sore the general affront offered to a whole race, has wiped away the old feuds among different provinces. The people no longer have confidence in its former protectors, now its exploiters and executioners. The masks have fallen. It has been that the love and piety of the past have come to resemble the devotion of a nurse, who, unable to live elsewhere, desires the eternal infancy, eternal weakness, for the child in order to go on drawing her wages and existing at its expense, it has seen not only that she does not nourish it to make it grow but that she poisons it to stunt its growth and at the slightest protest she flies into a rage! The ancient show of justice, the holy residencia has disappeared; confusion of ideas begins to prevail; the regard shown for a governor-general, lie La Torre, becomes a crime in the government of his successor, sufficient to cause the citizen to lose his liberty and his home; if he obeys the order of one official, as in the recent matter of admitting corpses into the church, it is enough to have the obedient subjects later harassed and persecuted in every possible way; obligations and taxes increase without thereby increasing rights, privileges and liberties or assuring the few in existence; a regime of continual terror and uncertainty disturbs the minds, a regime worse than a period of disorder for the fears that the imagination conjures up are generally greater than the reality; the country is poor; the financial crisis through which it is passing is acute, and every one points out with the finger the persons who are causing the trouble, yet no one dares lay hands upon them!

True it is that the Penal Code has come like a drop of balm to such bitterness. But of what use are all the codes in the world, if by means of confidential reports, if for trifling reasons, if through anonymous traitors any honest citizen may be exiled or banished without a hearing, without a trial? Of what use is that Penal Code, of what use is life, if there is no security in the home, no faith in justice and confidence in tranquility of conscience? Of what use is all that array of terms, all that collection of articles, when the cowardly accusation of a traitor has more influence in the timorous ears of the supreme autocrat than all the cries for justice?

If this state of affairs should continue, what will be come of the Philippines within a century?

The batteries are gradually becoming charged and if the prudence of the government does not provide an outlet for the currents that are accumulating, some day the spark will be generated. This is not the place to speak of what outcome such a deplorable conflict might have, for it depends upon chance, upon the weapons and upon a thousand circumstances which man cannot foresee. But even though all the advantages should be on the government’s side and therefore the probability of success, it would be a Pyrrhic victory, and not government ought to desire such.

If those who guide the destinies of the Philippines remain obstinate, and instead of introducing reforms try to make the condition of the country retrograde; to push their severity and repression to extremes against the classes that suffer and think they are going to force the latter to venture and put into play the wretchedness of an unquiet life, filled with privation and bitterness, against the hope of securing something indefinite. What would be lost in the struggle? Almost nothing: the life of the numerous discontented classes has no such great attraction that it should be preferred to a glorious death. It may indeed be a suicidal attempt -- but then, what? Would not a bloody chasm yawn between victors and vanquished and might not the latter with time and experience become equal in strength, since they are superior in numbers to their dominators? Who disputes this? All the petty instructions that have occurred in the Philippines were the work of a few fanatics or discontented soldiers, who had to deceive and humbug the people or avail themselves of their powers over their subordinates to gain their ends. So they all failed. No insurrection had a popular character or was based on a need of the whole race or fought for human rights or justice, so it left no ineffaceable impressions, but rather when they saw that they had been duped the people bound up their wounds and applauded the overthrow of the disturbers of their peace! But what if the movement springs from the people themselves and based its causes upon their woes?

So then, if the prudence and wise reforms of our ministers do not find capable and determined interpreters among the colonial governors and faithful perpetrators among those whom the frequent perpetrators among those whom the frequent political changes send to fill such a delicate post; if met with the eternal it is out of order, preferred by the elements who see their livelihood in the backwardness of their subjects, it just claims are to go unheeded, as being of a subversive tendency; if the country is denied representation in the Cortes and an authorized voice to cry out against all kinds of abuses, which escape through the complexity of the laws; if in short, the system, prolific in results of alienating the goodwill of the natives, is to continue, pricking his apathetic mind with insults and charges of ingratitude, we can assert that in a few yeas the present state of affairs will have been modified completely -- and inevitably. There now exists a factor which was formerly lacking -- the spirit of the nation has been aroused and a common misfortune, a common debasement has united all the inhabitants of the Islands. A numerous enlightened class now exists within and without the Islands, a class created and continually augmented by the stupidity of certain governing powers, which forces the inhabitants to leave the country, to secure education abroad, and it is maintained thanks to the provocation and the system of espionage in vogue. This class, whose number is cumulatively increasing, is in constant communication with the rest of the Islands, and if today it constitutes only the brain of the country in a few years it will form the whole nervous system and manifest its existence in all its acts.

Now, statecraft has various means at its disposal for checking a people on the road to progress; the brutalization of the masses through a caste addicted to the government, aristocratic, as in the Dutch colonies, or theocratic as in the Philippines; the impoverishment of the country; the gradual extermination of the inhabitants; and fostering of feuds among the races.

Brutalization of the Malayan Filipinos has been demonstrated to be impossible. In spite of the dark horde of friars in whose hands rests the instruction of youth, which miserably wastes years and years in the colleges, issuing therefrom tired, weary and disgusted with books: in spite of the censorship which tries to close every avenue to progress; in spite of all the pupils, confessionals, books, and missals that inculcate hatred toward not only all scientific knowledge but even toward the Spanish language itself; in spite of this whole elaborate system perfected and tenaciously operated by those who wish to keep the Islands in holy ignorance; there exist writers, freethinkers, historians, philosophers, chemists, physicians, artists, and jurists. Enlightenment is spreading and the persecution it suffers quickens it. No, the divine flame of thought is inextinguishable in the Filipino people and somehow or other it will shine forth and compel recognition. It is impossible to brutalize the inhabitants of the Philippines!

May poverty arrest their development? Perhaps, but it is a very dangerous means. Experience has everywhere shown us and especially in the Philippines, that the classes which are better off have always been addicted to peace and order, because they live comparatively better and may be the losers in civil disturbances. Wealth brings with it refinement, the spirit of conservation, while poverty inspires adventurous ideas, the desire to change things and has little care for life. Machiavelli himself held this means of subjecting of a people to be perilous, observing that loss of welfare stirs up more obdurate enemies than loss of life. Moreover, when there are wealth and abundance, there is less discontent, less compliant and the government, itself wealthier, has more means for sustaining itself. On the other hand, there occurs in a poor country what becomes in a house where bread is wanting? And further, of what use to the mother country would a poor and lean colony be?

Neither is possible gradually to exterminate the inhabitants. The Philippine races, like all the Malays, do not succumb before the foreigner, like the Australians, the Polynesians and the Indians of the New World. In spite of the numerous wars the Filipinos have had to carry on, in spite of the epidemics that have periodically visited them, their number has trebled, as has that of the Malays of Java and the Moluccas. The Filipino embraces civilization and lives and thrives in every clime, in contact with every people. Rum, that poison which exterminated the natives of the Pacific islands, has no power in the Philippines, but rather, comparison of their present condition with that described by the earlier historians, makes it appear that the Filipinos have grown soberer. The petty wars with the inhabitants of the south consume only the soldiers, people who by their fidelity to the Spanish flag, far from being a menace, are surely one of its solidest supports.

Three remains the fostering of internecine feuds among the provinces.

This was formerly possible, when communication from one island to another was rare and difficult, when there were not steamers or telegraph lines, when the regiments were formed according to the various provinces, when some provinces were cajoled by awards of privileges and honor and other were protected from the strongest. But now that the privileges have disappeared, that through a spirit of distrust the regiments have been reorganized, that the inhabitants move from one island to another, communication and exchange of impressions naturally increase, and as all see themselves threatened by the same peril and wounded in the same feelings, they clasp hands and make common cause. It is true that the union is not yet wholly perfected, but to this end the measures of good government, the vexations to which the townspeople are subjected, the frequent changes of officials, the scarcity of centers of learning, forces of the youth of all the islands to come together and begin to get acquainted. The journeys to Europe contribute not a little to tighten the bonds, for abroad the inhabitants of most widely separated provinces are impressed by their patriotic feelings, from sailors even to the wealthiest merchants, and at the sight of modern liberty and the memory of the misfortunes of their country, they embrace and call one another brothers.

In short, then, the advancement and ethical progress of the Philippines are inevitable, are decreed by fate.

The Islands cannot remain in the condition they are without requiring from the sovereign country more liberty. Mutatis mutandis. For new men, a new social order.

To wish that the alleged child remain in its swaddling clothes is to risk that it may turn against the nurse and flee, tearing away the old rags that bind it.

The Philippines, then, will remain under Spanish domination, but with more law and greater liberty, or they will declare themselves independent after steeping themselves and the mother country in blood.

As no one should desire or hope for such an unfortunate rupture, which would be an evil for all and only the final argument in the most desperate predicament, let us see by what forms of peaceful evolution the Islands may remain subjected to the Spanish authority, with the very least detriment to the rights, interests and dignity of both parties.

III

If the Philippines must remain under the control of Spain, they will necessarily have to be transformed in a political sense, for the course of their history and the needs of their inhabitants so required. This we demonstrated in the preceding article.

We also said that this transformation will be violent and fatal if it proceeds from the ranks of the people, but peaceful and fruitful if it emanates from the upper classes.

Some governors have realized this truth, and impelled by their patriotism, have been trying to introduce needed reforms in order to forestall events. But notwithstanding all that have been ordered up to the present time, they have produced scanty results, for the government as well as for the country. Even those that promised only a happy issue have at times caused injury, for the simple reason that they have been based upon unstable grounds.

We said and once more we repeat, and all will ever assert, that reforms, which have a palliative character, are not only ineffectual but even prejudicial when the government is confronted with evils that must be cured radically. And were we not convinced of the honesty and rectitude of some governors, we would be tempted to say that all the partial reforms are only plasters and salves of a physician, who, not knowing how to cure the cancer, and not daring to root it out, tries in this way to alleviate the patient’s sufferings or to temporize with the cowardice of the timid and ignorant.

All the reforms of our liberal ministers were, have been, are, and will be good -- when carried out.

When we think of them, we are reminded of the dieting of Sancho Panza in this Barataria Island. He took his seat at a sumptuous and well-appointed table “covered with fruit and many varieties of food differently prepared,” but between the wretch’s mouth and each dish the physician Pedro Rezio interposed his wand, saying, “Take it away!” The dish removed, Sancho was as hungry as ever. Truth is that the despotic Pedro Rezio gave reasons, which seem to have been written by Cervantes especially for the colonial administrations. “You must not eat, Mr. Governor, except according to the usage and custom of other islands, where there are governors.” Something was found to be wrong with each dish: one was too hot, another too moist, and so on, just like our Pedro Rezio on both sides of the sea. Great good did his cook’s skill do Sancho!

In the case of our country, the reforms take the place of the dishes, the Philippines are Sancho, while the part of the quack physician is played by many persons interested in not having the dishes touched, perhaps that they may themselves get the benefit of them.

The result is that the long suffering Sancho, or the Philippines, misses his liberty, rejects all government and ends up by rebelling against his quack physician.

In this manner, so long as the Philippines have no liberty of the press, have no voice in the Cortes to make known to the government and to the nation whether or not their decrees have been duly obeyed, whether or not these benefit the country, all the able efforts of the colonial ministers will meet the fate of the dishes in Barataria Island.

The minister, then, who wants his reforms to be reforms, must begin by declaring the press in the Philippines free and by instituting Filipino delegates. The free press in the Philippines, because their complaints rarely ever reach the Peninsula, very rarely, and if they do they are so secret, so mysterious that no newspaper dares to publish them, or if it does reproduce them, it does so tardily and badly.

A government that rules a country from a great distance is the one that has the most need for a free press more so even than the government of the home country, if it wishes to rule rightly and fitly. The government that governs in a country may even dispense with the press (if it can), because it is on the ground, because it has eyes and ears, and because it directly observes what it rules and administers. But the government that governs from afar absolutely requires that the truth and the facts reach its knowledge by every possible channel so that it may weigh and estimate them better, and this need increases when a country like the Philippines is concerned, where the inhabitants speak and complain in a language unknown to the authorities. To govern in any other way may also be called governing, but it is to govern badly. It amounts to pronouncing judgment after hearing only one of the parties; it is steering a ship without reckoning its conditions, the state of the sea, the reefs and shoals, the direction of the winds and currents. It is managing a house by endeavoring merely to give it polish and a fine appearance without watching the money chest, without looking after the servants and the members of the family.

But routine is a declivity down which many governments slide, and routine says that freedom of the press is dangerous. Let us see what History says: uprisings and revolutions have always occurred in countries tyrannized over, in countries where human thought and the human heart have been forced to remain silent.

If the great Napoleon had not tyrannized over the press, perhaps it would have warned him of the peril into which he was hurled and have made him understand that the people were weary and the earth wanted peace. Perhaps his genius, instead of being dissipated in foreign aggrandizement would have become intensive in laboring to strengthen his position and thus have assured it. Spain herself records in her history more revolutions when the press was gagged. What colonies have become independent while they had a free press and enjoyed liberty? Is it preferable to govern blindly or to govern with ample knowledge?

Someone will answer that in colonies with a free press, the prestige of the rulers, that prop of false governments, will be greatly imperiled. We answer that the prestige of the nation is not by abetting and concealing abuses, but by rebuking and punishing them. Moreover, to this prestige is applicable what Napoleon said about great men and their valets. Who endure and know all the false pretensions and petty persecutions of those sham gods, do not need a free press in order to recognize them; they have long ago lost their prestige. The free press is needed by the government, the government which still dreams of the prestige which it builds upon mined ground.

We say the same about the Filipino representatives.

What risks does the government see in them? One of three things, either that they will prove unruly, become political trimmers, or act properly.

Supposing that we should yield to the most absurd pessimism and admit the insult, great for the Philippines but still greater for Spain, that all the representatives would be separatists and that in all their contentions they would advocate separatist ideas; does not a patriotic Spanish majority exist there, is there not present there the vigilance of the governing powers to combat and oppose such intentions? And would not this be better than the discontent that ferments and expands in the secrecy of the home, in the huts and in the field? Certainly the Spanish people does not spare its blood where patriotism is concerned but would not a struggle of principles in parliament be preferable to the exchange of shot in swampy lands, three thousand leagues from home in impenetrable forests, under a burning sun or amid torrential rains? These pacific struggles of ideas, besides being a thermometer for the government, have the advantage of being cheap and glorious, because the Spanish parliament especially abounds in oratorical paladins invincible in debate. Moreover, it is said that the Filipinos are indolent and peaceful -- then what need for government fear? Hasn’t it any influence in the elections? Frankly speaking, it is a great compliment to the separatists to fear them in the midst of the Cortes of the nation.

Now then, if the real objection to the Filipino delegates, is that they smell like Igorots, which so disturbed in open Senate the doughty General Salamanca, then Don Sinibaldo de Mas, who saw the Igorots in person and wanted to live with them, can affirm that they will smell at worst like powder, and Señor Salamanca undoubtedly has no fear of that odor. And if this were all, the Filipinos, who there in their own country are accustomed to bathe every day, when they become representatives may give up such a dirty custom, at least during the legislative session so as not to offend the delicate nostrils of Salamanca with the odor of the bath.

It is useless to answer certain objections of some fine writers regarding the rather brown skins and faces with somewhat wide nostrils. Questions of taste are peculiar to each race. China, for example, which has four hundred million inhabitants and a very ancient civilization, considers all Europeans ugly and calls them “fankwai”, or red devils. Its taste has a hundred million more adherents than the Europeans. Moreover, if this is the question, we would have to admit the inferiority of the Latins, especially the Spaniards, to the Saxons, who are much whiter.

And so long as it is not asserted that the Spanish parliament is an assemblage of Adonises, Antoniuses, pretty boys and other like paragons, so long as the purpose of resorting thither is to legislate and not to philosophize or wonder through imaginary spheres, we maintain that the government ought not to pause at these obligations. Law has no skin nor reason nostrils.

So we see no serious reason why the Philippines may not have representatives. By their institution many malcontents would be silenced, and instead of blaming its troubles upon the government, as now happens, the country would bear them better, for it could at least complain and with its sons among its legislators, would in a way become responsible for their actions.

We are not sure that we serve the true interests of our country by asking for representatives. We know that the lack of enlightenment, the indolence, the egotism, of our fellow countrymen, and the boldness, the cunning and the powerful methods of those who wish their obscurantism, may convert reform into a harmful instrument. But we wish to be loyal to the government and we are pointing out to it the road that appears best to us so that its effort may not come to grief, so that discontent may disappear. If after so just, as well as necessary, a measure has been introduced, the Filipino people are so stupid and weak that they are treacherous to their own interests, then let the responsibility fall upon them, let them suffer all consequences. Every country gets the fate it deserves and the government can say that it has done its duty.

These are the two fundamental reforms, which properly interpreted and applied, will dissipate all clouds, assure affection toward Spain, and make all succeeding reforms fruitful. These are the reforms sine quibus non.

It is puerile to fear that independence may come thorough them. The free press will keep the government in touch with public opinion, and the representatives, if they are, as they ought to be, the best from among the sons of the Philippines, will be their hostages. With no cause for discontent, how then attempt to stir up the masses of the people?

Likewise inadmissible is the obligation offered by some regarding the imperfect culture of the majority of the inhabitants. Aside from the fact that it is not so imperfect as is averred, there is no plausible reason why the ignorant and the defective (whether through their own or another’s fault) should be denied representation to look after them and see that they are not abused. They are the very ones who most need it. No one ceases to be a man, no one forfeits his rights to civilization merely by being more or less uncultured, and since the Filipino is regarded as a fit citizen when he is asked to pay taxes or shed his blood to defend the fatherland why must this fitness be denied him when the question arises of granting him some right? Moreover, how is he to be held responsible for his ignorance, when it is acknowledged by all, friends and enemies that his zeal for learning is so great that even before the coming of the Spaniards every one could read and write, and that we now see the humblest families make enormous sacrifices to the extent of working as servants in order to learn Spanish? How can the country be expected to become enlightened under present conditions when we see all the decrees issued by the government in favor of education meet with Pedro Rezios who prevent execution whereof because they have in their hands what they call education? If the Filipino, then, is sufficiently intelligent to pay taxes, he must also be able to choose and retain the one who looks after him and his interests, with the product whereof he serves the government of his nation. To reason otherwise is to reason stupidly.

When the laws and the acts of officials are kept under surveillance, the word justice may cease to be a colonial jest. The thing that makes the English most respected in their possessions is their strict and speedy justice so that the inhabitants repose entire confidence in the judges. Justice is the foremost virtue of the civilized races. It subdues the barbarous nations, while injustice arouses the weakest.

Offices and trusts should be awarded by competition, publishing the work and the judgment thereon, so that there may be stimulus and that discontent may not be bred. Then, if the native does not shake off his indolence he can not complain when he sees all the offices filled by Castilas.

We presume that it will not be the Spaniard who fears to enter in this contest, for thus will he be able to prove his superiority by the superiority of intelligence. Although this is not the custom in the sovereign country, it should be practiced in the colonies, for the reason that genuine prestige should be sought by means of moral qualities, because the colonizers ought to be, or at least to seem, upright, honest and intelligent, just as a man stimulates virtues when he deals with a stranger. The offices and trusts so earned will do away with arbitrary dismissal and develop employees and officials capable and cognizant of their duties. The offices held by natives, instead of endangering the Spanish domination, will merely serve to assure it, for what interest would they have in converting the sure and stable into the uncertain and problematical? The native is, moreover, very fond of peace and prefers a humble present to a brilliant future. Let the various Filipinos still holding office speak in this matter, they are the most unshaken conservatives.

We could add other minor reforms touching commerce, agriculture, security of the individual and of property, education, and so on, but these are points with which we shall deal in other articles. For the present we are satisfied with the outlines and no one can say that we ask too much.

There will be lacking critics to accuse us of Utopianism: but what is Utopia? Utopia was a country imagined by Thomas Moore, wherein existed universal suffrage, religious toleration, almost complete abolition of the death penalty and so on. When the book was published these things were looked upon as dreams, impossibilities, that is Utopianism. Yet civilization has left the country of Utopia far behind, the human will and conscience have worked greater miracles, have abolished slavery and the death penalty for adultery -- things impossible for even Utopia itself!

The French colonies have their representatives. The question has also been raised in the English parliament of giving representation to the Crown colonies, for the others already enjoy some autonomy. The press there is also free. Only Spain, which in the sixteenth century was the model nation in civilization, lags far behind. Cuba and Puerto Rico, whose inhabitants do not number a third of those of the Philippines, and who have not made such sacrifices for Spain, have numerous representatives. The Philippines in the early days had theirs, who conferred with the King and Pope on the needs of the country. They had them in Spain’s critical moments, when she groaned under the Napoleonic yoke, and they did not take advantage of the sovereign country’s misfortunes like other colonies but tightened more firmly the bonds that united them to be the nation, giving proofs of their loyalty and they continued until many years later. What crime have the Islands committed that they are deprived of their rights?

To recapitulate: the Philippines will remain Spanish if they enter upon the life of law and civilization, if the rights of their inhabitants are respected, if the other rights due them are granted, if the liberal policy of the government is carried out without trickery or meanness, without subterfuges or false interpretations.

Otherwise, if an attempt is made to see in the Islands a lode to be exploited, a resource to satisfy ambitions, thus to relieve the sovereign country of taxes, killing the goose that lays the golden eggs, and shutting its ears to all cries of reasons the, however, great may be the loyalty of the Filipinos, it will be impossible to hinder the operations of the inexorable laws of history. Colonies established to subserve the policy and the commerce of the sovereign country, all eventually become independent said Bachelet, and before Bachelet, all the Phoenician, Carthaginian, Greek, Roman, English, Portuguese, and Spanish colonies have said it.

Close indeed are the bonds that unite us to Spain. Two peoples do not live for three centuries in continual contact, sharing the same lot, shedding their blood on the same fields, holding the same beliefs, worshipping the same God, interchanging the same ideas, but that ties are formed between them stronger than those engendered by affection. Machiavelli, the great reader of the human heart said: la natura degli huomini, e cosi obligarsi pe li beneficii che essi fanno come per quelli che essi ricevono (it is human nature to be bound as much by benefits conferred as by those received). All this, and more, is true but it is pure sentimentality, and in the arena of politics stern necessity and interests prevail. Howsoever much the Filipinos owe Spain, they can not be required to forego their redemption, to have their liberal and enlightened sons wander about in exile from their native land, the rudest aspirations stifled in its atmosphere, the peaceful inhabitants living in constant alarm, with the fortune of the two peoples dependent upon the whim of one man. Spain can not claim, nor even in the name of God himself, that six millions of people should be brutalized, exploited and oppressed, denied light and the rights inherent to a human being and then heap upon them slights and insults. There is no claim of gratitude that can excuse, there is not enough power in the world to justify the offenses against the liberty of the individual, against the sanctity of the home, against the laws, against peace and honor, offenses that are committed three daily. There is no divinity that can proclaim the sacrifice of our dearest affections, the sacrifice of the family, the sacrileges and wrongs that are committed by persons who have the name of God on their lips. No one can require an impossibility of the Filipino people. The noble Spanish people, so jealous of its rights and liberties, cannot bid the Filipinos to renounce theirs. A people that prides itself on the glories of the past cannot ask another, trained by it, to accept abjection and dishonor its own name!

We, who today are struggling by the legal and peaceful means of debate so understand it, and with our gaze fixed upon our ideals, shall not cease to plead our cause, without going beyond the pale of the law, but if violence first silences us or we have the misfortune to fall (which is possible for we are mortal) then we do not know what course will be taken by the numerous tendencies that will rush in to occupy the places that we leave vacant.

If what we desire is not realized. . .

In contemplating such an unfortunate eventuality, we must not turn away in horror, and so instead of closing our eyes we will face what the future may bring. For this purpose, after throwing the handful of dust due to Cerberus, let us frankly descend into the abyss and sound its terrible mysteries.

IV

History does not record in its annals any lasting domination exercised by one people over another, of different races, of diverse usages and customs, of opposite and divergent ideals.

One of the two had to yield and succumb. Either the foreigner was driven out, as happened in the case of Carthaginians, the Moors and the French in Spain, or else these autochthons had to give way and perish, as was the case with the inhabitants of the New World.

One of the longest dominations was that of the Moors in Spain, which lasted seven centuries. But, even though the conquerors lived in the country conquered, even though the Peninsula was broken up into small states, which gradually emerged like little islands in the midst of the great Saracen inundation and in spite of the chivalrous spirit, the gallantry and the religious toleration of the caliphs, they were finally driven out after bloody and stubborn conflicts, which formed the Spanish nation and created the Spain of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

The existence of a foreign body within another endowed with strength and activity is contrary to all natural and ethical laws. Science teaches us that it is either assimilated, destroys the organism, is eliminated or becomes encysted.

Encystment of a conquering people is possible, for it signifies complete isolation, absolute inertia, and debility in the conquering element. Encystment thus means the tomb of the foreign invader.

Now applying these considerations to the Philippines, we must conclude, as a deduction from all we have said, that if their population be not assimilated to the Spanish nation, if the dominators do not enter into the spirit of their inhabitants, if equitable laws and free and liberal reforms do not make each forget that they belong to different races, or if both peoples be not amalgamated to constitute one mass, socially and politically, homogeneous, that is, not harassed by opposing tendencies and antagonistic ideas and interests some day the Philippines will fatally and infallibly declare themselves independent. To this law of destiny can be opposed neither Spanish patriotism, nor the love of all Filipinos for Spain, not the doubtful future of dismemberment and intestine strife in the Islands themselves. Necessity is the most powerful divinity the world knows, and necessity is the resultant of physical forces set in operation by ethical forces.

We have said and statistics prove that it is impossible to exterminate the Filipino people. And even were it possible what interest would Spain have in the destruction of the inhabitants of a country she can not populate or cultivate, whose climate is to a certain extent disastrous to her? What good would the Philippines be without the Filipinos? Quite otherwise, under her colonial system and the transitory character of the Spanish who go to the colonies, a colony is so much the more useful and productive to her as it possesses inhabitants and wealth. Moreover, in order to destroy the six million Malays, even supposing them to be in their infancy and that they have never learned to fight and defend themselves, Spain would have to sacrifice at least a fourth of her population. This we commend to the notice of the partisans of colonial exploitation.

But nothing of this kind can happen. The menace is that when the education and liberty necessary to human existence are denied by Spain to the Filipinos, then they will seek enlightenment abroad, behind the mother country’s back or they will secure by hook or by crook some advantages in their country with the result that the opposition of purblind and paretic politicians will not only be futile but even prejudicial because it will convert motives for love and gratitude into resentment and hatred.

Hatred and resentment on one side, mistrust and anger on the other, will finally result in a violent terrible collision, especially when there exist elements interested in having disturbances, so that they may get something in the excitement, demonstrates their mighty power, foster lamentations and recriminations, or employ violent measures. It is to be expected that the government will triumph and be generally (as is the custom) severe in punishment, either to teach a stern lesson in order to vaunt its strength or even to revenge upon the vanquished the spells of excitement and terror that the danger caused it. An unavoidable concomitant of those catastrophes is the accumulation of acts of injustice committed against the innocent and peaceful inhabitants. Private reprisals, denunciation, despicable accusations, resentments, covetousness, the opportune moment for calumny, the haste and hurried procedure of the court martials, the pretext of the integrity of the fatherland and the safety of the state, which cloaks and justifies everything, even for scrupulous minds, which unfortunately are still rare and above all the panic-stricken timidity, the cowardice that battens upon the conquered -- all these things augment the severe measures and the number of the victims. The result is that a chasm of blood is then opened between the two peoples that the wounded and the afflicted, instead of becoming fewer, are increased, for to the families and friends of the guilty, who always think the punishment excessive and the judge unjust, must be added the families and friends of the innocent, who see no advantage in living and working submissively and peacefully. Note, too, that if severe measures are dangerous in a nation made up of homogeneous population, the peril is increased a hundred-fold when the government is formed a race different from the governed. In the former an injustice may still be ascribed to one man alone, to a governor actuated by personal malice, and with the death of the tyrant the victim is reconciled to the government of his nation. But in a county dominated by a foreign race, even the most just act of severity is construed as injustice and oppression, because it is ordered by a foreigner, who is unsympathetic or is an enemy of the country, and the offense hurts not only the victim but his entire race, because it is not usually regarded as personal and so the resentment naturally spreads to the whole governing race and does not die out with the offender.

Hence the great prudence and fine tact that should be exercised by colonizing countries, and the fact that government regards the colonies in general and our colonial office in particular, as training schools, contributes notably to the fulfillment of the great law that the colonies sooner or later declare themselves independent.

Such is the descent down which the peoples are precipitated. In proportion as they are bathed in blood and drenched in tears and gall, the colony, if it has any vitality, learns how to struggle and perfect itself in fighting while the mother country whose colonial life depends upon peace and the submission of the subjects, is constantly weakened and even though she makes heroic efforts, as her number is less and she has only a fictitious existence, she finally perishes. She is like the rich voluptuary accustomed to be waited upon by a crowd of servants toiling and planting for him and who on the day his slaves refuse him obedience, as he does not live by his own efforts, must die.

Reprisals, wrongs and suspicions on one part and on the other the sentiment of patriotism and liberty, which is aroused in these incessant conflicts, insurrections and uprisings, operate to generalize the movement and one of the two peoples must succumb. The struggle will be brief, for it will amount to a slavery much more cruel than death for the people and to a dishonorable loss of prestige for the dominator. One of the peoples must succumb.

Spain, from the number of her inhabitants, from the condition of her army and navy, from the distance she is situated from the Islands, from her scanty knowledge of them, and from struggling against a people whose love and goodwill she has alienated, will necessarily have to give way, if she does not wish to risk not only her other possessions and her future in Africa, but also her very independence in Europe. All this is at the cost of bloodshed, and crime, after mortal conflicts, murders, conflagrations, military executions, famine and misery.

The Spaniard is gallant and patriotic, and sacrifices everything in favorable moments, for his country’s good. He has the intrepidity of his bull. The Filipino loves his country no less and although he is quieter, more peaceful and with difficulty stirred up, when he is once aroused he does not hesitate and for him the struggle means death to one or the other combatant. He has all the meekness and all the tenacity and ferocity of his carabao. Climate affects bipeds in the same way that it does quadrupeds.

The terrible lessons and the hard teachings that these conflicts will have afforded the Filipinos will operate to improve and strengthen their ethical nature. The Spain of the fifteenth century was not the Spain of the eighth. With their bitter experience, instead of intestine conflicts of some islands against others, as is generally feared, they will extend mutual support, like shipwrecked persons when they reach an island after a fearful night of storm. Nor may it be said that we shall partake of the fate of the small American republics. They achieved their independence easily and their inhabitants are animated by a different spirit from what the Filipinos are. Besides the danger of falling again into other hands, English or German, for example, will force the Filipinos to be sensible and prudent. Absence of any great preponderance of one race over the others will free their imagination from all mad ambitions of domination, and as they tendency of countries that have been tyrannized over, when they once shake off the yoke, is to adopt the freest government, like a boy leaving school, like the beat of the pendulum or by a law of reaction, the Islands will probably declare themselves a federal republic.

If the Philippines secure their independence after heroic and stubborn conflicts, they can rest assured that neither England or Germany, nor France, and still less Holland will dare to take up what Spain has been unable to hold. Within a few years Africa will completely absorb the attention of the Europeans, and there is no sensible nation which, in order to secure a group of poor and hostile islands, will neglect the immense territory offered by the Dark Continent, untouched, undeveloped and almost undefended. England has enough colonies in the Orient and is not going to sacrifice her Indian Empire for the poor Philippine Islands -- if she had entertained such an intention she would not have restored Manila in 1763, but would have kept some point in the Philippines whence she might gradually expand. Moreover, what need has John Bull the trader to exhaust himself over the Philippines, when he is already lord of the Orient, when he has Singapore, Hong Kong and Shanghai? It is probable the England will look favorably upon the independence of the Philippines, for it will open their ports to her and afford greater freedom to her commerce. Furthermore, there exist in the United Kingdom tendencies and opinions to the effect that she already has too many colonies, that they are harmful, that they greatly weaken the sovereign country.

For the same reasons Germany will not care to run any risk, and because a scattering of her forces and a war in distant countries will endanger her existence on the continent. Thus we see her attitude, as much in the Pacific as in Africa, is confined to conquering easy territory that belongs to nobody. Germany avoids any foreign complications.

France has enough to do and see more of a future in Tongking and China, besides the fact that the French spirit does not shine in zeal for colonization. France loves glory, but the glory and laurels that grow on the battlefields of Europe. The echo from battlefields in the Fear East hardly satisfies her craving for renown, for it reaches her quite faintly. She has also other obligations, both internally and on the continent.

Holland is sensible and will be content to keep the Moluccas and Java. Sumatra offers her a greater future than the Philippines whose seas and coasts have a sinister omen for Dutch expeditions. Holland proceeds with great caution in Sumatra and Borneo, from fear of losing everything.

China will consider herself fortunate if she succeeds in keeping herself intact and is not dismembered or partitioned among the European powers that they are colonizing the continent of Asia.

The same is true with Japan. On the north side she has Russia, who envies and watches her, on the south England, with whom she is in accord even to her official language. She is, moreover, under such diplomatic pressure from Europe that she can not think of outside affairs until she is freed from it, which will not be an easy matter. True it is that she has an excess of population, but Korea attracts her more than the Philippines and is also easier to seize.

Perhaps the great American Republic, whose interests lie in the Pacific and who has no hand in the spoliation of Africa, may dream some day of foreign possession. This is not impossible, for the example is contagious, covetousness and ambition are among the strongest vices, and Harrison manifested something of this sort in the Samoan question. But the Panama Canal is not opened nor the territory of the States congested with inhabitants, and in case she should openly attempt it the European powers would not allow her to proceed, for they know very well that the appetite is sharpened by the first bites. North America would be quite a troublesome rival, if she should once get into the business. Furthermore, this is contrary to her traditions.

Very likely the Philippines will defend with inexpressible valor the liberty secured at the price of so much blood and sacrifice. With the new men that will spring from their soil and with the recollection of their past, they will perhaps strife to enter freely upon the wide road of progress, and all will labor together to strengthen their fatherland, both internally and externally, with the same enthusiasm, with which a youth falls again to tilling the land of his ancestors who long wasted and abandoned through the neglect of those who have withheld it from him. Then the mines will be made to give up their gold for relieving distress, iron for weapons, copper, lead, and coal. Perhaps the country will revive the maritime and mercantile life for which the islanders are fitted by their nature, ability and instincts, and once more free, like the bird that leaves its cage, like the flower that unfolds to the air, will recover the pristine virtues that are gradually dying out and will again become addicted to peace -- cheerful, happy, joyous, hospitable and daring.

These and many other things may come to pass within something like a hundred years, but the most logical prognostication, the prophecy based on the best probabilities, may err through remote and insignificant causes: An octopus that seized Mark Anthony’s ship altered the face of the world; a cross on Calvary and a just man nailed thereon changed the ethics of half the human race, and yet before Christ, how many just men wrongly perished and how many crosses were raised on that hill! The death of the just sanctified his work and made his teaching unanswerable. A sunken road at the battle of Waterloo buried all the glories of two brilliant decades, the whole napoleonic world, and freed Europe. Upon what chance accidents will the destiny of the Philippines depend?

Nevertheless, it is not well to trust to accident, for there is sometimes an imperceptible and incomprehensible logic in the workings of history. Fortunately, peoples as well as governments are subjects to it.

Therefore, we repeat and we will ever repeat, while there is time, and that is better to keep pace with the desire of a people than to give way before them; the former begets sympathy and love, the latter contempt and anger. Since it is necessary to grant six million Filipinos their rights, so that they may be in fact Spaniards, let the government grant these rights freely and spontaneously, without damaging reservations, without irritating mistrust. We shall never tire of repeating this while a ray of hope is left us, for we prefer this unpleasant task to the need of some day saying to the mother country: “Spain, we have sent our youth in serving thy interests in the interests of our country; we have looked to thee, we have expended the whole light of our intellects, all the fervor and enthusiasm of our hearts in working for the good of what was tine, to draw from them a glance of love, a liberal policy and that would assure us the peace of our native land and thy sway over loyal but unfortunate islands! Spain, thou hast remained deaf, and wrapped up in thy pride, hast pursued thy fatal course and accused us of being traitors, merely because we love our country because we tell thee the truth and hate all kinds of injustice. What dost thou wish us to tell our wretched country when it asks about the result of our efforts? Must we say to it that, since for it we have lost everything -- youth, future, hope, peace, and family; since in its service we have exhausted all the resources of hope, all the disillusions of desire, it also takes the residue which we can not use, the blood from our veins and the strength left in our arms? Spain, must we some day tell Filipinas that thou hast no ear for her woes and that if she wishes to be saved, she must redeem herself?”

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vanessa said...

Vanessa Matias
BSIOP III-3
Rizal
TUESDAY & FRIDAY 9:00-10:30am

"Buod ng Noli Me Tangere"

Si Crisostomo Ibarra ay isang binatang Pilipino na pinag-aral ng kanyang ama sa Europa.Kumakatawan sa mga Pilipino na nakapag-aral at may maunlad at makabagong kaisipan. Pagkatapos ng pitong taong pamamalagi roon ay nagbalik ito sa Pilipinas. Dahil sa kanyang pagdating ay naghandog si Kapitan Tiyago ng isang salo-salo kung saan ito ay dinaluhan nina Padre Damaso, Padre Sibyla, Tinyente Guevarra, Donya Victorina at ilang matataas na tao, sa lipunan Kastila. Sa hapunang iyon ay hiniya ni Padre Damaso na siyang dating kura ng San Diego, ang binata ngunit ito’y hindi na lamang niya pinansin at magalang na nagpaalam at nagdahilang may mahalagang lalakarin.

Si Ibarra ay kasintahan ni Maria Clara, isang napakangandang binibini at larawan ng dalagang Pilipina. Siya kilala bilang anak-anakan ni Kapitan Tiyago, isang mayamang taga-Binundok. Ang binata ay dumalaw sa dalaga kinabukasan at sa kanilang pag-uulayaw ay di nakaligtaang gunitain ang kanilang pagmamahalan simula pa sa kanilang pagkabata. Di nakaligtaang basahing muli ni Maria Clara ang mga liham ng binata sa kanya bago pa man ito mag-aral sa Europa.

Bago tumungo si Ibarra sa San Diego ay ipinagtapat sa kanya ni Tinyente Guevarra ng Guardia Sibil ang tungkol sa pagkamatay nga kanyang amang si Don Rafael, ang mayamang asendero sa bayang yaon.

Ayon sa Tinyente, si Don Rafael ay pinaratangan ni Padre Damaso, na Erehe at Pilibustero, gawa ng di nito pagsisimba at pangungumpisal. Nadagdagan pa ng isang pangyayari ang paratang na ito. Minsan ay may isang maniningil ng buwis na nakaaway ng isang batang mag-aaral, nakita ito ni Don Rafael at tinulungan ang bata, nagalit ang kubrador at sila ang nagpanlaban, sa kasamaang palad ay tumama ang ulo ng kastila sa isang bato na kanyang ikinamatay. Ibinintang ang pagkamatay na ito ng kubrador kay Don Rafael, pinag-usig siya, nagsulputan ang kanyang mga lihim na kaaway at nagharap ng iba-ibang sakdal. Siya ay nabilanggo at ng malapit nang malutas ang usapin ay nagkasakit ang matanda at namatay sa bilangguan. Di pa rin nasiyahan si Padre Damaso sa pangyayaring iyon. Inutusan niya ng tagapaglibing na hukayin ang bangkay ni Don Rafael sa kinalilibingan nitong sementeryo para sa katoliko at ibaon sa libingan ng mga Intsik at dahil umuulan noon at sa kabigatan ng bangkay ay ipinasya ng tagapaglibing na itapon na lamang ito sa lawa.

Hindi binalak ni Ibarra ang maghiganti sa ginawang kabuktutang ito ni Padre Damaso at sa halip ay ipinagpatuloy ang balak ng kanyang ama na magpatayo ng paaralan.

Sa pagdiriwang ng paglalagay ng unang bato ng paaralan ay kamuntik nang mapatay si Ibarra kung hindi siya nailigtas ni Elias. Sa paglagpak ng bato habang ito’y inihuhugos ay hindi si Ibarra ang nasawi kundi ang taong binayaran ng lihim na kaaway ng binata.

Sa pananghaliang inihandog ni Ibarra pagkatapos ng pagbabasbas ay muling pinasaringan ni Padre Damaso ang binata, hindi na lamang niya sana ito papansinin subalit nang hamakin ang alaala ng kanyang ama ay hindi na siya nakapagpigil at tinangkang saksakin ang pari, salamat na lamang at napigilan ito ni Maria Clara.

Dahil sa pangyayaring ito ay itiniwalag o ineskomonyon si Ibarra ng Arsobispo ng simbahang Katoliko Romano. Sinamantala ito ni Padre Damaso upang utusan si Kapitan Tiyago na sirain ang kasunduan sa pagpapakasal nina Ibarra at Maria Clara. Nais ng pari na ang mapangasawa ng dalaga ay si Linares na isang binatang kastila na bagong dating sa Pilipinas.

Dahil sa pagkasindak sa gumuhong bato noong araw ng pagdiriwang si Maria Clara’y nagkasakit at naglubha. Dahil sa ipinadalang gamot ni Ibarra na siya namang ipinainom ni Sinang gumaling agad ang dalaga.

Sa tulong ng Kapitan Heneral ay napawalang-bisa ang pagkakaeskomulgado ni Ibarra at ipinasya ng arsobispo na muli siyang tanggapin sa simbahang Katoliko. Ngunit, nagkataon noong sinalakay ng mga taong pinag-uusig ang kwartel ng sibil at ang napagbintangang may kagagawan ay si Ibarra kaya siya ay dinakip at ibinilanggo. Wala talagang kinalaman dito ang binata sapagkat nang kausapin siya ni Elias upang pamunuan ang mga pinag-uusig ay tahasan siyang tumanggi at sinabing kailanman ay hindi siya maaring mamuno sa mga taong kumakatawan sa bayan.

Napawalang-bisa ang bintang kay Ibarra sapagkat sa paglilitis na ginawa ay walang sino mang makapagsabi na siya’y kasabwat sa kaguluhang naganap. Subalit ang sulat niya kay Maria Clara na napasakamay ng hukuman ang siyang ginawang sangkapan upang siya’y mapahamak.

Nagkaroon ng handaan sa bahay nina Kapitan Tiyago upang ipahayag ang kasunduan sa pagpapakasal ni Maria Clara kay Linares at samantalang nagaganap ito ay nakatakas ni Ibarra sa bilangguan sa tulong ni Elias.

Bago tuluyang tumakas ay nagkaroong ng pagkakataon si Ibarrang magkausap sila ng lihim ni Maria Clara,. Anya’y ipinagkaloob na niya rito ang kalayaan at sana’y lumigaya siya at matahimik na ang kalooban. Ipinaliwanag ni Maria Clara na ang liham na kanyang iniingatan at siyang ginamit sa hukuman ay nakuha sa kanya sa pamamagitan ng pagbabanta t pananakot. Ippinalit sa mga liham na ito ang dalawang liham na isinulat ng kanyang ina bago siya ipanganak na nakuha ni Padre Salvi sa kumbento at dito nasasaad na ang tunay niyang ama ay si Padre Damaso.

Sinabi niya kay Ibarra na kaya siya pakakasal kay Linares ay upang ipagtanggol ang karangalan ng kanyang ina subalit ang pag-iibig niya saa binata ay di magbabago kailanman.

Samantala, tumakas na si Ibarra sa tulong ni Elias. Sumakay sila ng bangka, pinahiga si Ibarra at tinabunan ng damo at pagkatapos ay tinunton ang ilog Pasig hanggang makarating sa Lawa ng Bay. Ngunit naabutan sila ng mga tumutugis sa kanila. Inisip ni Elias na iligaw ang mga ito kaya naisipan niyang lumundag sa tubig kung saan inakalang si Ibarra ang tumalon kaya hinabol at pinaputukan siya ng mga sibil hanggang mahawi ang bakas ng pagkakalangoy at magkulay-dugo ang tubig.

Nakarating sa kaalaman ni Maria Clara na si Ibarra’y napatay ng mga Sibil sa kanyang pagtakas. Ang dalaga’y nalungkot at nawalan ng pag-asa kaya’t hiniling niya kay Padre Damaso na siya’y ipasok sa kumbento ng Santa Clara upang magmadre. Napilitang pumayag ang pare sapagkat tiyakang sinabi ng dalaga na siya’y magpapakamatay kapag hindi pinagmadre.

Noche Buena nang makarating si Elias sa maalamat na gubat ng mga Ibarra, sugatan at nanghihina na doon niya nakatagpo si Basilio at ina nitong wala nang buhay.

Bago siya nalagutan ng hininga ay sinabing, namatay siyang hindi nakikita ang pagbubukang-liwayway ng kanyang bayan at makakikita ay huwag sanang kalilimutan ang mga nangamatay dahil sa pagtatanggol sa bayan.


Mga Karakter ng Noli Me Tangere

-Crisostomo Ibarra
Binatang nag-aral sa Europa; nangarap na makapagpatayo ng paaralan upang matiyak ang magandang kinabukasan ng mga kabataan ng San Diego.

-Elias
Piloto at magsasakang tumulong kay Ibarra para makilala ang kanyang bayan at ang mga suliranin nito.

-Kapitan Tiyago
Mangangalakal na tiga-Binondo; ama-amahan ni Maria Clara.

-Padre Damaso
Isang kurang Pransiskano na napalipat ng ibang parokya matapos maglingkod ng matagal na panahon sa San Diego.

-Padre Salvi
Kurang pumalit kay Padre Damaso, nagkaroon ng lihim na pagtatangi kay Maria Clara.

-Maria Clara
Mayuming kasintahan ni Crisostomo; mutya ng San Diego na inihimatong anak ng kanyang ina na si Doña Pia Alba kay Padre Damaso

-Pilosopo Tasyo
Maalam na matandang tagapayo ng marurunong na mamamayan ng San Diego.

-Sisa
Isang masintahing ina na ang tanging kasalanan ay ang pagkakaroon ng asawang pabaya at malupit.

-Basilio at Crispin
Magkapatid na anak ni Sisa; sakristan at tagatugtog ng kampana sa simbahan ng San Diego.

-Alperes
Matalik na kaagaw ng kura sa kapangyarihan sa San Diego

-Donya Victorina
Babaing nagpapanggap na mestisang Kastila kung kaya abut-abot ang kolorete sa mukha at maling pangangastila.

-Donya Consolacion
Napangasawa ng alperes; dating labandera na may malaswang bibig at pag-uugali.

-Don Tiburcio de Espadaña
Isang pilay at bungal na Kastilang napadpad sa Pilipinas sa paghahanap ng magandang kapalaran; napangasawa ni Donya Victorina.

-Linares
Malayong pamangkin ni Don Tiburcio at pinsan ng inaanak ni Padre Damaso na napili niya para mapangasawa ni Maria Clara.

-Don Filipo
Tinyente mayor na mahilig magbasa na Latin

-Señor Nol Juan
Namahala ng mga gawain sa pagpapatayo ng paaralan.

-Lucas
Kapatid ng taong madilaw na gumawa ng kalong ginamit sa di-natuloy na pagpatay kay Ibarra.

-Tarsilo at Bruno
Magkapatid na ang ama ay napatay sa palo ng mga Kastila.

-Tiya Isabel
Hipag ni Kapitan Tiago na tumulong sa pagpapalaki kay Maria Clara.

-Donya Pia
Masimbahing ina ni Maria Clara na namatay matapos na kaagad na siya'y maisilang.

-Iday, Sinang, Victoria,at Andeng
Mga kaibigan ni Maria Clara sa San Diego

-Kapitan-Heneral
Pinakamakapangyarihan sa Pilipinas; lumakad na maalisan ng pagka-ekskomunyon si Ibarra.

-Don Rafael Ibarra
Ama ni Crisostomo; nakainggitan nang labis ni Padre Damaso dahilan sa yaman kung kaya nataguriang erehe.

-Don Saturnino
Nuno ni Crisostomo; naging dahilan ng kasawian ng nuno ni Elias.

-Mang Pablo
Pinuno ng mga tulisan na ibig tulungan ni Elias.

-Kapitan Basilio
Ilan sa mga kapitan ng bayan sa San Diego Kapitan Tinong at Kapitan Valentin; ama ni Sinang

-Tinyente Guevarra
Isang matapat na tinyente ng mga guwardiya sibil na nagsalaysay kay Ibarra ng tungkol sa kasawiang sinapit ng kanyang ama.

-Kapitana Maria
Tanging babaing makabayan na pumapanig sa pagtatanggol ni Ibarra sa alaala ng ama.

-Padre Sibyla
Paring Agustino na lihim na sumusubaybay sa mga kilos ni Ibarra.

-Albino
Dating seminarista na nakasama sa piknik sa lawa.


http://tl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noli_Me_Tangere

ma. katherine habal said...

Ma. Katherine G. Habal
BSIOP III-3
RIZAL
TUESDAY & FRIDAY 9:00-10:30am
NOVELS: El Filibusterismo

Ang nobelang "El Filibusterismo" ay isinulat ng ating magiting na bayaning si Dr. Jose Rizal na buong pusong inalay sa tatlong paring martir, na lalong kilala sa bansag na GOMBURZA - Gomez, Burgos, Zamora.

Tulad ng "Noli Me Tangere", ang may-akda ay dumanas ng hirap habang isinusulat ito. Sinimulan niyang isulat ito sa London, Inglatera noong 1890 at ang malaking bahagi nito ay naisulat niya sa Bruselas, Belgica. Natapos ang kanyang akda noong Marso 29, 1891. Isang Nagngangalang Valentin Viola na isa niyang kaibigan ang nagpahiram ng pera sa kanya upang maipalimbag ang aklat noong Setyembre 22, 1891.
Ang nasabing nobela ay pampulitika na nagpapadama, nagpapahiwatig at nagpapagising pang lalo sa maalab na hangaring makapagtamo ng tunay na kalayaan at karapatan ang bayan.

The word "filibustero" wrote Rizal to his friend, Ferdinand Blumentritt, is very little known in the Philippines. The masses do not know it yet.

Jose Alejandro, one of the new Filipinos who had been quite intimate with Rizal, said, "in writing the Noli Rizal signed his own death warrant." Subsequent events, after the fate of the Noli was sealed by the Spanish authorities, prompted Rizal to write the continuation of his first novel. He confessed, however, that regretted very much having killed Elias instead of Ibarra, reasoning that when he published the Noli his health was very much broken, and was very unsure of being able to write the continuation and speak of a revolution.

Explaining to Marcelo H. del Pilar his inability to contribute articles to the La Solidaridad, Rizal said that he was haunted by certain sad presentiments, and that he had been dreaming almost every night of dead relatives and friends a few days before his 29th birthday, that is why he wanted to finish the second part of the Noli at all costs.

Consequently, as expected of a determined character, Rizal apparently went in writing, for to his friend, Blumentritt, he wrote on March 29, 1891: "I have finished my book. Ah! I’ve not written it with any idea of vengeance against my enemies, but only for the good of those who suffer and for the rights of Tagalog humanity, although brown and not good-looking."

To a Filipino friend in Hong Kong, Jose Basa, Rizal likewise eagerly announced the completion of his second novel. Having moved to Ghent to have the book published at cheaper cost, Rizal once more wrote his friend, Basa, in Hongkong on July 9, 1891: "I am not sailing at once, because I am now printing the second part of the Noli here, as you may see from the enclosed pages. I prefer to publish it in some other way before leaving Europe, for it seemed to me a pity not to do so. For the past three months I have not received a single centavo, so I have pawned all that I have in order to publish this book. I will continue publishing it as long as I can; and when there is nothing to pawn I will stop and return to be at your side."

Inevitably, Rizal’s next letter to Basa contained the tragic news of the suspension of the printing of the sequel to his first novel due to lack of funds, forcing him to stop and leave the book half-way. "It is a pity," he wrote Basa, "because it seems to me that this second part is more important than the first, and if I do not finish it here, it will never be finished."

Fortunately, Rizal was not to remain in despair for long. A compatriot, Valentin Ventura, learned of Rizal’s predicament. He offered him financial assistance. Even then Rizal’s was forced to shorten the novel quite drastically, leaving only thirty-eight chapters compared to the sixty-four chapters of the first novel.

Rizal moved to Ghent, and writes Jose Alejandro. The sequel to Rizal’s Noli came off the press by the middle of September, 1891.On the 18th he sent Basa two copies, and Valentin Ventura the original manuscript and an autographed printed copy.

Inspired by what the word filibustero connoted in relation to the circumstances obtaining in his time, and his spirits dampened by the tragic execution of the three martyred priests, Rizal aptly titled the second part of the Noli Me Tangere, El Filibusterismo. In veneration of the three priests, he dedicated the book to them.

"To the memory of the priests, Don Mariano Gomez (85 years old), Don Jose Burgos (30 years old), and Don Jacinto Zamora (35 years old). Executed in the Bagumbayan Field on the 28th of February, 1872."

"The church, by refusing to degrade you, has placed in doubt the crime that has been imputed to you; the Government, by surrounding your trials with mystery and shadows causes the belief that there was some error, committed in fatal moments; and all the Philippines, by worshipping your memory and calling you martyrs, in no sense recognizes your culpability. In so far, therefore, as your complicity in the Cavite Mutiny is not clearly proved, as you may or may not have been patriots, and as you may or may not cherished sentiments for justice and for liberty, I have the right to dedicate my work to you as victims of the evil which I undertake to combat. And while we await expectantly upon Spain some day to restore your good name and cease to be answerable for your death, let these pages serve as a tardy wreath of dried leaves over one who without clear proofs attacks your memory stains his hands in your blood."

Rizal’s memory seemed to have failed him, though, for Father Gomez was then 73 not 85, Father Burgos 35 not 30 Father Zamora 37 not 35; and the date of execution 17th not 28th.

The FOREWORD of the Fili was addressed to his beloved countrymen, thus:

"TO THE FILIPINO PEOPLE AND THEIR GOVERNMENT"



Mga Tauhan sa nobelang el Filibusterismo:

Simoun
Ang mapagpanggap na mag-aalahas na nakasalaming may kulay

Isagani
Ang makatang kasintahan ni Paulita

Basilio
Ang mag-aaral ng medisina at kasintahan ni Juli

Kabesang Tales
Ang naghahangad ng karapatan sa pagmamay- ari ng lupang sinasaka na inaangkin ng mga prayle

Tandang Selo
Ama ni Kabesang Tales na nabaril ng kanyang sariling apo

Ginoong Pasta
Ang tagapayo ng mga prayle sa mga suliraning legal

Ben-zayb
Ang mamamahayag sa pahayagan

Placido Penitente
Ang mag-aaral na nawalan ng ganang mag-aral sanhi ng suliraning pampaaralan

Padre Camorra
Ang mukhang artilyerong pari

Padre Fernandez
Ang paring Dominikong may malayang paninindigan

Padre Florentino
Ang amain ni Isagani

Don Custodio
Ang kilala sa tawag na Buena Tinta

Padre Irene
Ang kaanib ng mga kabataan sa pagtatatag ng Akademya ng Wikang Kastila

Juanito Pelaez
Ang mag-aaral na kinagigiliwan ng mga propesor; nabibilang sa kilalang angkang may dugong Kastila

Makaraig
Ang mayamang mag-aaral na masigasig na nakikipaglaban para sa pagtatatag ng Akademya ng Wikang Kastila ngunit biglang nawala sa oras ng kagipitan.

Sandoval
Ang kawaning Kastila na sang-ayon o panig sa ipinaglalaban ng mga mag-aaral

Donya Victorina
Ang mapagpanggap na isang Europea ngunit isa namang Pilipina; tiyahin ni Paulita

Paulita Gomez
Kasintahan ni Isagani ngunit nagpakasal kay Juanito Pelaez

Quiroga
Isang mangangalakal na Intsik na nais magkaroon ng konsulado sa Pilipinas

Juli
Anak ni Kabesang Tales at katipan naman ni Basilio

Hermana Bali
Naghimok kay Juli upang humingi ng tulong kay Padre Camorra

Hermana Penchang
Ang mayaman at madasaling babae na pinaglilingkuran ni Juli

Ginoong Leeds
Ang misteryosong Amerikanong nagtatanghal sa perya

Imuthis
Ang mahiwagang ulo sa palabas ni G. Leeds

www.joserizal.ph
booksgoogle.com
elfili.wordpress.com

recelyn said...

Recelyn Joy Valeroso
BSIOP 3-3
Rizal
Tuesday & Friday 9:00-10:30am

"THE EXECUTION AND THE RETRACTION CONTROVERSY"

After the last hours of Rizal, comes the execution which marked as a significant one in the Philippine history. Execution that made our country have its democracy.

At about 6:30 AM, a trumpet sounded at Fort Santiago, a signal to begin the death march to Bagumbayan, the assigend place for the execution. The advance guard of four soldiers with bayoneted rifles moved. A few meters behind, Rizal walked calmly with his defense counsel Lt. Taviel de Andrade and together with the two Jesuits priests.

Rizal was dressed elegantly in a black derby hat, black shoes, white shirt and black tie. His arms were tied behind from elbow to elbow, but the rope was quite loose to give his arms freedom of movement.

At that moment, everyone wanted to see the execution of the hero. Filipinos and even the Spaniards went there to witness the death of Rizal.

As they reached the Bagumbayan, the spectators crowded a huge square formed by soldiers. The cavalcade entered this square. Rizal walked serenly to the place, where he was told to stand. It was grassy lawn by the shore of Manila Bay between two lamp posts.

Rizal bade farewell to the companions at that time to his counsel and to the priests. Rizal requested to be shot facing the firing squad but it was denied because the order was to shoot him at tha back. Rizal then again requested to be shot in his body not in his head. The request was accepted. Rizal was ordered to kneel but he never did it.Rizal requested to be shot in his body in order for him to turned in his right and face the sky.

AQ spanish military physician, Dr. Felipe Ruiz Castillo, asked his permission to feel his pulse, which request was graciously granted. Dr.castillo was amazed to find it normal, showing that Rizal was not afraid to die.

The death ruffles of the drums filled the air. Above the drum-beats, the sharp command "Fire" was heard, and the guns of the firing squad barked. Rizal, with supreme effort, turned his bullet riddled body to the right, and fell on the ground dead with face upward facing the morning sun. It was exactly 7:03 in the morning when he died in the bloom of manhood aged 35 years, five months, and 11 days.Rizal's last words was "Consumatum Est or It is finished".

Rizal predicted that he will die on December 30, for he dreamed the he was an actor in a stage play and that actor's vision became dim and dense darkness. It happened on December 30, 1882 fourteen years before his execution.

After the death of the hero Spaniards shouting viva españa! without knowing and realizing that was actually the end of their regime in the Philippines.

Rizal made the Filipinos realized that no one could ever rule in our country but the citizens itself. Rizal made us have our freedom that has been taken away from us for a long period of time.

RETRACTION CONTROVERSY

The retraction was really a controversial one. After the death of Rizal, different issues were laid down which made people thought which is really true. "Was Rizal really retracted?"

Two version were shown, Fr. Balaguer's account and one that was discovered by Fr. Manuel Garcia on May 18, 1935.

Texts of Rizal's Retraction
The "original" discovered by Fr. Manuel Garcia, C.M. on May 18, 1935

Me declaro catolica y en esta Religion en que naci y me eduque quiero vivir y morir.

Me retracto de todo corazon de cuanto en mis palabras, escritos, inpresos y conducta ha habido contrario a mi cualidad de hijo de la Iglesia Catolica. Creo y profeso cuanto ella enseña y me somento a cuanto ella manda. Abomino de la Masonaria, como enigma que es de la Iglesia, y como Sociedad prohibida por la Iglesia. Puede el Prelado Diocesano, como Autoridad Superior Eclesiastica hacer publica esta manifastacion espontanea mia para reparar el escandalo que mis actos hayan podido causar y para que Dios y los hombers me perdonen.

Manila 29 de Deciembre de 1896

Jose Rizal

Jefe del Piquete
Juan del Fresno

Ayudante de Plaza
Eloy Moure

Translation (English)

I declare myself a catholic and in this Religion in which I was born and educated I wish to live and die.

I retract with all my heart whatever in my words, writings, publications and conduct has been contrary to my character as son of the Catholic Church. I believe and I confess whatever she teaches and I submit to whatever she demands. I abominate Masonry, as the enemy which is of the Church, and as a Society prohibited by the Church. The Diocesan Prelate may, as the Superior Ecclesiastical Authority, make public this spontaneous manifestation of mine in order to repair the scandal which my acts may have caused and so that God and people may pardon me.

Manila 29 of December of 1896

Jose Rizal

La Voz Española, December 30, 1896

Me declaro catolica y en esta Religion en que naci y me eduque quiero vivir y morir.

Me retracto de todo corazon de cuanto en mis palabras, escritos, inpresos y conducta ha habido contrario a mis cualidades de hijo de la Iglesia Catolica. Creo y profeso cuanto ella enseña y me somento a cuanto ella manda. Abomino de la Masonaria, como enigma que es de la Iglesia y como sociedad prohibida por la Iglesia. Puede el Prelado Diocesano, como autoridad superior eclesiastica hacer publica esta manifastacion espontanea para reparar el escandalo que mis actos hayan podido causar y para que Dios y los hombers me perdonen.

Manila, 29 de Diciembre de

1896-Jose Rizal

Jefe del Piquete
Juan del Fresno

Ayudante de Plaza
Eloy Moure

Fr. Balaguer's text, January 1897

Me declaro catolica y en esta Religion en que naci y me eduque quiero vivir y morir. Me retracto de todo corazon de cuanto en mis palabras, escritos, inpresos y conducta ha habido contrario a mi calidad de hijo de la Iglesia. Creo y profeso cuanto ella enseña y me somento a cuanto Ella manda. Abomino de la Masonaria, como enigma que es de la Iglesia, y como Sociedad prohibida por la misma Iglesia.

Puede el Prelado diocesano, como Autoridad superior eclesiastica hacer publica esta manifastacion espontanea mia, para reparar el escandalo que mis actos hayan podido causar, y para que Dios y los hombers me perdonen.

Manila, 29 de Diciembre de

1896-Jose Rizal

Analysis Rizal's Retraction
At least four texts of Rizal’s retraction have surfaced. The fourth text appeared in El Imparcial on the day after Rizal’s execution; it is the short formula of the retraction.

The first text was published in La Voz Española and Diaro de Manila on the very day of Rizal’s execution, Dec. 30, 1896. The second text appeared in Barcelona, Spain, on February 14, 1897, in the fortnightly magazine in La Juventud; it came from an anonymous writer who revealed himself fourteen years later as Fr. Balaguer. The "original" text was discovered in the archdiocesan archives on May 18, 1935, after it disappeared for thirty-nine years from the afternoon of the day when Rizal was shot.

We know not that reproductions of the lost original had been made by a copyist who could imitate Rizal’s handwriting. This fact is revealed by Fr. Balaguer himself who, in his letter to his former superior Fr. Pio Pi in 1910, said that he had received "an exact copy of the retraction written and signed by Rizal. The handwriting of this copy I don’t know nor do I remember whose it is. . ." He proceeded: "I even suspect that it might have been written by Rizal himself. I am sending it to you that you may . . . verify whether it might be of Rizal himself . . . ." Fr. Pi was not able to verify it in his sworn statement.

This "exact" copy had been received by Fr. Balaguer in the evening immediately preceding Rizal’s execution, Rizal y su Obra, and was followed by Sr. W. Retana in his biography of Rizal, Vida y Escritos del Jose Rizal with the addition of the names of the witnesses taken from the texts of the retraction in the Manila newspapers. Fr. Pi’s copy of Rizal’s retraction has the same text as that of Fr. Balaguer’s "exact" copy but follows the paragraphing of the texts of Rizal’s retraction in the Manila newspapers.

Regarding the "original" text, no one claimed to have seen it, except the publishers of La Voz Espanola. That newspaper reported: "Still more; we have seen and read his (Rizal’s) own hand-written retraction which he sent to our dear and venerable Archbishop…" On the other hand, Manila pharmacist F. Stahl wrote in a letter: "besides, nobody has seen this written declaration, in spite of the fact that quite a number of people would want to see it. "For example, not only Rizal’s family but also the correspondents in Manila of the newspapers in Madrid, Don Manuel Alhama of El Imparcial and Sr. Santiago Mataix of El Heraldo, were not able to see the hand-written retraction.

Neither Fr. Pi nor His Grace the Archbishop ascertained whether Rizal himself was the one who wrote and signed the retraction. (Ascertaining the document was necessary because it was possible for one who could imitate Rizal’s handwriting aforesaid holograph; and keeping a copy of the same for our archives, I myself delivered it personally that the same morning to His Grace Archbishop… His Grace testified: At once the undersigned entrusted this holograph to Rev. Thomas Gonzales Feijoo, secretary of the Chancery." After that, the documents could not be seen by those who wanted to examine it and was finally considered lost after efforts to look for it proved futile.

On May 18, 1935, the lost "original" document of Rizal’s retraction was discovered by the archdeocean archivist Fr. Manuel Garcia, C.M. The discovery, instead of ending doubts about Rizal’s retraction, has in fact encouraged it because the newly discovered text retraction differs significantly from the text found in the Jesuits’ and the Archbishop’s copies. And, the fact that the texts of the retraction which appeared in the Manila newspapers could be shown to be the exact copies of the "original" but only imitations of it. This means that the friars who controlled the press in Manila (for example, La Voz Española) had the "original" while the Jesuits had only the imitations.

We now proceed to show the significant differences between the "original" and the Manila newspapers texts of the retraction on the one hand and the text s of the copies of Fr. Balaguer and F5r. Pio Pi on the other hand.

First, instead of the words "mi cualidad" (with "u") which appear in the original and the newspaper texts, the Jesuits’ copies have "mi calidad" (with "u").

Second, the Jesuits’ copies of the retraction omit the word "Catolica" after the first "Iglesias" which are found in the original and the newspaper texts.

Third, the Jesuits’ copies of the retraction add before the third "Iglesias" the word "misma" which is not found in the original and the newspaper texts of the retraction.

Fourth, with regards to paragraphing which immediately strikes the eye of the critical reader, Fr. Balaguer’s text does not begin the second paragraph until the fifth sentences while the original and the newspaper copies start the second paragraph immediately with the second sentences.

Fifth, whereas the texts of the retraction in the original and in the manila newspapers have only four commas, the text of Fr. Balaguer’s copy has eleven commas.

Sixth, the most important of all, Fr. Balaguer’s copy did not have the names of the witnesses from the texts of the newspapers in Manila.

In his notarized testimony twenty years later, Fr. Balaguer finally named the witnesses. He said "This . . .retraction was signed together with Dr. Rizal by Señor Fresno, Chief of the Picket, and Señor Moure, Adjutant of the Plaza." However, the proceeding quotation only proves itself to be an addition to the original. Moreover, in his letter to Fr. Pi in 1910, Fr. Balaguer said that he had the "exact" copy of the retraction, which was signed by Rizal, but her made no mention of the witnesses. In his accounts too, no witnesses signed the retraction.

How did Fr. Balaguer obtain his copy of Rizal’s retraction? Fr. Balaguer never alluded to having himself made a copy of the retraction although he claimed that the Archbishop prepared a long formula of the retraction and Fr. Pi a short formula. In Fr. Balaguer’s earliest account, it is not yet clear whether Fr. Balaguer was using the long formula of nor no formula in dictating to Rizal what to write. According to Fr. Pi, in his own account of Rizal’s conversion in 1909, Fr. Balaguer dictated from Fr. Pi’s short formula previously approved by the Archbishop. In his letter to Fr. Pi in 1910, Fr. Balaguer admitted that he dictated to Rizal the short formula prepared by Fr. Pi; however; he contradicts himself when he revealed that the "exact" copy came from the Archbishop. The only copy, which Fr. Balaguer wrote, is the one that appeared ion his earliest account of Rizal’s retraction.

Where did Fr. Balaguer’s "exact" copy come from? We do not need long arguments to answer this question, because Fr. Balaguer himself has unwittingly answered this question. He said in his letter to Fr. Pi in 1910:

"…I preserved in my keeping and am sending to you the original texts of the two formulas of retraction, which they (You) gave me; that from you and that of the Archbishop, and the first with the changes which they (that is, you) made; and the other the exact copy of the retraction written and signed by Rizal. The handwriting of this copy I don’t know nor do I remember whose it is, and I even suspect that it might have been written by Rizal himself."

In his own word quoted above, Fr. Balaguer said that he received two original texts of the retraction. The first, which came from Fr. Pi, contained "the changes which You (Fr. Pi) made"; the other, which is "that of the Archbishop" was "the exact copy of the retraction written and signed by Rizal" (underscoring supplied). Fr. Balaguer said that the "exact copy" was "written and signed by Rizal" but he did not say "written and signed by Rizal and himself" (the absence of the reflexive pronoun "himself" could mean that another person-the copyist-did not). He only "suspected" that "Rizal himself" much as Fr. Balaguer did "not know nor ... remember" whose handwriting it was.

Thus, according to Fr. Balaguer, the "exact copy" came from the Archbishop! He called it "exact" because, not having seen the original himself, he was made to believe that it was the one that faithfully reproduced the original in comparison to that of Fr. Pi in which "changes" (that is, where deviated from the "exact" copy) had been made. Actually, the difference between that of the Archbishop (the "exact" copy) and that of Fr. Pi (with "changes") is that the latter was "shorter" be cause it omitted certain phrases found in the former so that, as Fr. Pi had fervently hoped, Rizal would sign it.

According to Fr. Pi, Rizal rejected the long formula so that Fr. Balaguer had to dictate from the short formula of Fr. Pi. Allegedly, Rizal wrote down what was dictated to him but he insisted on adding the phrases "in which I was born and educated" and "[Masonary]" as the enemy that is of the Church" – the first of which Rizal would have regarded as unnecessary and the second as downright contrary to his spirit. However, what actually would have happened, if we are to believe the fictitious account, was that Rizal’s addition of the phrases was the retoration of the phrases found in the original which had been omitted in Fr. Pi’s short formula.

The "exact" copy was shown to the military men guarding in Fort Santiago to convince them that Rizal had retracted. Someone read it aloud in the hearing of Capt. Dominguez, who claimed in his "Notes’ that Rizal read aloud his retraction. However, his copy of the retraction proved him wrong because its text (with "u") and omits the word "Catolica" as in Fr. Balaguer’s copy but which are not the case in the original. Capt. Dominguez never claimed to have seen the retraction: he only "heard".

The truth is that, almost two years before his execution, Rizal had written a retraction in Dapitan. Very early in 1895, Josephine Bracken came to Dapitan with her adopted father who wanted to be cured of his blindness by Dr. Rizal; their guide was Manuela Orlac, who was agent and a mistress of a friar. Rizal fell in love with Josephine and wanted to marry her canonically but he was required to sign a profession of faith and to write retraction, which had to be approved by the Bishop of Cebu. "Spanish law had established civil marriage in the Philippines," Prof. Craig wrote, but the local government had not provided any way for people to avail themselves of the right..."

In order to marry Josephine, Rizal wrote with the help of a priest a form of retraction to be approved by the Bishop of Cebu. This incident was revealed by Fr. Antonio Obach to his friend Prof. Austin Craig who wrote down in 1912 what the priest had told him; "The document (the retraction), inclosed with the priest’s letter, was ready for the mail when Rizal came hurrying I to reclaim it." Rizal realized (perhaps, rather late) that he had written and given to a priest what the friars had been trying by all means to get from him.

Neither the Archbishop nor Fr. Pi saw the original document of retraction. What they was saw a copy done by one who could imitate Rizal’s handwriting while the original (almost eaten by termites) was kept by some friars. Both the Archbishop and Fr. Pi acted innocently because they did not distinguish between the genuine and the imitation of Rizal’s handwriting.

As for this moment, the question is still remains to be a controversy. As for my opinion Rizal never reall y retracted for Rizal has his dignity and the answer will be found on his novels. As for the matter of Josephine Bracken, in the marriage contract it never appeared that Josephine Bracken was a widow. It only shows that Rizal and her never got married. We don't need to question if he really retracted, for his novels obviously answered it all.

References:
www.joserizal.ph
en.wikipedia.org
Gregorio F. Zaide and Sonia M. Zaide. Life, Works, and Writings of a Genius, Writer, Scientisty, and National Hero, 2nd Edition.

Learnie R. Tabones said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Learnie R. Tabones said...

Learnie R. Tabones
BSIOP III-3
Rizal
Tuesday & Friday 9:00-10:30
“ The Indolence of the Filipinos”

Under the “progreso de filipinas”, Doctor Sanciano has taken up this question, and he calls it “agitated”. The very same spanish authorities they rely on facts and reports furnished they ruled our country to demonstrate such indolence does not exist and they says that does not deserve a passing choice or even a reply. Not only by government employees who make it responsible for their own shortcomings and not only by the friars who regard as necessary and they may continue their indispensable in order to represent themselves on that matter.
Telling the truth is one factor to serve our country and we should be calmly examine the facts using on our part all the impartiality of a man which is capable to canvinced that there is no redemption except upon solid bases virtue. The greatly misused of the word “indolence” in the sense of little love for work and lack of energy. In the middle ages, or even in some Catholic countries now, they blamed for everything that superstitions folk is the devil.
In our country one’s and another’s faults, the shortcomings of one is the misdeeds of another so that indolence are attributed. Many people who are interested to state it as a dogma and it is a ridiculous superstition that’s why the consequence is misused, and the life of our country, we believe that indolence does exist. We all know of no one who studied its causes.
We must not take the exception for the general rule; we should rather seek the good of our country by stating what we believe to be true.

References:
Jose Rizal: Life, Works and writings of a Genius, writer, scientist and national hero (second edition) by Gregorio F. Zaide,Ph.D. and Sonia M. Zaide,Ph.D.

unni lea said...

Anna Leah N. Gantala
BSIOP III-3
Rizal
March 28,2008
"Radical Rizal"

Ang report na naiatas sa aming grupo ay tungkol sa pagiging radical ni Jose Rizal Ano nga ba ang ibig sabihin ng RADICAL?.Base sa aking nabasa sa diksyunaryo,” Radical means one who advocates fundamental or revolutionary changes in current practices, conditions, or institutions: radicals seeking to overthrow the social order”.

Base sa kuhulugan na ibinigay masasabing nga ba nating radikal si Jose Rizal? Ayon kay Floro Quibuyen sa kanyang akdang “A Nation Aborted”, si Rizal ay isang radikal, anti-statist, at hindi basta repormista lamang. At si Saul Alinsky ay nagsabi ring isang radikal si Rizal batay sa akdang ginawa niya na “Rules for Radical”.

Quibuyen: Radikal si Rizal

Paano nasabi ni Quibuyen na radikal nga si Rizal? Una, tignan muna natin kung ano ang mithiin ni Rizal: isang bayan na buo, ethical community, a nation without borders. Pero upang makamit ito, hindi kinakailangan ng dahas na kung saan ang mga alipin ng kasalukuyan ay magiging tirano ng kinabukasan. Matatandaan na sinabi ito ni Jose Rizal kay Dr. Pio Valenzuela nang dalawin siya nito noong siyang nasa Dapitan. Aniya, hindi pa iyan ang sagot sa ating problema, dahil hindi pa kayo handa – kailangan ninyo ng armas upang lumaban at kailangan ng kahandaan sa anumang pakikipaglaban. Mula rito, masasabi natin na hindi sa ayaw ni Rizal sa rebolusyon, hindi dahil sa sinabi niya na ayaw niya ng dahas ay ayaw na niya sa rebolusyon. Ayaw niya na maglunsad sa rebolusyon nang hindi pa handa. Malaki ang pagkakaiba ng dalawang bagay na ito, at kung ating iisipin, kung talagang ayaw ni Rizal sa rebolusyon, bakit niya papayuhan si Valenzuela tungkol sa magagawa nila upang paunlarin ang binabalak nilang rebolusyon? At kung ating papansinin, ang tema na pumapaimbulog sa kabuuan ng Noli at El Fili ay ang kaisipan na ang mga taong pinagkaitan ng lahat at pinagmamalupitan pa ng labis ay maaaring magkawatak-watak at tuluyang mapipi ng lipunan, subalit kung nanaisin maaari silang magsama-sama sa pakikibaka nang sa ganoon ay mabuo ang isang nasyon na kikilalanin nating sariling atin.


Alinsky: Tawaging Radikal si Rizal.
Ayon kay Alinsky, ang isang radikal ay may sumusunod na katangian:
RADICAL;
- unique person & actually believes in what he says
- concerns àgood: greatest personal value
- genuinely & completely believes in mankind
- shares pain, injustices & sufferings of others
- every man’s struggle: his fight
- demo: working from bottom up
- human rights above: property rights
- kakayahan ng tao na kumpleto
- in constant conflict
- person out of symbols represents ideas or interest
- creative person
Kung ating isa-isahin ang deskripsyon ni Alinsky sa itaas, masasabi nating RADIKAL nga si Jose Rizal. Una, nais ng isang radikal na mabago ang kasalukuyan na kalagayan at rebelyon ang pamamaraan dito. Nais ni Rizal ng pagbabago (at yan ang isang pangunahing usapin na nangingibabaw sa kanyang dalawang nobela), at bagaman hindi niya tuwirang ipinahayag kay Valenzuela, sang ayon si Rizal sa rebolusyon subalit hindi sa rebolusyon na madugo, at lalong hindi sa rebolusyon na walang kahandaan. Ikalawa, ang isang radikal ay handang ialay ang kanyang buhay sa kanyang ipinaglalaban. Marami siguro ang magsasabi na kung hindi siguro namatay si Rizal ng maaga malamang ay hindi siya naging bayani. Subalit dapat din naman nating tignan ang naging takbo ng buhay niya, lagi siyang nasa bingit ng kamatayan kaya nga hindi siya makauwi-uwi ng basta-basta dito sa Pilipinas. At kung nais niyang takbuhan ang kamatayan, gagawi ba naman niya ang dalawang nobelang siguradong magiging mitsa ng kanyang buhay? Ikatlo, pinapahalagahan niya ang buhay ng mas nakararami. Makikita ito sa dahilan ni Rizal kung bakit niya ginagawa ang historical research at kung ano ang konsepto niya ng national sentiment. Makikita rin ito sa mga sulatin niya gaya ng The Indolence of the Filipino People at sa kanyang tula na Sa Aking mga Kababata. Sa pahayag naman na ang isang radikal ay dapat pinahahalagahan ang karapatang pantao kaysa sa karapatang mag-ari, dapat nating isipin na pareho itong pinaglalaban ni Rizal, hindi dahil kabilang siya sa “have little, want more” (ito ang social class na kung saan nagnanais sila ng pagbabago ngunit hindi para sa lahat kundi para sa kanila, upang paunlarin pa kung ano ang meron sa kanila, subalit ito rin ang class na hindi kumikilos o nagko-commit sila para sa social change (justice, equality and opportunity) pero hindi sila nakikisali sa malawakang pagkilos) na pagkakategorya ni Alinsky, bagkus kailangan ng kalipunan ng makikibaka ng pag-aari upang mailunsad ang rebolusyon, dahil kung hindi lalo silang madedehado sa kalaban. At isa pa, ang karapatang mag-ari ay isa rin namang karapatang pantao na siya ring ipinaglalaban ni Rizal at gayundin si Bonifacio.

TUNAY NGANG RADIKAL SI RIZAL
Base sa pag-aaral ni Quibuyen at sa pagkakategorya ni Alinsky sa kung ano ang katangian ng isang radikal, mahihinuha natin na si Rizal nga ay isang radikal. Radikal siya sapagkat, ninais niyang baguhin ang kasalukuyang kalagayan ng mga Indio, sumama siya sa pagkilos (sa pamamagitan ng pagsusulat o literary war) laban sa mga kolonyalista at inilay niya ang buhay sa pakikibaka. At ano man ang kanyang sinasabi o di kaya’y isinusulat ay isinasagawa niya ito ng may integridad at pinahahalagahan niya ang kabutihan para sa nakararami, nakikisalamuha siya’t nakikihati sa dalamhati ng mga inaapi (masa) at higit sa lahat hindi siya natatakot na kwestiyunin ang anumang umiiral na ideolohiya o dogma kahit pa nga ang kabangga niya’y diyos (o alagad ng Diyos) o kahit na buhay pa niya ang kapalit nito.

References:
A Nation Aborted: Rizal, American Hegemony and Philippine Nationalism by Floro QUIBUYEN

Rules for Radical by Saul D. Alinsky

Learnie R. Tabones said...

Maam ito po ung continuation nung sa report ko na THE INDOLENCE OF THE FILIPINOS.

* We think that there must be something behind all this outcry, for it is incredible that so many should err, among whom we have said there are a lot of serious and disinterested persons. Some act in bad faith, through levity, through want of sound judgement, through limitation in reasoning power, ignorance of the past, lor other cause. Some repeat what they have heard, without examination or reflection; others speak through pessimism or are impelled by that human characteristics which paints as perfect everything that belongs to oneself and defective whatever belongs to another.

The Filipinos, who can measure up with the most active peoples in the world, will doubtless not repudiate his admission, for it is true there one works and struggles against the climate. We must confess that indolence does actually and positively exist there, only that, instead of holding it to be the cause of the backwardness and the trouble, we regard it as the effect of the trouble and the backwardness, by fostering the development of a lamentable predisposition.

The fact is that in tropical countries violent work is not a good thing as it is in cold countries, there it is death, destruction, annihilation. Without speaking further of the Europeans in what violent labor does the Chinaman engage in tropical countries, the industrious Chinaman, who flees from his own country driven by hunger and whose whole ambition is to amass a small fortune. With the exeption of some porters, an occupation that the natives also follow, he nearly always engages in the trade, in commerce; so rarely does he take up agriculture that we do not know of a single case.

ana albert said...

Ana Albert M. Gregana
BSIOP III-3
Rizal
TUE/FRI 9:00-10:30am
NOVELS: "Noli Me Tangere, El Filibusterismo vs. Uncle Tom's Cabin and The Count of Monte Cristo"

Ang pagsulat ni Rizal ng Noli Me Tangere ay bunga ng kanyang pagbasa ng "Uncle Tom's Cabin" ni Harriet Beacher Stowe. Ang Uncle Tom's ay tungkol sa kalupitan na sinapit ng mga Negro sa ilalim ng mga Amerikano. inihalintulad niya ito sa kapalarang idinulot ng mga Kastila sa ating mga Pilipino at kanila ring kalupitan. Sa pagsulat niya sa matalik na kaibigang si Dr. Ferdinand Blumentritt, ipinaliwanag niya ng mga dahilan ng kanyang pagsulat sa Noli. ang pagsulat niya ng Noli Me Tangere ay hango din sa ebanghelyo ni San Juan Bautista. itinulad niya ito sa isang bulok na lipunan na nagpapahirap sa buhay ng tao.

ang nobela naman ni Rizal na "El Filibusterismo" ay naimpluwensiyahan ng kanyang pagbabasa sa nobelang isinulat ni Alexandre Dumas na "The Count Of Monte Cristo". Ang nobela ni Dumas ay may mga temang PAG-ASA, HUSTISYA, PAGHIHIGANTI, PAGKA-AWA, at PAGPAPATAWAD. sa ikalawang nobela ni Rizal na El Fili, gumamit din siya ng mga nabanggit na tema. si Crisostomo Ibarra na bida ng Noli ay nagbalik dito bilang si Simoun,isang rich jeweller, ay nagbalik upang paghiganti sa betrayal na kanyang sinapit at para kuhaning muli ang kanyang kasintahang si Maria Clara.

reference: www.google.ph

ana albert said...

Ana Albert M. Gregana
BSIOP III-3
Rizal
TUE/FRI 9:00-10:30am
NOVELS: "Noli Me Tangere, El Filibusterismo vs. Uncle Tom's Cabin and The Count of Monte Cristo"

Ang pagsulat ni Rizal ng Noli Me Tangere ay bunga ng kanyang pagbasa ng "Uncle Tom's Cabin" ni Harriet Beacher Stowe. Ang Uncle Tom's ay tungkol sa kalupitan na sinapit ng mga Negro sa ilalim ng mga Amerikano. inihalintulad niya ito sa kapalarang idinulot ng mga Kastila sa ating mga Pilipino at kanila ring kalupitan. Sa pagsulat niya sa matalik na kaibigang si Dr. Ferdinand Blumentritt, ipinaliwanag niya ng mga dahilan ng kanyang pagsulat sa Noli. ang pagsulat niya ng Noli Me Tangere ay hango din sa ebanghelyo ni San Juan Bautista. itinulad niya ito sa isang bulok na lipunan na nagpapahirap sa buhay ng tao.

ang nobela naman ni Rizal na "El Filibusterismo" ay naimpluwensiyahan ng kanyang pagbabasa sa nobelang isinulat ni Alexandre Dumas na "The Count Of Monte Cristo". Ang nobela ni Dumas ay may mga temang PAG-ASA, HUSTISYA, PAGHIHIGANTI, PAGKA-AWA, at PAGPAPATAWAD. sa ikalawang nobela ni Rizal na El Fili, gumamit din siya ng mga nabanggit na tema. si Crisostomo Ibarra na bida ng Noli ay nagbalik dito bilang si Simoun,isang rich jeweller, ay nagbalik upang paghiganti sa betrayal na kanyang sinapit at para kuhaning muli ang kanyang kasintahang si Maria Clara.

reference: www.google.ph

glades s. guamos said...

Glades S. Guamos
BSIOP III-3
Rizal
TUESDAY AND FRIDAY 9:00-10:30am
"THE INDOLENCE OF THE FILIPINO" by JOSE RIZAL

The Indolence of The Filipinos is an essay written by Dr. Jose Rizal as an article in the La Solidaridad in 1891. It is a self- defense against the hatred and calumnies of the oppressors who condemn the Filipinos as inert, unresponsive and useless, the workers as unskilled, untrained, misguided, irresponsibly haughty, intoxicated with show, romp and glory, and unconcerned with the intrinsic value of work. I would like to react to some of Dr. Rizal’s points which gave credibility to his work.

Chapter I
Rizal admits that indolence does exist among the Filipinos, but it cannot be attributed to the troubles and backwardness of the country; rather it is the effect of the backwardness and troubles experienced by the country. Past writings on indolence revolve only on either denying or affirming, and never studying its causes in depth. One must study the causes of indolence, Rizal says, before curing it. He therefore enumerates the causes of indolence and elaborates on the circumstances that have led to it. The hot climate, he points out, is a reasonable predisposition for indolence. Filipinos cannot be compared to Europeans, who live in cold countries and who must exert much more effort at work. An hour ' s work under the Philippine sun, he says, is equivalent to a day ' s work in temperate regions.

Chapter II
Rizal says that an illness will worsen if the wrong treatment is given. The same applies to indolence. People, however, should not lose hope in fighting indolence. Even before the Spaniards arrived, Rizal argues, the early Filipinos were already carrying out trade within provinces and with other neighboring countries; they were also engaged in agriculture and mining; some natives even spoke Spanish. All this disproves the notion that Filipinos are by nature indolent. Rizal ends by asking what then would have caused Filipinos to forget their past.

Chapter III
Rizal enumerates several reasons that may have caused the Filipinos ' cultural and economic decadence. The frequent wars, insurrections, and invasions have brought disorder to the communities. Chaos has been widespread, and destruction rampant. Many Filipinos have also been sent abroad to fight wars for Spain or for expeditions. As a result, the population has decreased in number. As forced labor, many men have been sent to shipyards to construct vessels. Meanwhile, natives who have had enough of abuse have gone to the mountains. As a result, the farms have been neglected. The so-called indolence of Filipinos definitely has deeply rooted causes.

Chapter IV
Filipinos, according to Rizal, are not responsible for their misfortunes, as they are not their own masters. The Spanish government has not encouraged labor and trade, which ceased after the government treated the country ' s neighboring trade partners with great suspicion. Trade has declined, furthermore, because of pirate attacks and the many restrictions imposed by the government, which gives no aid for crops and farmers. This and the abuse suffered under encomenderos have caused many to abandon the fields. Businesses are monopolized by many government officials, red tape and bribery operate on a wide scale, rampant gambling is tolerated by the government. This situation is compounded by the Church ' s wrong doctrine which holds that the rich will not go to heaven, thus engendering a wrong attitude toward work. There has also been discrimination in education against natives. These are some of the main reasons that Rizal cites as causing the deterioration of values among the Filipinos.

Chapter V
According to Rizal, all the causes of indolence can be reduced to two factors. The first factor is the limited training and education Filipino natives receive. Segregated from Spaniards, Filipinos do not receive the same opportunities that are available to the foreigners. They are taught to be inferior. The second factor is the lack of a national sentiment of unity among them. Because Filipinos think they are inferior, they submit to the foreign culture and do everything to imitate it. The solution, according to Rizal, would be education and liberty.


www.google.com
http://www.radessays.com
http://www.filipiniana.net

michael serrano said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
michael serrano said...

Michael Serrano
BSM I-2
HS100
MTH 10:30-12
Nasyonalismo

Ang nasyonalismo ay karaniwan nang ilarawan bilang isang marubdob at mataas na pag-ibig sa bayang sinilangan. Sa kasaysayan ng isang bansa ang pagkabuo ng ganitong damdamin ay kaalinsabay ng masidhing hangaring magkabuklud-buklod at maging Malaya sa pakikialam ng mga dayuhang lakas. Ito ang nagsisilbing pangunahing hakbang sa paghubog ng pambansang kamalayan at sa pagtatampok ng angking kakanyahan at identidad ng bansa. Ang damdaming ito ay umuusbong sa kalooban ng mga taong nabubuhay sa isang tiyak na pamayanan, nagbubuklod ng isang sentimyentong hinubog ng iisang kasaysayan, wika, panitikan, pagpapahalaga, saloobin, tradisyon, pananaw, at relihiyon.

Sa punto ng kasaysayan ang konsepto ng nasyonalismo ay bungang Rebulusyong Pranses noong ika- 18 siglo at kumalat ito sa buong europa sa panahon ng pananakop ni Napoleon Bonaparte at naging malaganap sa buong mundo bilang reaksyon sa kolonyalismo.

Walang ganitong sentimyento ang mga Pilipino bago sumapit ang ika -19 siglo. Maraming mga salik ang nakabalang sa pag usbong ng nasyonalismong Pilipino. Subalit pagsapit ng ika- 19 siglo umusbong ang nasyonalismong Pilipino bunga ng iba’t – ibang salik.

Bago pa man sumipot ang mga edukadong sector ng lipunan na humiling ng mga pagbabago sa pamamalakad ng pamahalaang kastila ay ipinahayag na ni Francisco “Balagtas” Baltazar (1788-1862) ang kanyang pagkadismaya sa umiiral na pagmamalabis ng mga pinuno, ang kawalan ng katarungan at kalayaan. Inilalarawan niya ito sa kanyang florante at laura at sa iba pa niyang mga sinulat. Dahil sa kanyang sentimiyento at pagbubunyag ng karumihan ng lipunan tinagurian siyang kauna-unahang Pilipinong artista na may budhing makalipunan.

Ang unang kilusang pambansa laban sa diskriminasyon ng mga Pilipino ay ipinapahayag ng mga paring Pilipino sa isyu ng sekularisasyon. Ipnalalban nina Padre Pedro Palaez at nang lumao’y nina Padre Burgos, Gomez, Zamora ang karapatan ng mga paring Pilipino na mamahala sa mga parokya sa Pilipinas.

Maraming salik ang nakatulong sa pagkalinang ng nasyonalismong Pilipino noong ika-19 na siglo gay ang pagpasok sa bans ang liberalismo mula sa Europa; ang isyu ng sekulirisasyon; ang pagbubukas ng Kanal Suez noong 1869; ang Rebolusyon ng espanya noong 1868; ang pag –aalsasa Cavite noong1872 at ang pagkakabitay kina Padre Gomez, Burgos, at Zamora noong 1872.

Sinasabing pinapatay ng globalisasyon ang komunidad, nasyonalismo, relihiyon, espiritwal at etnisidad dahil kontra raw ito sa progreso. Ang ganitong paniniwala ay nagbibigay ng takot at hamon sa mga bansa at mga mamamayan nito kung kaya't lalo pang lumalakas ang nasyonalismo, relihiyon at pagsulong sa kultura at etnik na identidad. Maibibigay na halimbawa ang paglakas ng relihiyong Islam sa buong mundo sa kabila ng pagsulong sa sekularisasyon na isang tenet ng globalisasyon.

Nagkakaroon ng mga alternatibong musika sa mga bansa. Sa Pilipinas, naging matatag si Joey Ayala na igiit ang etnikong musika sa kanyang Bagong Lumad. Gayundin ang kontra Gapi ng UP at iba pang banda bilang tugon sa top 40 na musika sa radyo at telebisyon mula sa Amerika.

Sa kabila ng diaspora o migrasyon sa ibang bansa para manirahan at kumita, hinahanap at pinanatili pa rin ng Pinoy ang kanyang ugat sa pamamagitan ng mga kultural na programa sa Amerika, pagbabalikbayan, pagtatayo ng mga tindahang Pilipino sa ibang bansa na nagtitinda ng bagoong, patis, longganiza at panghalo sa sinigang, pagbubuo ng mga samahan ng mga Pilipino, pag-aaral ng Wikang Pilipino ng mga kabataang lumaki sa ibang bansa. Sa madaling salita, Pinoy pa rin. Koreano pa rin. Hapon pa rin sa kabila ng punk na buhok, at kasuotan at kakaibang pagkilos.

Ang ganitong tendensya ay sinasabing isang reaksyon sa mga diskriminasyon, kaguluhan, relasyong impersonal at indibidwalismong dala ng globalisasyon na nagbubunsod ng anomie at pakiramdam ng pagiging marginalized at alyenado.

Reaksyon din ito sa mga paghihirap ng mga bansang di-kanluran sa mga umiiral na pribatisyan, deregulasyon, import liberation na mga esensya ng ekonomik na globalisasyon.

Ito ang dahilan kung bakit dumadami ang mga nobela at kuwentong ipinapablis na tumatalakay sa mga katutubong kaugalian gaya ng Mystic Massuer ni V.S Naipaul, The Famished Road ni Ban Okri, Things Fall Apart ni Chinua Achebe at marami pang iba.Walang ibinigay na alternatibo ang globalisasyon sa pinapatay nitong mga tradisyon, relihiyon, espiritwalidad, komunidad at etnisidad.

Dulot ito ng paghahati sa mundo ng mayaman at mahirap, kaunlaran at di-kaunlaran, oriental at oksidental, North at South na nagbibigay sa mga tao ng pakiramdam na sila'y kabilang o kaya'y di kabilang, labas o di kaya'y nasa loob bunga ng layuning mabuo ang isang global na mundo na umaayon sa disenyo ng kanluran.

http://www.gov.ph/forum/thread.asp?rootID=7743&catID=6

Eunika Pilien said...

Eunika Jamailah C. Pilien
BSIOP III-3
Rizal
“The Indolence of the Filipinos”
Chapter I

This chapter shows how the Filipinos deal with their lifestyle. Way back then, Filipinos tend to be lazy and depend on something in which they can get money easily. Spaniards became one big reason or factor why Filipinos became lazy.

Some of the Filipinos who work on company easily leave their jobs when they feel that they are having a hard time. For them, it’s better to have small jobs and small earnings rather than work hard in a company from which they do not own.

When the Filipinos got influenced by Spaniards regarding Christianity, they became dependent on prayers thinking that God will do everything for them even without them, working hard. They wait for miracles to happen.

In spite of these things that are happening, the government should be the one to help them up build a brighter future. For an example, when disaster comes like typhoon, they should be the first one to extend help to the poor and needy, especially in our present time where we are encountering so many problems in our society and in our economy. Giving for jobs and livelihood programs the people is really a good offer. But in return, Filipinos should work hard to improve and develop their skills and especially grow as an individual.


SAUCO, CONSOLACION P.;TRIAS, ADELA M.;DELA VEGA, MARCIAL B.
"ANG PAMBANSANG BAYANI NG PILIPINAS",RIZAL. LAZ PINAS CITY.

Eunika Pilien said...

Eunika Jamailah C. Pilien
BSIOP III-3
Rizal
TUESDAY AND FRIDAY 9:00-10:30am
“The Indolence of the Filipinos”
Chapter IV

This chapter shows how the Filipinos deal with their lifestyle. Way back then, Filipinos tend to be lazy and depend on something in which they can get money easily. Spaniards became one big reason or factor why Filipinos became lazy.

Some of the Filipinos who work on company easily leave their jobs when they feel that they are having a hard time. For them, it’s better to have small jobs and small earnings rather than work hard in a company from which they do not own.

When the Filipinos got influenced by Spaniards regarding Christianity, they became dependent on prayers thinking that God will do everything for them even without them, working hard. They wait for miracles to happen.

In spite of these things that are happening, the government should be the one to help them up build a brighter future. For an example, when disaster comes like typhoon, they should be the first one to extend help to the poor and needy, especially in our present time where we are encountering so many problems in our society and in our economy. Giving for jobs and livelihood programs the people is really a good offer. But in return, Filipinos should work hard to improve and develop their skills and especially grow as an individual.


SAUCO, CONSOLACION P.;TRIAS, ADELA M.;DELA VEGA, MARCIAL B.
"ANG PAMBANSANG BAYANI NG PILIPINAS",RIZAL. LAZ PINAS CITY.

kresta marie said...

Kresta Marie O. Abuyan
BSND 2 – 1N
Philippine Literature
Wednesday 10:30 – 1:30
“American Period ( Poetry )”
AMERICAN PERIOD
( POETRY )
The American colonizers brought about new changes in Philippine literature. New literary forms such as:
• free verse in poetry
• the modern short story
• critical essay
American influence was deeply entrenched with the firm establishment of English as the medium of instruction in all schools and with literary modernism that highlighted the writer's individuality and cultivated consciousness of craft, sometimes at the expense of social consciousness.

FREE VERSE IN POETRY
- is a term describing various styles of poetry that are not written using strict meter or rhyme, but that still are recognizable as poetry by virtue of complex patterns of one sort or another that readers will perceive to be part of a coherent whole.

Jose Garcia Villa (National Artist for Literature), "Art for art's sake"
• to the chagrin of other writers more concerned with the utilitarian aspect of literature.

Angela Manalang Gloria, "seditious works"
• another maverick in poetry who used free verse and talked about illicit love in her poetry. A woman poet described as ahead of her time. Despite the threat of censorship by the new dispensation, more writers turned up and popular writing in the native languages bloomed through the weekly outlets like Liwayway and Bisaya.

Poetry in all languages continued to flourish in all regions of the country during the American period. Balagtasan is a debate in verse, a poetical joust done almost spontaneously between protagonists who debate over the pros and cons of an issue. The Tagalogs, hailing Francisco F. Balagtas as the nation’s foremost poet invented the balagtasan in his honor.

The Balagtas tradition persisted until the poet Alejandro G. Abadilla advocated modernism in poetry. Abadilla later influenced young poets who wrote modern verses in the 1960s such as Virgilio S. Almario, Pedro I. Ricarte and Rolando S. Tinio.


MODERN SHORT STORY
- The short story is a literary genre. It is usually fictional, prose narrative and tends to be more concise and to the point than longer works of fiction, such as novellas (in the modern sense of this term) and novels. Short stories have their origins in oral story-telling traditions and the prose anecdote, a swiftly-sketched situation that comes rapidly to its point. With the rise of the comparatively realistic novel, the short story evolved as a miniature
While the early Filipino poets grappled with the verities of the new language, Filipinos seemed to have taken easily to the modern short story as published in the Philippines Free Press, the College Folio and Philippines Herald.

Paz Marquez Benitez's "Dead Stars"
• was the first successful short story in English written by a Filipino. Later on, Arturo B. Rotor and Manuel E. Arguilla showed exceptional skills with the short story.
Lope K. Santos, Valeriano Hernandez Peña and Patricio Mariano were writing minimal narratives similar to the early Tagalog short fiction called dali or pasingaw (sketch).
The romantic tradition was fused with American pop culture or European influences in the adaptations of Edgar Rice Burroughs' Tarzan by F. P. Boquecosa who also penned Ang Palad ni Pepe after Charles Dicken's David Copperfield even as the realist tradition was kept alive in the novels by Lope K. Santos and Faustino Aguilar, among others.
It should be noted that if there was a dearth of the Filipino novel in English, the novel in the vernaculars continued to be written and serialized in weekly magazines like Liwayway, Bisaya, Hiligaynon and Bannawag.


CRITICAL ESSAY
- is a typically short piece of writing, from an author's personal point of view. Essays are non-fiction but often subjective; while expository, they can also include narrative. Essays can be literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author.
The essay in English became a potent medium from the 1920's to the present. Some leading essayists were journalists like Carlos P. Romulo, Jorge Bocobo, Pura Santillan Castrence, etc. who wrote formal to humorous to informal essays for the delectation by Filipinos.
Among those who wrote criticism developed during the American period were Ignacio Manlapaz, Leopoldo Yabes and I.V. Mallari. But it was Salvador P. Lopez's criticism that grabbed attention when he won the Commonwealth Literay Award for the essay in 1940 with his "Literature and Society." This essay posited that art must have substance and that Villa's adherence to "Art for Art's Sake" is decadent.
With Salvador P. Lopez, the essay in English gained the upper hand in day to day discourse on politics and governance. Polemicists who used to write in Spanish like Claro M. Recto, slowly started using English in the discussion of current events even as newspaper dailies moved away from Spanish reporting into English. Among the essayists, Federico Mangahas had an easy facility with the language and the essay as genre.

In 1936, when the Philippine Writers League was organized, Filipino writers in English began discussing the value of literature in society. Initiated and led by Salvador P. Lopez, whose essays on Literature and Society provoked debates, the discussion centered on proletarian literature, i.e., engaged or committed literature versus the art for art’s sake literary orientation. But this discussion curiously left out the issue of colonialism and colonial literature and the whole place of literary writing in English under a colonial set-up that was the Philippines then.
The last throes of American colonialism saw the flourishing of Philippine literature in English at the same time, with the introduction of the New Critical aesthetics, made writers pay close attention to craft and "indirectly engendered a disparaging attitude" towards vernacular writings -- a tension that would recur in the contemporary period.


http://www.ncca.gov.ph
http://www.seasite.niu.edu
http://en.wikipedia.org

agnes said...

Agnes M. Aguilar
BSND 2 -1N
PHIL LITERATURE
March 28, 2008
"THE PHILIPPINES UNDER JAPANESE OCCUPATION"


The Philippines involved in world war II because the US Military bases located on Davao, Tuguegarao, Iba, Tarlac and Pampanga.


The Japanese succeeded in penetrating Bataan's first line of defense and, from Corregidor, MacArthur had no alternative but to organize a slow and desperate retreat down the peninsula. President Quezon and Vice-President Osmena left Corregidor by submarine to form a government in exile in the United States. General MacArthur escaped Corregidor on the night of March 11, 1942 in PT-41 bound for Australia; 4,000 km away through Japanese controlled waters.


The 76,000 Filipino and American soldier who surrendered in Bataan underwent a terrible ordeal. They were forced by the Japanese to march from Mariveles Bataan to Capas Tarlac a distance of more than 100km under a broiling sun wiht little or no food and water. Thousands of Filipino and American prisioners of war died along the way, many of them brutally killed by Japanese guards. This was the infamous "Bataan Death March".

The 13,000 survivors on Corregidor surrendered on May 6, 1942.

The Japanese began to establish their authority in areas already under their control. they invited a group of prominent Filipino leaders to form a new government of the Philippines, but under the supervision and control of Japanese military authorities. A "Letter of Response" was signed by 32 Filipinos and sent to the Japanese Hig Command. In this letter, the signatories started that they would obey the orders of the Japanese "for the maintenance of peace and order and the promotion of the well being of our people.

After the receiving the "Letter of Response," the Japanese announced the formation of the Philippine Executive Commision to act as a temporary government of the Philippines.

The Japanese launched an intensive propaganda campaign to win the loyalty and support of the Filipinos. The mass media, controlled by the Japanese, extolled the virtues of Japan and her culture. the Japanese pictured themselves as the tru friends of the Filipinos while the Americans were the enemies. the Japanese Catholic priest wee sent to the Philippines to help promote the idea that Japan, being an Asian country, was a friend of all Asian peoples, including the Filipinos.

General MacArthur discharged his promise to return to the Philippines on October 20, 1944. The landings on the island of Leyte were accomplished massively with an amphibious force of 700 vessels and 174,000 army and navy servicemen. Through December 1944, the islands of Leyte and Mindoro were cleared of Japanese.
On January 9, 1945 the Americans landed unopposed at the Lingayen Gulf on Luzon and closed on Manila. The Japanese fought desperately, street by street, to hold the city. From February 3 to 23, its liberation took almost a month. When at last the fighting ended in the old Spanish citadel of Intramuros, Manila was in ruins.
Even after the capture of Manila, the Japanese fought on to the bitter end. The Americans made landings to remove the Japanese garrisons on Palawan, Mindanao, Panay and Cebu. The Japanese made their last stand entrenched in northern Luzon. General Yamashita, the Tiger of Malaya, did not surrender in Baguio until September 2, 1945; the same day as General Umezu surrendered formally for Japan on board the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay.

The liberation of the Philippines was costly. In the Philippines alone, the Americans lost 60,628 men and the Japanese an estimated 300,000. Filipino casualties are estimated at over a million and, sadly, these occurred mainly in the last months of the war when the final outcome had long been decided in any event.

The most serious long term consequence of World War II on the Philippines was to aggravate and embitter its internal social divisions. Prior to his departure for exile in the United States, President Quezon had advised Dr. Jose Laurel to stay behind and cooperate in the civil administration of the Japanese occupation. Whether it was good advice or not, President Quezon had hoped that with the cooperation of Filipinos, the occupation might be less severe. Following Laurel's morally ambiguous example, the Philippine elite, with regrettably few exceptions, collaborated extensively with the Japanese in their harsh exploitation of the country. President Laurel and his wartime government was despised.
On the contrary, the great majority of the Philippine people mounted a remarkably effective resistance to the Japanese occupation. Investigations after the war showed that 260,000 Filipinos had been actively engaged in guerrilla organizations and an even larger number operated covertly in the anti-Japanese underground. By the end of the war, the Japanese had effective control in only twelve of the country's forty-eight provinces.

The largest guerrilla organization was the Hukbalahap (People's Anti-Japanese Army) led by Luis Taruc. He had armed some 30,000 guerrillas who controlled most of Luzon.

By war's end, the members of the resistance firmly believed that the widespread collaboration and corruption of the well-to-do had discredited the ruling elite and that they had thereby forfeited any moral authority to govern.

There so many countries who wants to ruled and invaded Philippines but they failed because of our nationalism and unity of each Filipinos. I think if they treated us like a human and one of them mostly they are the one who ruled us until now but they not.

A History of Philippines by Alberto S. Abeleda Jr.

http://ourstiry.asial.comsg/war/ref/japocc.html
www.ualberta.ca/english?history/history-e2_3htm

Razel said...

Razel C. Madlangsakay
Janice G. Escame
Flerida O. Mabuna
Nina Gladys R. Billones
Ellaine Perez
Jonathan Llobrera
Chelsea Buen

BOA 1-10D

PHILIPPINE LITERATURE

Tue.-Fri. 10:30-12:00

SPANISH LITERATURE




I. INTRODUCTION
Spanish Literature, literature of Spain from about AD 1000 until the present, written in the Spanish language. Spanish literature does not include works in Spanish that originated in Latin America, the Philippines, or the United States. Spanish literature does include a number of works written by Spanish citizens living outside of Spain during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) or during the dictatorship of Francisco Franco from 1939 through 1975.
Geography has been an important factor in the development of Spanish literature. Located on the Iberian Peninsula at the southwestern corner of Europe, Spain long remained isolated from the rest of Europe. Trends in other European literatures, if they reached Spain, generally arrived after they had reached other parts of the continent. This isolation enabled Spain to develop its own distinctive literary voice.
Spain’s distinctive literary voice also resulted in part from its diverse population: a combination of groups from the Mediterranean region with rich cultural heritages. Arabs from northern Africa, Jews from the Middle East, and Christians from the Iberian Peninsula intermingled during Spain’s early literary period and created a unique blend of literary styles and subject matter. The influence of each group is evident in some of Spain’s most celebrated literary works, including El cantar de mío Cid (1140; The Song of the Cid) and Libro del Conde Lucanor (1323-1335; Book of Count Lucanor).
Spanish literature takes in many contradictions. It celebrates a combined heritage of Christian, Arabic, and Jewish influences that helped define Spanish culture and history, while at times conforming to the literary styles of European movements such as the Renaissance, romanticism, naturalism, realism, and modernism.
Several historical events significantly influenced Spanish literature. The first of these was the occupation of the Iberian Peninsula from 719 until the late 1400s by Arabic-speaking people from northern Africa known as Moors. The Moors introduced Spain to the Arabic language, the Islamic religion, and a social structure that encouraged academic study of the arts and mathematics. Ironically, the Moors’ presence in Spain also promoted the rise of Christian Spain. Christian kingdoms in the north of Spain gradually reconquered the peninsula and by the early 1500s made a single Spanish dialect, Castilian, the language of the unified land.
An important period in Spanish literature began in the 16th century when Spain, along with other European countries, experienced a burst of intellectual activity in literature, art, and philosophy known as the Renaissance. This creative outpouring led to the Golden Age of Spanish literature from the mid-16th century through the 17th century. During the Golden Age, writers such as Miguel de Cervantes, Tirso de Molina, and Lope de Vega addressed conflicting views of life often described as idealism and realism. Their efforts yielded popular (and sometimes comic) literary styles used for discussions of the universal themes of love, honor, disillusionment, and death.
During the 20th century, the Spanish Civil War and the rise of Franco profoundly influenced Spanish literature. From the late 1920s through the 1970s, authors, poets, and dramatists such as Federico García Lorca, Francisco Ayala, Camilo José Cela, and Carmen Laforet addressed political and societal issues of the time, including the brutality and horror of the civil war and its aftermath. Authors found themselves divided into two ideological camps—those who supported the fascist government of Franco and those who opposed it. By the end of the 20th century, Spanish writers once again could write without fear of censorship. A movement led by Esther Tusquets, Paloma Pedrero, Carme Riera, and other writers addressed the idea of literary creation itself and turned to newly permissible subject matter about the state of Spanish society.
II. THE EARLY PERIOD (1ST CENTURY THROUGH 10TH CENTURY)

Although the works that together make up Spanish literature were not written until after the 10th century, literature on the Iberian Peninsula and the Spanish language originated much earlier. Spanish is considered a Romance language, as are French, Italian, and other languages that developed from the Latin language spoken in the Roman Empire. During the Middle Ages, a number of distinct dialects appeared in Spain. Each is named after the region of the peninsula in which it was spoken—for example, Castilian in Castile and Aragonese in Aragon.
The language of Spain, like its literature, reflects the diversity of the land’s inhabitants and heritage. Sometime before the end of the 6th century BC, the region’s first inhabitants, the Iberians, began to mingle with the Celts, a nomadic people from central Europe. The two groups formed a people called Celtiberians, who spoke a form of Celtic. The literature of the Celtiberians of the southern part of the peninsula included epic poems and books of metrical laws, but it is now lost. Subsequent invasions by various groups, including Carthaginians in the 3rd century BC, added words to the Celtiberian language.
Under Roman Rule
In 206 BC the Romans captured the Carthaginian capital of Gadir (present-day Cádiz). After driving out the Carthaginians, the Romans began to subdue the native inhabitants, and by 19 BC they had completed their conquest of the peninsula. Under Roman rule the region became known as Hispania, and its inhabitants learned Latin from Roman traders, settlers, administrators, and soldiers. Cities in both the south and north became great centers of Latin civilization. Although many scholars still debate whether it is “Spanish,” a Hispano-Latin literature was written in Latin by people born in Hispania. Some of the most important writers during the 1st century AD (a period known as the Silver Age of Latin literature) were Mela, who wrote the first Latin geography of the Mediterranean world; Columella, whose 12-volume work in prose and verse, De re rustica (On Agriculture), written in about AD 50, is the most complete treatise on agriculture of ancient times; Lucan, whose epic poem Pharsalia narrates the war between Julius Caesar and Pompey; Quintilian, who wrote a 12-volume work on the education of orators; and Martial, whose lively and satiric poetry and epigrams depict Roman life and customs of his age. The two greatest figures of Hispano-Roman letters were members of the Seneca family from Córdoba. The first, Marcus Annaeus Seneca, was known for his oratory and for his political writings. His son, Lucius Annaeus Seneca, also skilled in politics and oratory, became even more famous as a Roman senator, tutor of the emperor Nero, and author of three dramatic tragedies: Medea, The Trojan Women, and Agamemnon. His Moral Essays gives concrete examples for the practice of Stoic philosophy.
The Visigoths
The Visigoths, Germanic tribes of eastern Europe, invaded Roman Spain in the 5th century AD. During the time that the Visigoths controlled Spain, from the 5th to the 8th century, Latin was the official language of government and culture. The Visigoths had belonged to a Christian sect called Arianism at the time they entered Spain, but by the end of the 6th century most had been converted to Roman Catholicism by Saint Isidore of Seville. Isidore was the most important intellectual figure in Spain during the Visigoth period, and his Historia de regibus Gothorum, Vandalorum, et Suevorum (History of the Kings of the Goths, Vandals, and Suevi) is the principal source of information about these early groups. He also wrote several works dealing with religious education and a description of the Earth and the universe in De rerum natura (On the Nature of Things), an attempt to capture universal history. His most famous work, however, is Etymologiae, an encyclopedia in 20 volumes that contains definitions of words and names, as well as information on topics such as grammar, mathematics, geometry, medicine, law, languages, the military arts, and music. The Etymologiae was a favorite textbook for students during the Middle Ages, and it remained a standard reference book for centuries.

The Moors
When the Moors invaded Spain in AD 711 they brought with them an established language, religion, and social and political structure. They built numerous Muslim universities where the study of medicine, mathematics, philosophy, and literature flourished. The work of ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, for example, was studied in Spain long before it became well known in the rest of Europe. An extensive literature developed partly because Moorish caliphs (rulers) themselves were poets and authors of note. Art and architecture also thrived. Writers include Ibn Hazm, author of the 11th-century poem Tawq al-hamama (The Dove’s Neckring); Ibn al-Arabi, an interpreter of Islam’s conservative, mystic Sufi sect; and Averroës, a physician, jurist, and philosopher.
A sizable Jewish population appeared in Spain during the early Middle Ages, bringing commercial, administrative, intellectual, and artistic talents. The mixture of Christians, Arabs, and Jews on the peninsula produced an unstable but highly creative literary environment. Religion, society, and politics were the subjects for each group’s literary works. One of the best-known non-Moorish authors of this period was Maimonides, a Spanish-born Jewish physician and thinker. His works include the Mishneh Torah (1170-1180), a 14-volume book on Jewish law written in Hebrew, and Guide for the Perplexed, a work written in Arabic around 1190.

III. TOWARD A NATIONAL LITERATURE (11TH CENTURY TO 15TH CENTURY)
Under the Moors, Toledo had become a cultural center, where Arab, Hebrew, and Christian scholars translated the important works of Islamic and ancient Greek culture into Latin. These works concerned the areas of philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, mineralogy, medicine, and geometry. When the Christian reconquest of the peninsula began in the 11th century, Toledo became a strategic objective for forces led by the king of Castile, Alfonso VI, who was a descendent of Visigoths. Alfonso captured Toledo in 1085, and the Muslim School of Translators came under Christian custody. The tradition of learning in Toledo continued under Alfonso, and Christian scholars from elsewhere in Europe also joined activities at the school. The school’s activities strengthened the development of a national language and literature.
The gradual retaking of Spain by the Christians proved to be not only political, military, and religious, but linguistic as well. Over the years, as Christians from the north slowly reconquered Spain, the Spanish dialects of northern Spain, such as Castilian and Leonese, became dominant. These dialects slowly replaced Arabic and Mozarabic (a Romance language with many Arabic words) as the spoken languages. Writing in these northern dialects also became standard as Christian forces pushed the Moors farther and farther south during the 12th and early 13th centuries.




REFERENCE:

http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761575679_2/Spanish_Literature.html

Joyce Ann Osorio said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Joyce Ann Osorio said...

Group 6
Joyce Ann Osorio
Chiney Rose Eleria
Camille Angelique Lopez
Arichel Cabildo
Marianne Mejia
Madelaine Sophie Paje
Carmina Castro
Boa 1-10D
March 28, 2008
“JAPANESE PERIOD”


Japan withdrew from the League of Nations in 1935 after it had
virtually annexed the Islands into the Empire.
By 1936 a thriving fishing industry had developed as well as a
sugar industry which occupied 68 percent of the arable land on
Saipan, 80 percent on Tinian and 33 percent on Rota.
The resident population grew to 23,800 on Saipan (of which only
3,222 were originally from the islands); 1,530 on Tinian (25
Chamorros) and 5,600 on Rota (791 Chamorros).
By the time the dark clouds of war had gathered over the western
Pacific, some 29,692 Japanese military personnel were garrisoned
on Saipan.
The islands were assaulted by American forces on June 15, 1944
and one of the most hotly contested battles of the entire war was
fought on its sandy beaches and mountainous terrain. American
forces gained control of the island on July 1944 and the construction
of bases and airfields began.
It was from such airfield on Tinian that the first nuclear weapon was
dropped on Hiroshima by the B -29 aircraft Enola Gay hastening the
end of hostilities. The airfields on Tinian which in 1945 were the
busiest in the world are now largely abandoned.

Early Japan (until 710)

During the Jomon Period (13000 BC to 300 BC), the inhabitants of the Japanese islands were gatherers, fishers and hunters. Jomon is the name of the era's pottery.

During the Yayoi Period (300 BC to 300 AD), the rice culture was imported into Japan around 100 BC. With the introduction of agriculture, social classes started to evolve, and parts of the country began to unite under powerful land owners. Chinese travellers during the Han and Wei dynasties reported that a queen called Himiko (or Pimiku) reigned over Japan at that time. The Yayoi period brought also the introduction of iron and other modern ideas from Korea into Japan. Again, its pottery gave the period its name.

By the beginning of the Kofun Period (300 - 538), a center of power had developed in the fertile Kinai plain, and by about 400 AD the country was united as Yamato Japan with its political center in and around the province of Yamato (about today's Nara prefecture). The period's name comes from the large tombs (kofun) that were built for the political leaders of that era. Yamato Japan extended from Kyushu to the Kinai plain, but did not yet include the Kanto, Tohoku and Hokkaido.

The emperor was ruler of Yamato Japan and resided in a capital that was moved frequently from one city to another. However, the Soga clan soon took over the actual political power, resulting in the fact that most of the emperors only acted as the symbol of the state and performed Shinto rituals.

Due to friendly relations to the kingdom of Kudara (or Paikche) on the Korean peninsula, the influence from the mainland increased strongly. Buddhism was introduced to Japan in the year 538 or 552 and was promoted by the ruling class. Prince Shotoku is said to have played an especially important role in promoting Chinese ideas. He also wrote the Constitution of Seventeen Articles about moral and political principles. Also the theories of Confucianism and Taoism, as well as the Chinese writing system were introduced to Japan during the Yamato period.

In 645, Nakatomi no Kamatari started the era of the Fujiwara clan that was to last until the rise of the military class (samurai) in the 11th century. In the same year, the Taika reforms were realized: A new government and administrative system was established after the Chinese model. All land was bought by the state and redistributed equally among the farmers in a large land reform in order to introduce the new tax system that was also adopted from China.


Nara and Heian Periods (710 - 1185)

In the year 710, the first permanent Japanese capital was established in Nara, a city modelled after the Chinese capital. Large Buddhist monasteries were built in the new capital. The monasteries quickly gained such strong political influence that, in order to protect the position of the emperor and central government, the capital was moved to Nagaoka in 784, and finally to Heian (Kyoto) in 794 where it should remain for over one thousand years.

One characteristic of the Nara and Heian periods is a gradual decline of Chinese influence which, nevertheless, remained strong. Many of the imported ideas were gradually "Japanized". In order to meet particular Japanese needs, several governmental offices were established in addition to the government system which was copied after the Chinese model, for example. In the arts too, native Japanese movements became increasingly popular. The development of the Kana syllables made the creation of actual Japanese literature possible. Several new Buddhist sects that were imported from China during the Heian period, were also "Japanized".

Among the worst failures of the Taika reforms were the land and taxation reforms: High taxes resulted in the impoverishment of many farmers who then had to sell their properties and became tenants of larger land owners. Furthermore, many aristocrats and the Buddhist monasteries succeeded in achieving tax immunity. As a result, the state income decreased, and over the centuries, the political power steadily shifted from the central government to the large independent land owners.

The Fujiwara family controlled the political scene of the Heian period over several centuries through strategic intermarriages with the imperial family and by occupying all the important political offices in Kyoto and the major provinces. The power of the clan reached its peak with Fujiwara Michinaga in the year 1016. After Michinaga, however, the ability of the Fujiwara leaders began to decline, and public order could not be maintained. Many land owners hired samurai for the protection of their properties. That is how the military class became more and more influential, especially in Eastern Japan.

The Fujiwara supremacy came to an end in 1068 when the new emperor Go-Sanjo was determined to rule the country by himself, and the Fujiwara failed to control him. In the year 1086 Go-Sanjo abdicated but continued to rule from behind the political stage. This new form of government was called Insei government. Insei emperors exerted political power from 1086 until 1156 when Taira Kiyomori became the new leader of Japan.

In the 12th century, two military families with aristocratic backgrounds gained much power: the Minamoto (or Genji) and Taira (or Heike) families. The Taira replaced many Fujiwara nobles in important offices while the Minamoto gained military experience by bringing parts of Northern Honshu under Japanese control in the Early Nine Years War (1050 - 1059) and the Later Three Years war (1083 - 1087).

After the Heiji Rising (1159), a struggle for power between the two families, Taira Kiyomori evolved as the leader of Japan and ruled the country from 1168 to 1178 through the emperor. The major threats with which he was confronted were not only the rivalling Minamoto but also the increasingly militant Buddhist monasteries which frequently led wars between each other and disturbed public order.

After Kiyomori's death, the Taira and Minamoto clans fought a deciding war for supremacy, the Gempei War, which lasted from 1180 to 1185. By the end of the war, the Minamoto were able to put an end to Taira supremacy, and Minamoto Yoritomo succeeded as the leader of Japan. After eliminating all of his potential and acute enemies, including close family members, he was appointed Shogun (highest military officer) and established a new government in his home city Kamakura.

Kamakura Period (1192 - 1333)

In 1185, the Minamoto family took over the control over Japan after defeating the Taira clan in the Gempei war. Minamoto Yoritomo was appointed shogun in the year 1192 and established a new government, the Kamakura Bakufu. The new feudal government was organized in a simpler way than the one in Kyoto and worked much more efficient under Japanese conditions.

After Yoritomo's death in 1199, quarrels for supremacy started between the Bakufu of Kamakura and the Imperial court in Kyoto. Those quarrels for supremacy found an end in the Jokyu disturbance in 1221 when Kamakura defeated the Imperial army in Kyoto, and the Hojo regents in Kamakura achieved complete control over Japan. By redistributing the land gained during the Jokyu disturbance, they were able to achieve loyalty among all the powerful people throughout the country. The emperor and the remaining governmental offices in Kyoto lost practically all effective power.

Chinese influence continued to be relatively strong during the Kamakura period. New Buddhist sects were introduced: the Zen sect (introduced 1191) found large numbers of followers among the samurai, which were now the leading social class. Another new Buddhist sect, the radical and intolerant Lotus Sutra sect was founded in 1253 by Nichiren.

In 1232 a legal code, the Joei Shikimoku was promulgated. It stressed Confucian values such as the importance of loyalty to the master, and generally attempted to suppress a decline of morals and discipline. Tight control was maintained by the Hojo clan, and any signs of rebellions were destroyed immediately.

The shogun stayed in Kamakura without much power while deputies of him were located in Kyoto and Western Japan. Stewards and constables controlled the provinces tightly and loyally. Indeed, the Hojo regents were able to bring several decades of peace and economic expansion to the country until an external power began to threaten Japan.

By 1259, the Mongols had conquered China and became also interested in Japan. Several threatening messages of the powerful Mongols were ignored by Kamakura. This resulted in the first Mongol invasion attempt in 1274 on the island of Kyushu. After only a few hours of fighting, however, the large naval invasion fleet, was forced to pull back because of bad weather conditions. This was very fortunate for the Japanese since their odds against the large and modern Mongol force were not favourable at all.

Due to good preparations, the Japanese were able to maintain a strong defence for several weeks during a second invasion attempt which occurred in 1281. But again, the Mongols were finally forced to withdraw mainly because of bad weather. Kyushu remained in alert for a possible third invasion attempt, but the Mongols soon had too many problems on the mainland in order to care about Japan.

The consequences of the many years of war preparations against the Mongols were fatal to the Kamakura government since they resulted only in expenditures and no profits. Many of the loyal men who were fighting for Kamakura, were now waiting for rewards that the government could not pay. Hence, financial problems and decreasing loyalty among the powerful lords were some of the reasons for the fall of the Kamakura government.

By 1333 the power of the Hojo regents had declined to such a degree that the emperor Go-Daigo was able to restore imperial power and overthrow the Kamakura Bakufu.

Muromachi Period (1333 - 1573

The emperor Go-Daigo was able to restore imperial power in Kyoto and to overthrow the Kamakura Bakufu in 1333. However, the revival of the old imperial offices under the Kemmu restoration (1334) did not last for long because the old administration system was out of date and practice, and incompetent officials failed gaining the support of the powerful landowners.

Ashikaga Takauji, once fighting for the emperor, now challenged the imperial court and succeeded in capturing Kyoto in 1336. Go-Daigo, consequently, fled to Yoshino in the South of Kyoto where he founded the Southern court. At the same time, another emperor was appointed in Kyoto. This was possible because of a succession dispute that had been going on between two lines of the imperial family since the death of emperor Go-Saga in 1272.

In 1338 Takauji appointed himself shogun and established his government in Kyoto. The Muromachi district where the government buildings were located from 1378 gave the government and the historical period their names.

Two imperial courts existed in Japan for over 50 years: the Southern and Northern courts. They fought many battles against each other. The Northern court usually was in a more advantageous position; nevertheless, the South succeeded in capturing Kyoto several times for short time periods resulting in the destruction of the capital on a regular basis. The Southern court finally gave in in 1392, and the country became emperor-wise reunited again.

Religion in Japan

Shinto and Buddhism are Japan's two major religions. They have been co-existing for several centuries and have even complemented each other to a certain degree. Most Japanese consider themselves Buddhist, Shintoist or both.
Religion does not play a big role in the everyday life of most Japanese people today. The average person typically follows the religious rituals at ceremonies like birth, weddings and funerals, may visit a shrine or temple on New Year and participates at local festivals (matsuri), most of which have a religious background.

Postwar (since 1945)

After World War II had ended, Japan was devastated. All the large cities (with the exception of Kyoto), the industries and the transportation networks were severely damaged. A severe shortage of food continued for several years.

The occupation of Japan by the Allied Powers started in August 1945 and ended in April 1952. General MacArthur was its first Supreme Commander. The whole operation was mainly carried out by the United States.

Japan basically lost all the territory acquired after 1894. In addition, the Kurile islands were occupied by the Soviet Union, and the Ryukyu Islands, including Okinawa, were controlled by the USA. Okinawa was returned to Japan in 1972, however a territorial dispute with Russia concerning the Kurile Islands has not been resolved yet.

The remains of Japan's war machine were destroyed, and war crime trials were held. Over 500 military officers committed suicide right after Japan surrendered, and many hundreds more were executed for committing war crimes. Emperor Showa was not declared a war criminal.

A new constitution went into effect in 1947: The emperor lost all political and military power, and was solely made the symbol of the state. Universal suffrage was introduced and human rights were guaranteed. Japan was also forbidden to ever lead a war again or to maintain an army. Furthermore, Shinto and the state were clearly separated.

MacArthur also intended to break up power concentrations by dissolving the zaibatsu and other large companies, and by decentralizing the education system and the police. In a land reform, concentrations in land ownership were removed.

Especially during the first half of the occupation, Japan's media was subject to a rigid censorship of any anti-American statements and controversial topics such as the race issue.

The co-operation between the Japanese and the Allied powers worked relatively smooth. Critics started to grow when the United States acted increasingly according to her self interests in the Cold War, reintroduced the persecution of communists, stationed more troops in Japan, and wanted Japan to establish an own self defence force despite the anti-war article in the constitution. Many aspects of the occupation's so called "reverse course" were welcomed by conservative Japanese politicians.

With the peace treaty that went into effect in 1952, the occupation ended. Japan's Self Defence Force was established in 1954, accompanied by large public demonstrations. Great public unrest was also caused by the renewal of the US-Japan Security Treaty of 1960.

After the Korean War, and accelerated by it, the recovery of Japan's economy flourished. The economic growth resulted in a quick rise of the living standards, changes in society and the stabilization of the ruling position of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), but also in severe pollution.

Japan's relations to the Soviet Union were normalized in 1956, the ones to China in 1972.

The 1973 oil crisis shocked the Japanese economy which was heavily depended on oil. The reaction was a shift to high technology industries.


Militarism and WW2 (1912 - 1945)

During the era of the weak emperor Taisho (1912-26), the political power shifted from the oligarchic clique (genro) to the parliament and the democratic parties.

In the First World War, Japan joined the Allied powers, but played only a minor role in fighting German colonial forces in East Asia. At the following Paris Peace Conference of 1919, Japan's proposal of amending a "racial equality clause" to the covenant of the League of Nations was rejected by the United States, Britain and Australia. Arrogance and racial discrimination towards the Japanese had plagued Japanese-Western relations since the forced opening of the country in the 1800s, and were again a major factor for the deterioration of relations in the decades preceeding World War 2. In 1924, for example, the US Congress passed the Exclusion Act that prohibited further immigration from Japan.

After WW1, Japan's economical situation worsened. The Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923 and the world wide depression of 1929 intensified the crisis.

During the 1930s, the military established almost complete control over the government. Many political enemies were assassinated, and communists persecuted. Indoctrination and censorship in education and media were further intensified. Navy and army officers soon occupied most of the important offices, including the one of the prime minister.

Already earlier, Japan followed the example of Western nations and forced China into unequal economical and political treaties. Furthermore, Japan's influence over Manchuria had been steadily growing since the end of the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-05. When the Chinese Nationalists began to seriously challenge Japan's position in Manchuria in 1931, the Kwantung Army (Japanese armed forces in Manchuria) occupied Manchuria. In the following year, "Manchukuo" was declared an independent state, controlled by the Kwantung Army through a puppet government. In the same year, the Japanese air force bombarded Shanghai in order to protect Japanese residents from anti Japanese movements.


Edo Period (1603 - 1867)

Tokugawa Ieyasu was the most powerful man in Japan after Hideyoshi had died in 1598. Against his promises he did not respect Hideyoshi's successor Hideyori because he wanted to become the absolute ruler of Japan.

In the battle of Sekigahara in 1600, Ieyasu defeated the Hideyori loyalists and other Western rivals. Hence, he achieved almost unlimited power and wealth. In 1603, Ieyasu was appointed Shogun by the emperor and established his government in Edo (Tokyo). The Tokugawa shoguns continued to rule Japan for a remarkable 250 years.

Ieyasu brought the whole country under tight control. He cleverly redistributed the gained land among the daimyo: more loyal vassals (the ones who supported him already before Sekigahara) received strategically more important domains accordingly. Every daimyo was also required to spend every second year in Edo. This meant a huge financial burden for the daimyo and moderated his power at home.

Ieyasu continued to promote foreign trade. He established relations with the English and the Dutch. On the other hand, he enforced the suppression and persecution of Christianity from 1614 on.

After the destruction of the Toyotomi clan in 1615 when Ieyasu captured Osaka Castle, he and his successors had practically no rivals anymore, and peace prevailed throughout the Edo period. Therefore, the warriors (samurai) were educating themselves not only in the martial arts but also in literature, philosophy and the arts, e.g. the tea ceremony.

In 1633, shogun Iemitsu forbade travelling abroad and almost completely isolated Japan in 1639 by reducing the contacts to the outside world to very limited trade relations with China and the Netherlands in the port of Nagasaki. In addition, all foreign books were banned.

Despite the isolation, domestic trade and agricultural production continued to improve. During the Edo period and especially during the Genroku era (1688 - 1703), popular culture flourished. New art forms like kabuki and ukiyo-e became very popular especially among the townspeople.

The most important philosophy of Tokugawa Japan was Neo-Confucianism, stressing the importance of morals, education and hierarchical order in the government and society: A strict four class system existed during the Edo period: at the top of the social hierarchy stood the samurai, followed by the peasants, artisans and merchants. The members of the four classes were not allowed to change their social status. Outcasts (eta), people with professions that were considered impure, formed a fifth class.


Meiji Period (1868 - 1912)

In 1867/68, the Tokugawa era found an end in the Meiji Restoration. The emperor Meiji was moved from Kyoto to Tokyo which became the new capital; his imperial power was restored. The actual political power was transferred from the Tokugawa Bakufu into the hands of a small group of nobles and former samurai.

Like other subjugated Asian nations, the Japanese were forced to sign unequal treaties with Western powers. These treaties granted the Westerners one-sided economical and legal advantages in Japan. In order to regain independence from the Europeans and Americans and establish herself as a respected nation in the world, Meiji Japan was determined to close the gap to the Western powers economically and militarily. Drastic reforms were carried out in practically all areas.

The new government aimed to make Japan a democratic state with equality among all its people. The boundaries between the social classes of Tokugawa Japan were gradually broken down. Consequently, the samurai were the big losers of those social reforms since they lost all their privileges. The reforms also included the establishment of human rights such as religious freedom in 1873.

In order to stabilize the new government, the former feudal lords (daimyo) had to return all their lands to the emperor. This was achieved already in 1870 and followed by the restructuring of the country in prefectures.

The education system was reformed after the French and later after the German system. Among those reforms was the introduction of compulsory education.

After about one to two decades of intensive westernization, a revival of conservative and nationalistic feelings took place: principles of Confucianism and Shinto including the worship of the emperor were increasingly emphasized and taught at educational institutions.

Catching up on the military sector was, of course, a high priority for Japan in an era of European and American imperialism. Universal conscription was introduced, and a new army modelled after the Prussian force, and a navy after the British one were established.

In order to transform the agrarian economy of Tokugawa Japan into a developed industrial one, many Japanese scholars were sent abroad to study Western science and languages, while foreign experts taught in Japan. The transportation and communication networks were improved by means of large governmental investments. The government also directly supported the prospering of businesses and industries, especially the large and powerful family businesses called zaibatsu.

The large expenditures led to a financial crisis in the middle of the 1880's which was followed by a reform of the currency system and the establishment of the Bank of Japan. The textile industry grew fastest and remained the largest Japanese industry until WW2. Work conditions in the early factories were very bad, but developing socialist and liberal movements were soon suppressed by the ruling clique.

On the political sector, Japan received its first European style constitution in 1889. A parliament, the Diet was established while the emperor kept sovereignty: he stood at the top of the army, navy, executive and legislative power. The ruling clique, however, kept on holding the actual power, and the able and intelligent emperor Meiji agreed with most of their actions. Political parties did not yet gain real power due to the lack of unity among their members.

Conflicts of interests in Korea between China and Japan led to the Sino-Japanese War in 1894-95. Japan defeated China, received Taiwan, but was forced by Russia, France and Germany to return other territories. The so called Triple Intervention caused the Japanese army and navy to intensify their rearmament.

New conflicts of interests in Korea and Manchuria, this time between Russia and Japan, led to the Russo-Japanese War in 1904-05. The Japanese army also won this war gaining territory and finally some international respect. Japan further increased her influence on Korea and annexed her completely in 1910. In Japan, the war successes caused nationalism to increase even more, and other Asian nations also started to develop national self confidence.

In 1912 emperor Meiji died, and the era of the ruling clique of elder statesmen (genro) was about to end.


Emperor

According to mythology, Japan's first Emperor Jimmu, a descendant of the Sun Goddess Amaterasu, was enthroned in the year 660 BC. While the myths are not considered historically accurate, it is a commonly accepted fact that emperors have reigned over Japan for more than 1500 years, and that they have all descended from the same imperial family.

Despite the fact that the effective power of the emperors was limited or purely symbolic throughout most of Japan's history, all actual rulers, from the Fujiwara and Hojo regents to the Minamoto, Ashikaga and Tokugawa shoguns respected the emperor and were keen in having the imperial legitimization for their position as rulers of Japan.

With the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the Tokugawa shogunate was overthrown, and Emperor Meiji became the head of state. Under the new Meiji constitution, the Emperor held sovereign power, and his political and military power was theoretically close to absolute. In praxis, however, the real power first laid with the oligarchic genro and later with the generals and admirals.

The postwar constitution of 1946 states that the emperor has only a symbolic function. He now mainly participates at ceremonies and diplomatic meetings, but has no effective political power.

In 1989, Emperor Akihito became Japan's 125th emperor. He is married to Empress Michiko, the first empress who did not come from the nobility. Their eldest son is Crown Prince Naruhito. The imperial family resides in the Imperial Palace in Tokyo.


SOURCE:
http://www.japan-guide.com
http://www.cnmi-guide.com/history/japanese/

Joyce Ann Osorio said...

Group 6
Joyce Ann Osorio
Chiney Rose Eleria
Camille Angelique Lopez
Arichel Cabildo
Marianne Mejia
Madelaine Sophie Paje
Carmina Castro
Boa 1-10D
March 28, 2008
“JAPANESE PERIOD”


Japan withdrew from the League of Nations in 1935 after it had
virtually annexed the Islands into the Empire.
By 1936 a thriving fishing industry had developed as well as a
sugar industry which occupied 68 percent of the arable land on
Saipan, 80 percent on Tinian and 33 percent on Rota.
The resident population grew to 23,800 on Saipan (of which only
3,222 were originally from the islands); 1,530 on Tinian (25
Chamorros) and 5,600 on Rota (791 Chamorros).
By the time the dark clouds of war had gathered over the western
Pacific, some 29,692 Japanese military personnel were garrisoned
on Saipan.
The islands were assaulted by American forces on June 15, 1944
and one of the most hotly contested battles of the entire war was
fought on its sandy beaches and mountainous terrain. American
forces gained control of the island on July 1944 and the construction
of bases and airfields began.
It was from such airfield on Tinian that the first nuclear weapon was
dropped on Hiroshima by the B -29 aircraft Enola Gay hastening the
end of hostilities. The airfields on Tinian which in 1945 were the
busiest in the world are now largely abandoned.

Early Japan (until 710)

During the Jomon Period (13000 BC to 300 BC), the inhabitants of the Japanese islands were gatherers, fishers and hunters. Jomon is the name of the era's pottery.

During the Yayoi Period (300 BC to 300 AD), the rice culture was imported into Japan around 100 BC. With the introduction of agriculture, social classes started to evolve, and parts of the country began to unite under powerful land owners. Chinese travellers during the Han and Wei dynasties reported that a queen called Himiko (or Pimiku) reigned over Japan at that time. The Yayoi period brought also the introduction of iron and other modern ideas from Korea into Japan. Again, its pottery gave the period its name.

By the beginning of the Kofun Period (300 - 538), a center of power had developed in the fertile Kinai plain, and by about 400 AD the country was united as Yamato Japan with its political center in and around the province of Yamato (about today's Nara prefecture). The period's name comes from the large tombs (kofun) that were built for the political leaders of that era. Yamato Japan extended from Kyushu to the Kinai plain, but did not yet include the Kanto, Tohoku and Hokkaido.

The emperor was ruler of Yamato Japan and resided in a capital that was moved frequently from one city to another. However, the Soga clan soon took over the actual political power, resulting in the fact that most of the emperors only acted as the symbol of the state and performed Shinto rituals.

Due to friendly relations to the kingdom of Kudara (or Paikche) on the Korean peninsula, the influence from the mainland increased strongly. Buddhism was introduced to Japan in the year 538 or 552 and was promoted by the ruling class. Prince Shotoku is said to have played an especially important role in promoting Chinese ideas. He also wrote the Constitution of Seventeen Articles about moral and political principles. Also the theories of Confucianism and Taoism, as well as the Chinese writing system were introduced to Japan during the Yamato period.

In 645, Nakatomi no Kamatari started the era of the Fujiwara clan that was to last until the rise of the military class (samurai) in the 11th century. In the same year, the Taika reforms were realized: A new government and administrative system was established after the Chinese model. All land was bought by the state and redistributed equally among the farmers in a large land reform in order to introduce the new tax system that was also adopted from China.


Nara and Heian Periods (710 - 1185)

In the year 710, the first permanent Japanese capital was established in Nara, a city modelled after the Chinese capital. Large Buddhist monasteries were built in the new capital. The monasteries quickly gained such strong political influence that, in order to protect the position of the emperor and central government, the capital was moved to Nagaoka in 784, and finally to Heian (Kyoto) in 794 where it should remain for over one thousand years.

One characteristic of the Nara and Heian periods is a gradual decline of Chinese influence which, nevertheless, remained strong. Many of the imported ideas were gradually "Japanized". In order to meet particular Japanese needs, several governmental offices were established in addition to the government system which was copied after the Chinese model, for example. In the arts too, native Japanese movements became increasingly popular. The development of the Kana syllables made the creation of actual Japanese literature possible. Several new Buddhist sects that were imported from China during the Heian period, were also "Japanized".

Among the worst failures of the Taika reforms were the land and taxation reforms: High taxes resulted in the impoverishment of many farmers who then had to sell their properties and became tenants of larger land owners. Furthermore, many aristocrats and the Buddhist monasteries succeeded in achieving tax immunity. As a result, the state income decreased, and over the centuries, the political power steadily shifted from the central government to the large independent land owners.

The Fujiwara family controlled the political scene of the Heian period over several centuries through strategic intermarriages with the imperial family and by occupying all the important political offices in Kyoto and the major provinces. The power of the clan reached its peak with Fujiwara Michinaga in the year 1016. After Michinaga, however, the ability of the Fujiwara leaders began to decline, and public order could not be maintained. Many land owners hired samurai for the protection of their properties. That is how the military class became more and more influential, especially in Eastern Japan.

The Fujiwara supremacy came to an end in 1068 when the new emperor Go-Sanjo was determined to rule the country by himself, and the Fujiwara failed to control him. In the year 1086 Go-Sanjo abdicated but continued to rule from behind the political stage. This new form of government was called Insei government. Insei emperors exerted political power from 1086 until 1156 when Taira Kiyomori became the new leader of Japan.

In the 12th century, two military families with aristocratic backgrounds gained much power: the Minamoto (or Genji) and Taira (or Heike) families. The Taira replaced many Fujiwara nobles in important offices while the Minamoto gained military experience by bringing parts of Northern Honshu under Japanese control in the Early Nine Years War (1050 - 1059) and the Later Three Years war (1083 - 1087).

After the Heiji Rising (1159), a struggle for power between the two families, Taira Kiyomori evolved as the leader of Japan and ruled the country from 1168 to 1178 through the emperor. The major threats with which he was confronted were not only the rivalling Minamoto but also the increasingly militant Buddhist monasteries which frequently led wars between each other and disturbed public order.

After Kiyomori's death, the Taira and Minamoto clans fought a deciding war for supremacy, the Gempei War, which lasted from 1180 to 1185. By the end of the war, the Minamoto were able to put an end to Taira supremacy, and Minamoto Yoritomo succeeded as the leader of Japan. After eliminating all of his potential and acute enemies, including close family members, he was appointed Shogun (highest military officer) and established a new government in his home city Kamakura.

Kamakura Period (1192 - 1333)

In 1185, the Minamoto family took over the control over Japan after defeating the Taira clan in the Gempei war. Minamoto Yoritomo was appointed shogun in the year 1192 and established a new government, the Kamakura Bakufu. The new feudal government was organized in a simpler way than the one in Kyoto and worked much more efficient under Japanese conditions.

After Yoritomo's death in 1199, quarrels for supremacy started between the Bakufu of Kamakura and the Imperial court in Kyoto. Those quarrels for supremacy found an end in the Jokyu disturbance in 1221 when Kamakura defeated the Imperial army in Kyoto, and the Hojo regents in Kamakura achieved complete control over Japan. By redistributing the land gained during the Jokyu disturbance, they were able to achieve loyalty among all the powerful people throughout the country. The emperor and the remaining governmental offices in Kyoto lost practically all effective power.

Chinese influence continued to be relatively strong during the Kamakura period. New Buddhist sects were introduced: the Zen sect (introduced 1191) found large numbers of followers among the samurai, which were now the leading social class. Another new Buddhist sect, the radical and intolerant Lotus Sutra sect was founded in 1253 by Nichiren.

In 1232 a legal code, the Joei Shikimoku was promulgated. It stressed Confucian values such as the importance of loyalty to the master, and generally attempted to suppress a decline of morals and discipline. Tight control was maintained by the Hojo clan, and any signs of rebellions were destroyed immediately.

The shogun stayed in Kamakura without much power while deputies of him were located in Kyoto and Western Japan. Stewards and constables controlled the provinces tightly and loyally. Indeed, the Hojo regents were able to bring several decades of peace and economic expansion to the country until an external power began to threaten Japan.

By 1259, the Mongols had conquered China and became also interested in Japan. Several threatening messages of the powerful Mongols were ignored by Kamakura. This resulted in the first Mongol invasion attempt in 1274 on the island of Kyushu. After only a few hours of fighting, however, the large naval invasion fleet, was forced to pull back because of bad weather conditions. This was very fortunate for the Japanese since their odds against the large and modern Mongol force were not favourable at all.

Due to good preparations, the Japanese were able to maintain a strong defence for several weeks during a second invasion attempt which occurred in 1281. But again, the Mongols were finally forced to withdraw mainly because of bad weather. Kyushu remained in alert for a possible third invasion attempt, but the Mongols soon had too many problems on the mainland in order to care about Japan.

The consequences of the many years of war preparations against the Mongols were fatal to the Kamakura government since they resulted only in expenditures and no profits. Many of the loyal men who were fighting for Kamakura, were now waiting for rewards that the government could not pay. Hence, financial problems and decreasing loyalty among the powerful lords were some of the reasons for the fall of the Kamakura government.

By 1333 the power of the Hojo regents had declined to such a degree that the emperor Go-Daigo was able to restore imperial power and overthrow the Kamakura Bakufu.

Muromachi Period (1333 - 1573

The emperor Go-Daigo was able to restore imperial power in Kyoto and to overthrow the Kamakura Bakufu in 1333. However, the revival of the old imperial offices under the Kemmu restoration (1334) did not last for long because the old administration system was out of date and practice, and incompetent officials failed gaining the support of the powerful landowners.

Ashikaga Takauji, once fighting for the emperor, now challenged the imperial court and succeeded in capturing Kyoto in 1336. Go-Daigo, consequently, fled to Yoshino in the South of Kyoto where he founded the Southern court. At the same time, another emperor was appointed in Kyoto. This was possible because of a succession dispute that had been going on between two lines of the imperial family since the death of emperor Go-Saga in 1272.

In 1338 Takauji appointed himself shogun and established his government in Kyoto. The Muromachi district where the government buildings were located from 1378 gave the government and the historical period their names.

Two imperial courts existed in Japan for over 50 years: the Southern and Northern courts. They fought many battles against each other. The Northern court usually was in a more advantageous position; nevertheless, the South succeeded in capturing Kyoto several times for short time periods resulting in the destruction of the capital on a regular basis. The Southern court finally gave in in 1392, and the country became emperor-wise reunited again.

Religion in Japan

Shinto and Buddhism are Japan's two major religions. They have been co-existing for several centuries and have even complemented each other to a certain degree. Most Japanese consider themselves Buddhist, Shintoist or both.
Religion does not play a big role in the everyday life of most Japanese people today. The average person typically follows the religious rituals at ceremonies like birth, weddings and funerals, may visit a shrine or temple on New Year and participates at local festivals (matsuri), most of which have a religious background.

Postwar (since 1945)

After World War II had ended, Japan was devastated. All the large cities (with the exception of Kyoto), the industries and the transportation networks were severely damaged. A severe shortage of food continued for several years.

The occupation of Japan by the Allied Powers started in August 1945 and ended in April 1952. General MacArthur was its first Supreme Commander. The whole operation was mainly carried out by the United States.

Japan basically lost all the territory acquired after 1894. In addition, the Kurile islands were occupied by the Soviet Union, and the Ryukyu Islands, including Okinawa, were controlled by the USA. Okinawa was returned to Japan in 1972, however a territorial dispute with Russia concerning the Kurile Islands has not been resolved yet.

The remains of Japan's war machine were destroyed, and war crime trials were held. Over 500 military officers committed suicide right after Japan surrendered, and many hundreds more were executed for committing war crimes. Emperor Showa was not declared a war criminal.

A new constitution went into effect in 1947: The emperor lost all political and military power, and was solely made the symbol of the state. Universal suffrage was introduced and human rights were guaranteed. Japan was also forbidden to ever lead a war again or to maintain an army. Furthermore, Shinto and the state were clearly separated.

MacArthur also intended to break up power concentrations by dissolving the zaibatsu and other large companies, and by decentralizing the education system and the police. In a land reform, concentrations in land ownership were removed.

Especially during the first half of the occupation, Japan's media was subject to a rigid censorship of any anti-American statements and controversial topics such as the race issue.

The co-operation between the Japanese and the Allied powers worked relatively smooth. Critics started to grow when the United States acted increasingly according to her self interests in the Cold War, reintroduced the persecution of communists, stationed more troops in Japan, and wanted Japan to establish an own self defence force despite the anti-war article in the constitution. Many aspects of the occupation's so called "reverse course" were welcomed by conservative Japanese politicians.

With the peace treaty that went into effect in 1952, the occupation ended. Japan's Self Defence Force was established in 1954, accompanied by large public demonstrations. Great public unrest was also caused by the renewal of the US-Japan Security Treaty of 1960.

After the Korean War, and accelerated by it, the recovery of Japan's economy flourished. The economic growth resulted in a quick rise of the living standards, changes in society and the stabilization of the ruling position of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), but also in severe pollution.

Japan's relations to the Soviet Union were normalized in 1956, the ones to China in 1972.

The 1973 oil crisis shocked the Japanese economy which was heavily depended on oil. The reaction was a shift to high technology industries.


Militarism and WW2 (1912 - 1945)

During the era of the weak emperor Taisho (1912-26), the political power shifted from the oligarchic clique (genro) to the parliament and the democratic parties.

In the First World War, Japan joined the Allied powers, but played only a minor role in fighting German colonial forces in East Asia. At the following Paris Peace Conference of 1919, Japan's proposal of amending a "racial equality clause" to the covenant of the League of Nations was rejected by the United States, Britain and Australia. Arrogance and racial discrimination towards the Japanese had plagued Japanese-Western relations since the forced opening of the country in the 1800s, and were again a major factor for the deterioration of relations in the decades preceeding World War 2. In 1924, for example, the US Congress passed the Exclusion Act that prohibited further immigration from Japan.

After WW1, Japan's economical situation worsened. The Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923 and the world wide depression of 1929 intensified the crisis.

During the 1930s, the military established almost complete control over the government. Many political enemies were assassinated, and communists persecuted. Indoctrination and censorship in education and media were further intensified. Navy and army officers soon occupied most of the important offices, including the one of the prime minister.

Already earlier, Japan followed the example of Western nations and forced China into unequal economical and political treaties. Furthermore, Japan's influence over Manchuria had been steadily growing since the end of the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-05. When the Chinese Nationalists began to seriously challenge Japan's position in Manchuria in 1931, the Kwantung Army (Japanese armed forces in Manchuria) occupied Manchuria. In the following year, "Manchukuo" was declared an independent state, controlled by the Kwantung Army through a puppet government. In the same year, the Japanese air force bombarded Shanghai in order to protect Japanese residents from anti Japanese movements.


Edo Period (1603 - 1867)

Tokugawa Ieyasu was the most powerful man in Japan after Hideyoshi had died in 1598. Against his promises he did not respect Hideyoshi's successor Hideyori because he wanted to become the absolute ruler of Japan.

In the battle of Sekigahara in 1600, Ieyasu defeated the Hideyori loyalists and other Western rivals. Hence, he achieved almost unlimited power and wealth. In 1603, Ieyasu was appointed Shogun by the emperor and established his government in Edo (Tokyo). The Tokugawa shoguns continued to rule Japan for a remarkable 250 years.

Ieyasu brought the whole country under tight control. He cleverly redistributed the gained land among the daimyo: more loyal vassals (the ones who supported him already before Sekigahara) received strategically more important domains accordingly. Every daimyo was also required to spend every second year in Edo. This meant a huge financial burden for the daimyo and moderated his power at home.

Ieyasu continued to promote foreign trade. He established relations with the English and the Dutch. On the other hand, he enforced the suppression and persecution of Christianity from 1614 on.

After the destruction of the Toyotomi clan in 1615 when Ieyasu captured Osaka Castle, he and his successors had practically no rivals anymore, and peace prevailed throughout the Edo period. Therefore, the warriors (samurai) were educating themselves not only in the martial arts but also in literature, philosophy and the arts, e.g. the tea ceremony.

In 1633, shogun Iemitsu forbade travelling abroad and almost completely isolated Japan in 1639 by reducing the contacts to the outside world to very limited trade relations with China and the Netherlands in the port of Nagasaki. In addition, all foreign books were banned.

Despite the isolation, domestic trade and agricultural production continued to improve. During the Edo period and especially during the Genroku era (1688 - 1703), popular culture flourished. New art forms like kabuki and ukiyo-e became very popular especially among the townspeople.

The most important philosophy of Tokugawa Japan was Neo-Confucianism, stressing the importance of morals, education and hierarchical order in the government and society: A strict four class system existed during the Edo period: at the top of the social hierarchy stood the samurai, followed by the peasants, artisans and merchants. The members of the four classes were not allowed to change their social status. Outcasts (eta), people with professions that were considered impure, formed a fifth class.


Meiji Period (1868 - 1912)

In 1867/68, the Tokugawa era found an end in the Meiji Restoration. The emperor Meiji was moved from Kyoto to Tokyo which became the new capital; his imperial power was restored. The actual political power was transferred from the Tokugawa Bakufu into the hands of a small group of nobles and former samurai.

Like other subjugated Asian nations, the Japanese were forced to sign unequal treaties with Western powers. These treaties granted the Westerners one-sided economical and legal advantages in Japan. In order to regain independence from the Europeans and Americans and establish herself as a respected nation in the world, Meiji Japan was determined to close the gap to the Western powers economically and militarily. Drastic reforms were carried out in practically all areas.

The new government aimed to make Japan a democratic state with equality among all its people. The boundaries between the social classes of Tokugawa Japan were gradually broken down. Consequently, the samurai were the big losers of those social reforms since they lost all their privileges. The reforms also included the establishment of human rights such as religious freedom in 1873.

In order to stabilize the new government, the former feudal lords (daimyo) had to return all their lands to the emperor. This was achieved already in 1870 and followed by the restructuring of the country in prefectures.

The education system was reformed after the French and later after the German system. Among those reforms was the introduction of compulsory education.

After about one to two decades of intensive westernization, a revival of conservative and nationalistic feelings took place: principles of Confucianism and Shinto including the worship of the emperor were increasingly emphasized and taught at educational institutions.

Catching up on the military sector was, of course, a high priority for Japan in an era of European and American imperialism. Universal conscription was introduced, and a new army modelled after the Prussian force, and a navy after the British one were established.

In order to transform the agrarian economy of Tokugawa Japan into a developed industrial one, many Japanese scholars were sent abroad to study Western science and languages, while foreign experts taught in Japan. The transportation and communication networks were improved by means of large governmental investments. The government also directly supported the prospering of businesses and industries, especially the large and powerful family businesses called zaibatsu.

The large expenditures led to a financial crisis in the middle of the 1880's which was followed by a reform of the currency system and the establishment of the Bank of Japan. The textile industry grew fastest and remained the largest Japanese industry until WW2. Work conditions in the early factories were very bad, but developing socialist and liberal movements were soon suppressed by the ruling clique.

On the political sector, Japan received its first European style constitution in 1889. A parliament, the Diet was established while the emperor kept sovereignty: he stood at the top of the army, navy, executive and legislative power. The ruling clique, however, kept on holding the actual power, and the able and intelligent emperor Meiji agreed with most of their actions. Political parties did not yet gain real power due to the lack of unity among their members.

Conflicts of interests in Korea between China and Japan led to the Sino-Japanese War in 1894-95. Japan defeated China, received Taiwan, but was forced by Russia, France and Germany to return other territories. The so called Triple Intervention caused the Japanese army and navy to intensify their rearmament.

New conflicts of interests in Korea and Manchuria, this time between Russia and Japan, led to the Russo-Japanese War in 1904-05. The Japanese army also won this war gaining territory and finally some international respect. Japan further increased her influence on Korea and annexed her completely in 1910. In Japan, the war successes caused nationalism to increase even more, and other Asian nations also started to develop national self confidence.

In 1912 emperor Meiji died, and the era of the ruling clique of elder statesmen (genro) was about to end.


Emperor

According to mythology, Japan's first Emperor Jimmu, a descendant of the Sun Goddess Amaterasu, was enthroned in the year 660 BC. While the myths are not considered historically accurate, it is a commonly accepted fact that emperors have reigned over Japan for more than 1500 years, and that they have all descended from the same imperial family.

Despite the fact that the effective power of the emperors was limited or purely symbolic throughout most of Japan's history, all actual rulers, from the Fujiwara and Hojo regents to the Minamoto, Ashikaga and Tokugawa shoguns respected the emperor and were keen in having the imperial legitimization for their position as rulers of Japan.

With the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the Tokugawa shogunate was overthrown, and Emperor Meiji became the head of state. Under the new Meiji constitution, the Emperor held sovereign power, and his political and military power was theoretically close to absolute. In praxis, however, the real power first laid with the oligarchic genro and later with the generals and admirals.

The postwar constitution of 1946 states that the emperor has only a symbolic function. He now mainly participates at ceremonies and diplomatic meetings, but has no effective political power.

In 1989, Emperor Akihito became Japan's 125th emperor. He is married to Empress Michiko, the first empress who did not come from the nobility. Their eldest son is Crown Prince Naruhito. The imperial family resides in the Imperial Palace in Tokyo.


SOURCE:
http://www.japan-guide.com
http://www.cnmi-guide.com/history/japanese/

Joyce Ann Osorio said...

Group 6
Joyce Ann Osorio
Chiney Rose Eleria
Camille Angelique Lopez
Arichel Cabildo
Marianne Mejia
Madelaine Sophie Paje
Carmina Castro
Boa 1-10D
March 28, 2008
“JAPANESE PERIOD”


Japan withdrew from the League of Nations in 1935 after it had
virtually annexed the Islands into the Empire.
By 1936 a thriving fishing industry had developed as well as a
sugar industry which occupied 68 percent of the arable land on
Saipan, 80 percent on Tinian and 33 percent on Rota.
The resident population grew to 23,800 on Saipan (of which only
3,222 were originally from the islands); 1,530 on Tinian (25
Chamorros) and 5,600 on Rota (791 Chamorros).
By the time the dark clouds of war had gathered over the western
Pacific, some 29,692 Japanese military personnel were garrisoned
on Saipan.
The islands were assaulted by American forces on June 15, 1944
and one of the most hotly contested battles of the entire war was
fought on its sandy beaches and mountainous terrain. American
forces gained control of the island on July 1944 and the construction
of bases and airfields began.
It was from such airfield on Tinian that the first nuclear weapon was
dropped on Hiroshima by the B -29 aircraft Enola Gay hastening the
end of hostilities. The airfields on Tinian which in 1945 were the
busiest in the world are now largely abandoned.

Early Japan (until 710)

During the Jomon Period (13000 BC to 300 BC), the inhabitants of the Japanese islands were gatherers, fishers and hunters. Jomon is the name of the era's pottery.

During the Yayoi Period (300 BC to 300 AD), the rice culture was imported into Japan around 100 BC. With the introduction of agriculture, social classes started to evolve, and parts of the country began to unite under powerful land owners. Chinese travellers during the Han and Wei dynasties reported that a queen called Himiko (or Pimiku) reigned over Japan at that time. The Yayoi period brought also the introduction of iron and other modern ideas from Korea into Japan. Again, its pottery gave the period its name.

By the beginning of the Kofun Period (300 - 538), a center of power had developed in the fertile Kinai plain, and by about 400 AD the country was united as Yamato Japan with its political center in and around the province of Yamato (about today's Nara prefecture). The period's name comes from the large tombs (kofun) that were built for the political leaders of that era. Yamato Japan extended from Kyushu to the Kinai plain, but did not yet include the Kanto, Tohoku and Hokkaido.

The emperor was ruler of Yamato Japan and resided in a capital that was moved frequently from one city to another. However, the Soga clan soon took over the actual political power, resulting in the fact that most of the emperors only acted as the symbol of the state and performed Shinto rituals.

Due to friendly relations to the kingdom of Kudara (or Paikche) on the Korean peninsula, the influence from the mainland increased strongly. Buddhism was introduced to Japan in the year 538 or 552 and was promoted by the ruling class. Prince Shotoku is said to have played an especially important role in promoting Chinese ideas. He also wrote the Constitution of Seventeen Articles about moral and political principles. Also the theories of Confucianism and Taoism, as well as the Chinese writing system were introduced to Japan during the Yamato period.

In 645, Nakatomi no Kamatari started the era of the Fujiwara clan that was to last until the rise of the military class (samurai) in the 11th century. In the same year, the Taika reforms were realized: A new government and administrative system was established after the Chinese model. All land was bought by the state and redistributed equally among the farmers in a large land reform in order to introduce the new tax system that was also adopted from China.


Nara and Heian Periods (710 - 1185)

In the year 710, the first permanent Japanese capital was established in Nara, a city modelled after the Chinese capital. Large Buddhist monasteries were built in the new capital. The monasteries quickly gained such strong political influence that, in order to protect the position of the emperor and central government, the capital was moved to Nagaoka in 784, and finally to Heian (Kyoto) in 794 where it should remain for over one thousand years.

One characteristic of the Nara and Heian periods is a gradual decline of Chinese influence which, nevertheless, remained strong. Many of the imported ideas were gradually "Japanized". In order to meet particular Japanese needs, several governmental offices were established in addition to the government system which was copied after the Chinese model, for example. In the arts too, native Japanese movements became increasingly popular. The development of the Kana syllables made the creation of actual Japanese literature possible. Several new Buddhist sects that were imported from China during the Heian period, were also "Japanized".

Among the worst failures of the Taika reforms were the land and taxation reforms: High taxes resulted in the impoverishment of many farmers who then had to sell their properties and became tenants of larger land owners. Furthermore, many aristocrats and the Buddhist monasteries succeeded in achieving tax immunity. As a result, the state income decreased, and over the centuries, the political power steadily shifted from the central government to the large independent land owners.

The Fujiwara family controlled the political scene of the Heian period over several centuries through strategic intermarriages with the imperial family and by occupying all the important political offices in Kyoto and the major provinces. The power of the clan reached its peak with Fujiwara Michinaga in the year 1016. After Michinaga, however, the ability of the Fujiwara leaders began to decline, and public order could not be maintained. Many land owners hired samurai for the protection of their properties. That is how the military class became more and more influential, especially in Eastern Japan.

The Fujiwara supremacy came to an end in 1068 when the new emperor Go-Sanjo was determined to rule the country by himself, and the Fujiwara failed to control him. In the year 1086 Go-Sanjo abdicated but continued to rule from behind the political stage. This new form of government was called Insei government. Insei emperors exerted political power from 1086 until 1156 when Taira Kiyomori became the new leader of Japan.

In the 12th century, two military families with aristocratic backgrounds gained much power: the Minamoto (or Genji) and Taira (or Heike) families. The Taira replaced many Fujiwara nobles in important offices while the Minamoto gained military experience by bringing parts of Northern Honshu under Japanese control in the Early Nine Years War (1050 - 1059) and the Later Three Years war (1083 - 1087).

After the Heiji Rising (1159), a struggle for power between the two families, Taira Kiyomori evolved as the leader of Japan and ruled the country from 1168 to 1178 through the emperor. The major threats with which he was confronted were not only the rivalling Minamoto but also the increasingly militant Buddhist monasteries which frequently led wars between each other and disturbed public order.

After Kiyomori's death, the Taira and Minamoto clans fought a deciding war for supremacy, the Gempei War, which lasted from 1180 to 1185. By the end of the war, the Minamoto were able to put an end to Taira supremacy, and Minamoto Yoritomo succeeded as the leader of Japan. After eliminating all of his potential and acute enemies, including close family members, he was appointed Shogun (highest military officer) and established a new government in his home city Kamakura.

Kamakura Period (1192 - 1333)

In 1185, the Minamoto family took over the control over Japan after defeating the Taira clan in the Gempei war. Minamoto Yoritomo was appointed shogun in the year 1192 and established a new government, the Kamakura Bakufu. The new feudal government was organized in a simpler way than the one in Kyoto and worked much more efficient under Japanese conditions.

After Yoritomo's death in 1199, quarrels for supremacy started between the Bakufu of Kamakura and the Imperial court in Kyoto. Those quarrels for supremacy found an end in the Jokyu disturbance in 1221 when Kamakura defeated the Imperial army in Kyoto, and the Hojo regents in Kamakura achieved complete control over Japan. By redistributing the land gained during the Jokyu disturbance, they were able to achieve loyalty among all the powerful people throughout the country. The emperor and the remaining governmental offices in Kyoto lost practically all effective power.

Chinese influence continued to be relatively strong during the Kamakura period. New Buddhist sects were introduced: the Zen sect (introduced 1191) found large numbers of followers among the samurai, which were now the leading social class. Another new Buddhist sect, the radical and intolerant Lotus Sutra sect was founded in 1253 by Nichiren.

In 1232 a legal code, the Joei Shikimoku was promulgated. It stressed Confucian values such as the importance of loyalty to the master, and generally attempted to suppress a decline of morals and discipline. Tight control was maintained by the Hojo clan, and any signs of rebellions were destroyed immediately.

The shogun stayed in Kamakura without much power while deputies of him were located in Kyoto and Western Japan. Stewards and constables controlled the provinces tightly and loyally. Indeed, the Hojo regents were able to bring several decades of peace and economic expansion to the country until an external power began to threaten Japan.

By 1259, the Mongols had conquered China and became also interested in Japan. Several threatening messages of the powerful Mongols were ignored by Kamakura. This resulted in the first Mongol invasion attempt in 1274 on the island of Kyushu. After only a few hours of fighting, however, the large naval invasion fleet, was forced to pull back because of bad weather conditions. This was very fortunate for the Japanese since their odds against the large and modern Mongol force were not favourable at all.

Due to good preparations, the Japanese were able to maintain a strong defence for several weeks during a second invasion attempt which occurred in 1281. But again, the Mongols were finally forced to withdraw mainly because of bad weather. Kyushu remained in alert for a possible third invasion attempt, but the Mongols soon had too many problems on the mainland in order to care about Japan.

The consequences of the many years of war preparations against the Mongols were fatal to the Kamakura government since they resulted only in expenditures and no profits. Many of the loyal men who were fighting for Kamakura, were now waiting for rewards that the government could not pay. Hence, financial problems and decreasing loyalty among the powerful lords were some of the reasons for the fall of the Kamakura government.

By 1333 the power of the Hojo regents had declined to such a degree that the emperor Go-Daigo was able to restore imperial power and overthrow the Kamakura Bakufu.

Muromachi Period (1333 - 1573

The emperor Go-Daigo was able to restore imperial power in Kyoto and to overthrow the Kamakura Bakufu in 1333. However, the revival of the old imperial offices under the Kemmu restoration (1334) did not last for long because the old administration system was out of date and practice, and incompetent officials failed gaining the support of the powerful landowners.

Ashikaga Takauji, once fighting for the emperor, now challenged the imperial court and succeeded in capturing Kyoto in 1336. Go-Daigo, consequently, fled to Yoshino in the South of Kyoto where he founded the Southern court. At the same time, another emperor was appointed in Kyoto. This was possible because of a succession dispute that had been going on between two lines of the imperial family since the death of emperor Go-Saga in 1272.

In 1338 Takauji appointed himself shogun and established his government in Kyoto. The Muromachi district where the government buildings were located from 1378 gave the government and the historical period their names.

Two imperial courts existed in Japan for over 50 years: the Southern and Northern courts. They fought many battles against each other. The Northern court usually was in a more advantageous position; nevertheless, the South succeeded in capturing Kyoto several times for short time periods resulting in the destruction of the capital on a regular basis. The Southern court finally gave in in 1392, and the country became emperor-wise reunited again.

Religion in Japan

Shinto and Buddhism are Japan's two major religions. They have been co-existing for several centuries and have even complemented each other to a certain degree. Most Japanese consider themselves Buddhist, Shintoist or both.
Religion does not play a big role in the everyday life of most Japanese people today. The average person typically follows the religious rituals at ceremonies like birth, weddings and funerals, may visit a shrine or temple on New Year and participates at local festivals (matsuri), most of which have a religious background.

Postwar (since 1945)

After World War II had ended, Japan was devastated. All the large cities (with the exception of Kyoto), the industries and the transportation networks were severely damaged. A severe shortage of food continued for several years.

The occupation of Japan by the Allied Powers started in August 1945 and ended in April 1952. General MacArthur was its first Supreme Commander. The whole operation was mainly carried out by the United States.

Japan basically lost all the territory acquired after 1894. In addition, the Kurile islands were occupied by the Soviet Union, and the Ryukyu Islands, including Okinawa, were controlled by the USA. Okinawa was returned to Japan in 1972, however a territorial dispute with Russia concerning the Kurile Islands has not been resolved yet.

The remains of Japan's war machine were destroyed, and war crime trials were held. Over 500 military officers committed suicide right after Japan surrendered, and many hundreds more were executed for committing war crimes. Emperor Showa was not declared a war criminal.

A new constitution went into effect in 1947: The emperor lost all political and military power, and was solely made the symbol of the state. Universal suffrage was introduced and human rights were guaranteed. Japan was also forbidden to ever lead a war again or to maintain an army. Furthermore, Shinto and the state were clearly separated.

MacArthur also intended to break up power concentrations by dissolving the zaibatsu and other large companies, and by decentralizing the education system and the police. In a land reform, concentrations in land ownership were removed.

Especially during the first half of the occupation, Japan's media was subject to a rigid censorship of any anti-American statements and controversial topics such as the race issue.

The co-operation between the Japanese and the Allied powers worked relatively smooth. Critics started to grow when the United States acted increasingly according to her self interests in the Cold War, reintroduced the persecution of communists, stationed more troops in Japan, and wanted Japan to establish an own self defence force despite the anti-war article in the constitution. Many aspects of the occupation's so called "reverse course" were welcomed by conservative Japanese politicians.

With the peace treaty that went into effect in 1952, the occupation ended. Japan's Self Defence Force was established in 1954, accompanied by large public demonstrations. Great public unrest was also caused by the renewal of the US-Japan Security Treaty of 1960.

After the Korean War, and accelerated by it, the recovery of Japan's economy flourished. The economic growth resulted in a quick rise of the living standards, changes in society and the stabilization of the ruling position of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), but also in severe pollution.

Japan's relations to the Soviet Union were normalized in 1956, the ones to China in 1972.

The 1973 oil crisis shocked the Japanese economy which was heavily depended on oil. The reaction was a shift to high technology industries.


Militarism and WW2 (1912 - 1945)

During the era of the weak emperor Taisho (1912-26), the political power shifted from the oligarchic clique (genro) to the parliament and the democratic parties.

In the First World War, Japan joined the Allied powers, but played only a minor role in fighting German colonial forces in East Asia. At the following Paris Peace Conference of 1919, Japan's proposal of amending a "racial equality clause" to the covenant of the League of Nations was rejected by the United States, Britain and Australia. Arrogance and racial discrimination towards the Japanese had plagued Japanese-Western relations since the forced opening of the country in the 1800s, and were again a major factor for the deterioration of relations in the decades preceeding World War 2. In 1924, for example, the US Congress passed the Exclusion Act that prohibited further immigration from Japan.

After WW1, Japan's economical situation worsened. The Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923 and the world wide depression of 1929 intensified the crisis.

During the 1930s, the military established almost complete control over the government. Many political enemies were assassinated, and communists persecuted. Indoctrination and censorship in education and media were further intensified. Navy and army officers soon occupied most of the important offices, including the one of the prime minister.

Already earlier, Japan followed the example of Western nations and forced China into unequal economical and political treaties. Furthermore, Japan's influence over Manchuria had been steadily growing since the end of the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-05. When the Chinese Nationalists began to seriously challenge Japan's position in Manchuria in 1931, the Kwantung Army (Japanese armed forces in Manchuria) occupied Manchuria. In the following year, "Manchukuo" was declared an independent state, controlled by the Kwantung Army through a puppet government. In the same year, the Japanese air force bombarded Shanghai in order to protect Japanese residents from anti Japanese movements.


Edo Period (1603 - 1867)

Tokugawa Ieyasu was the most powerful man in Japan after Hideyoshi had died in 1598. Against his promises he did not respect Hideyoshi's successor Hideyori because he wanted to become the absolute ruler of Japan.

In the battle of Sekigahara in 1600, Ieyasu defeated the Hideyori loyalists and other Western rivals. Hence, he achieved almost unlimited power and wealth. In 1603, Ieyasu was appointed Shogun by the emperor and established his government in Edo (Tokyo). The Tokugawa shoguns continued to rule Japan for a remarkable 250 years.

Ieyasu brought the whole country under tight control. He cleverly redistributed the gained land among the daimyo: more loyal vassals (the ones who supported him already before Sekigahara) received strategically more important domains accordingly. Every daimyo was also required to spend every second year in Edo. This meant a huge financial burden for the daimyo and moderated his power at home.

Ieyasu continued to promote foreign trade. He established relations with the English and the Dutch. On the other hand, he enforced the suppression and persecution of Christianity from 1614 on.

After the destruction of the Toyotomi clan in 1615 when Ieyasu captured Osaka Castle, he and his successors had practically no rivals anymore, and peace prevailed throughout the Edo period. Therefore, the warriors (samurai) were educating themselves not only in the martial arts but also in literature, philosophy and the arts, e.g. the tea ceremony.

In 1633, shogun Iemitsu forbade travelling abroad and almost completely isolated Japan in 1639 by reducing the contacts to the outside world to very limited trade relations with China and the Netherlands in the port of Nagasaki. In addition, all foreign books were banned.

Despite the isolation, domestic trade and agricultural production continued to improve. During the Edo period and especially during the Genroku era (1688 - 1703), popular culture flourished. New art forms like kabuki and ukiyo-e became very popular especially among the townspeople.

The most important philosophy of Tokugawa Japan was Neo-Confucianism, stressing the importance of morals, education and hierarchical order in the government and society: A strict four class system existed during the Edo period: at the top of the social hierarchy stood the samurai, followed by the peasants, artisans and merchants. The members of the four classes were not allowed to change their social status. Outcasts (eta), people with professions that were considered impure, formed a fifth class.


Meiji Period (1868 - 1912)

In 1867/68, the Tokugawa era found an end in the Meiji Restoration. The emperor Meiji was moved from Kyoto to Tokyo which became the new capital; his imperial power was restored. The actual political power was transferred from the Tokugawa Bakufu into the hands of a small group of nobles and former samurai.

Like other subjugated Asian nations, the Japanese were forced to sign unequal treaties with Western powers. These treaties granted the Westerners one-sided economical and legal advantages in Japan. In order to regain independence from the Europeans and Americans and establish herself as a respected nation in the world, Meiji Japan was determined to close the gap to the Western powers economically and militarily. Drastic reforms were carried out in practically all areas.

The new government aimed to make Japan a democratic state with equality among all its people. The boundaries between the social classes of Tokugawa Japan were gradually broken down. Consequently, the samurai were the big losers of those social reforms since they lost all their privileges. The reforms also included the establishment of human rights such as religious freedom in 1873.

In order to stabilize the new government, the former feudal lords (daimyo) had to return all their lands to the emperor. This was achieved already in 1870 and followed by the restructuring of the country in prefectures.

The education system was reformed after the French and later after the German system. Among those reforms was the introduction of compulsory education.

After about one to two decades of intensive westernization, a revival of conservative and nationalistic feelings took place: principles of Confucianism and Shinto including the worship of the emperor were increasingly emphasized and taught at educational institutions.

Catching up on the military sector was, of course, a high priority for Japan in an era of European and American imperialism. Universal conscription was introduced, and a new army modelled after the Prussian force, and a navy after the British one were established.

In order to transform the agrarian economy of Tokugawa Japan into a developed industrial one, many Japanese scholars were sent abroad to study Western science and languages, while foreign experts taught in Japan. The transportation and communication networks were improved by means of large governmental investments. The government also directly supported the prospering of businesses and industries, especially the large and powerful family businesses called zaibatsu.

The large expenditures led to a financial crisis in the middle of the 1880's which was followed by a reform of the currency system and the establishment of the Bank of Japan. The textile industry grew fastest and remained the largest Japanese industry until WW2. Work conditions in the early factories were very bad, but developing socialist and liberal movements were soon suppressed by the ruling clique.

On the political sector, Japan received its first European style constitution in 1889. A parliament, the Diet was established while the emperor kept sovereignty: he stood at the top of the army, navy, executive and legislative power. The ruling clique, however, kept on holding the actual power, and the able and intelligent emperor Meiji agreed with most of their actions. Political parties did not yet gain real power due to the lack of unity among their members.

Conflicts of interests in Korea between China and Japan led to the Sino-Japanese War in 1894-95. Japan defeated China, received Taiwan, but was forced by Russia, France and Germany to return other territories. The so called Triple Intervention caused the Japanese army and navy to intensify their rearmament.

New conflicts of interests in Korea and Manchuria, this time between Russia and Japan, led to the Russo-Japanese War in 1904-05. The Japanese army also won this war gaining territory and finally some international respect. Japan further increased her influence on Korea and annexed her completely in 1910. In Japan, the war successes caused nationalism to increase even more, and other Asian nations also started to develop national self confidence.

In 1912 emperor Meiji died, and the era of the ruling clique of elder statesmen (genro) was about to end.


Emperor

According to mythology, Japan's first Emperor Jimmu, a descendant of the Sun Goddess Amaterasu, was enthroned in the year 660 BC. While the myths are not considered historically accurate, it is a commonly accepted fact that emperors have reigned over Japan for more than 1500 years, and that they have all descended from the same imperial family.

Despite the fact that the effective power of the emperors was limited or purely symbolic throughout most of Japan's history, all actual rulers, from the Fujiwara and Hojo regents to the Minamoto, Ashikaga and Tokugawa shoguns respected the emperor and were keen in having the imperial legitimization for their position as rulers of Japan.

With the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the Tokugawa shogunate was overthrown, and Emperor Meiji became the head of state. Under the new Meiji constitution, the Emperor held sovereign power, and his political and military power was theoretically close to absolute. In praxis, however, the real power first laid with the oligarchic genro and later with the generals and admirals.

The postwar constitution of 1946 states that the emperor has only a symbolic function. He now mainly participates at ceremonies and diplomatic meetings, but has no effective political power.

In 1989, Emperor Akihito became Japan's 125th emperor. He is married to Empress Michiko, the first empress who did not come from the nobility. Their eldest son is Crown Prince Naruhito. The imperial family resides in the Imperial Palace in Tokyo.


SOURCE:
http://www.japan-guide.com
http://www.cnmi-guide.com/history/japanese/

Joyce Ann Osorio said...

Group 6
Joyce Ann Osorio
Chiney Rose Eleria
Camille Angelique Lopez
Arichel Cabildo
Marianne Mejia
Madelaine Sophie Paje
Carmina Castro
Boa 1-10D
March 28, 2008
“JAPANESE PERIOD”


Japan withdrew from the League of Nations in 1935 after it had
virtually annexed the Islands into the Empire.
By 1936 a thriving fishing industry had developed as well as a
sugar industry which occupied 68 percent of the arable land on
Saipan, 80 percent on Tinian and 33 percent on Rota.
The resident population grew to 23,800 on Saipan (of which only
3,222 were originally from the islands); 1,530 on Tinian (25
Chamorros) and 5,600 on Rota (791 Chamorros).
By the time the dark clouds of war had gathered over the western
Pacific, some 29,692 Japanese military personnel were garrisoned
on Saipan.
The islands were assaulted by American forces on June 15, 1944
and one of the most hotly contested battles of the entire war was
fought on its sandy beaches and mountainous terrain. American
forces gained control of the island on July 1944 and the construction
of bases and airfields began.
It was from such airfield on Tinian that the first nuclear weapon was
dropped on Hiroshima by the B -29 aircraft Enola Gay hastening the
end of hostilities. The airfields on Tinian which in 1945 were the
busiest in the world are now largely abandoned.

Early Japan (until 710)

During the Jomon Period (13000 BC to 300 BC), the inhabitants of the Japanese islands were gatherers, fishers and hunters. Jomon is the name of the era's pottery.

During the Yayoi Period (300 BC to 300 AD), the rice culture was imported into Japan around 100 BC. With the introduction of agriculture, social classes started to evolve, and parts of the country began to unite under powerful land owners. Chinese travellers during the Han and Wei dynasties reported that a queen called Himiko (or Pimiku) reigned over Japan at that time. The Yayoi period brought also the introduction of iron and other modern ideas from Korea into Japan. Again, its pottery gave the period its name.

By the beginning of the Kofun Period (300 - 538), a center of power had developed in the fertile Kinai plain, and by about 400 AD the country was united as Yamato Japan with its political center in and around the province of Yamato (about today's Nara prefecture). The period's name comes from the large tombs (kofun) that were built for the political leaders of that era. Yamato Japan extended from Kyushu to the Kinai plain, but did not yet include the Kanto, Tohoku and Hokkaido.

The emperor was ruler of Yamato Japan and resided in a capital that was moved frequently from one city to another. However, the Soga clan soon took over the actual political power, resulting in the fact that most of the emperors only acted as the symbol of the state and performed Shinto rituals.

Due to friendly relations to the kingdom of Kudara (or Paikche) on the Korean peninsula, the influence from the mainland increased strongly. Buddhism was introduced to Japan in the year 538 or 552 and was promoted by the ruling class. Prince Shotoku is said to have played an especially important role in promoting Chinese ideas. He also wrote the Constitution of Seventeen Articles about moral and political principles. Also the theories of Confucianism and Taoism, as well as the Chinese writing system were introduced to Japan during the Yamato period.

In 645, Nakatomi no Kamatari started the era of the Fujiwara clan that was to last until the rise of the military class (samurai) in the 11th century. In the same year, the Taika reforms were realized: A new government and administrative system was established after the Chinese model. All land was bought by the state and redistributed equally among the farmers in a large land reform in order to introduce the new tax system that was also adopted from China.


Nara and Heian Periods (710 - 1185)

In the year 710, the first permanent Japanese capital was established in Nara, a city modelled after the Chinese capital. Large Buddhist monasteries were built in the new capital. The monasteries quickly gained such strong political influence that, in order to protect the position of the emperor and central government, the capital was moved to Nagaoka in 784, and finally to Heian (Kyoto) in 794 where it should remain for over one thousand years.

One characteristic of the Nara and Heian periods is a gradual decline of Chinese influence which, nevertheless, remained strong. Many of the imported ideas were gradually "Japanized". In order to meet particular Japanese needs, several governmental offices were established in addition to the government system which was copied after the Chinese model, for example. In the arts too, native Japanese movements became increasingly popular. The development of the Kana syllables made the creation of actual Japanese literature possible. Several new Buddhist sects that were imported from China during the Heian period, were also "Japanized".

Among the worst failures of the Taika reforms were the land and taxation reforms: High taxes resulted in the impoverishment of many farmers who then had to sell their properties and became tenants of larger land owners. Furthermore, many aristocrats and the Buddhist monasteries succeeded in achieving tax immunity. As a result, the state income decreased, and over the centuries, the political power steadily shifted from the central government to the large independent land owners.

The Fujiwara family controlled the political scene of the Heian period over several centuries through strategic intermarriages with the imperial family and by occupying all the important political offices in Kyoto and the major provinces. The power of the clan reached its peak with Fujiwara Michinaga in the year 1016. After Michinaga, however, the ability of the Fujiwara leaders began to decline, and public order could not be maintained. Many land owners hired samurai for the protection of their properties. That is how the military class became more and more influential, especially in Eastern Japan.

The Fujiwara supremacy came to an end in 1068 when the new emperor Go-Sanjo was determined to rule the country by himself, and the Fujiwara failed to control him. In the year 1086 Go-Sanjo abdicated but continued to rule from behind the political stage. This new form of government was called Insei government. Insei emperors exerted political power from 1086 until 1156 when Taira Kiyomori became the new leader of Japan.

In the 12th century, two military families with aristocratic backgrounds gained much power: the Minamoto (or Genji) and Taira (or Heike) families. The Taira replaced many Fujiwara nobles in important offices while the Minamoto gained military experience by bringing parts of Northern Honshu under Japanese control in the Early Nine Years War (1050 - 1059) and the Later Three Years war (1083 - 1087).

After the Heiji Rising (1159), a struggle for power between the two families, Taira Kiyomori evolved as the leader of Japan and ruled the country from 1168 to 1178 through the emperor. The major threats with which he was confronted were not only the rivalling Minamoto but also the increasingly militant Buddhist monasteries which frequently led wars between each other and disturbed public order.

After Kiyomori's death, the Taira and Minamoto clans fought a deciding war for supremacy, the Gempei War, which lasted from 1180 to 1185. By the end of the war, the Minamoto were able to put an end to Taira supremacy, and Minamoto Yoritomo succeeded as the leader of Japan. After eliminating all of his potential and acute enemies, including close family members, he was appointed Shogun (highest military officer) and established a new government in his home city Kamakura.

Kamakura Period (1192 - 1333)

In 1185, the Minamoto family took over the control over Japan after defeating the Taira clan in the Gempei war. Minamoto Yoritomo was appointed shogun in the year 1192 and established a new government, the Kamakura Bakufu. The new feudal government was organized in a simpler way than the one in Kyoto and worked much more efficient under Japanese conditions.

After Yoritomo's death in 1199, quarrels for supremacy started between the Bakufu of Kamakura and the Imperial court in Kyoto. Those quarrels for supremacy found an end in the Jokyu disturbance in 1221 when Kamakura defeated the Imperial army in Kyoto, and the Hojo regents in Kamakura achieved complete control over Japan. By redistributing the land gained during the Jokyu disturbance, they were able to achieve loyalty among all the powerful people throughout the country. The emperor and the remaining governmental offices in Kyoto lost practically all effective power.

Chinese influence continued to be relatively strong during the Kamakura period. New Buddhist sects were introduced: the Zen sect (introduced 1191) found large numbers of followers among the samurai, which were now the leading social class. Another new Buddhist sect, the radical and intolerant Lotus Sutra sect was founded in 1253 by Nichiren.

In 1232 a legal code, the Joei Shikimoku was promulgated. It stressed Confucian values such as the importance of loyalty to the master, and generally attempted to suppress a decline of morals and discipline. Tight control was maintained by the Hojo clan, and any signs of rebellions were destroyed immediately.

The shogun stayed in Kamakura without much power while deputies of him were located in Kyoto and Western Japan. Stewards and constables controlled the provinces tightly and loyally. Indeed, the Hojo regents were able to bring several decades of peace and economic expansion to the country until an external power began to threaten Japan.

By 1259, the Mongols had conquered China and became also interested in Japan. Several threatening messages of the powerful Mongols were ignored by Kamakura. This resulted in the first Mongol invasion attempt in 1274 on the island of Kyushu. After only a few hours of fighting, however, the large naval invasion fleet, was forced to pull back because of bad weather conditions. This was very fortunate for the Japanese since their odds against the large and modern Mongol force were not favourable at all.

Due to good preparations, the Japanese were able to maintain a strong defence for several weeks during a second invasion attempt which occurred in 1281. But again, the Mongols were finally forced to withdraw mainly because of bad weather. Kyushu remained in alert for a possible third invasion attempt, but the Mongols soon had too many problems on the mainland in order to care about Japan.

The consequences of the many years of war preparations against the Mongols were fatal to the Kamakura government since they resulted only in expenditures and no profits. Many of the loyal men who were fighting for Kamakura, were now waiting for rewards that the government could not pay. Hence, financial problems and decreasing loyalty among the powerful lords were some of the reasons for the fall of the Kamakura government.

By 1333 the power of the Hojo regents had declined to such a degree that the emperor Go-Daigo was able to restore imperial power and overthrow the Kamakura Bakufu.

Muromachi Period (1333 - 1573

The emperor Go-Daigo was able to restore imperial power in Kyoto and to overthrow the Kamakura Bakufu in 1333. However, the revival of the old imperial offices under the Kemmu restoration (1334) did not last for long because the old administration system was out of date and practice, and incompetent officials failed gaining the support of the powerful landowners.

Ashikaga Takauji, once fighting for the emperor, now challenged the imperial court and succeeded in capturing Kyoto in 1336. Go-Daigo, consequently, fled to Yoshino in the South of Kyoto where he founded the Southern court. At the same time, another emperor was appointed in Kyoto. This was possible because of a succession dispute that had been going on between two lines of the imperial family since the death of emperor Go-Saga in 1272.

In 1338 Takauji appointed himself shogun and established his government in Kyoto. The Muromachi district where the government buildings were located from 1378 gave the government and the historical period their names.

Two imperial courts existed in Japan for over 50 years: the Southern and Northern courts. They fought many battles against each other. The Northern court usually was in a more advantageous position; nevertheless, the South succeeded in capturing Kyoto several times for short time periods resulting in the destruction of the capital on a regular basis. The Southern court finally gave in in 1392, and the country became emperor-wise reunited again.

Religion in Japan

Shinto and Buddhism are Japan's two major religions. They have been co-existing for several centuries and have even complemented each other to a certain degree. Most Japanese consider themselves Buddhist, Shintoist or both.
Religion does not play a big role in the everyday life of most Japanese people today. The average person typically follows the religious rituals at ceremonies like birth, weddings and funerals, may visit a shrine or temple on New Year and participates at local festivals (matsuri), most of which have a religious background.

Postwar (since 1945)

After World War II had ended, Japan was devastated. All the large cities (with the exception of Kyoto), the industries and the transportation networks were severely damaged. A severe shortage of food continued for several years.

The occupation of Japan by the Allied Powers started in August 1945 and ended in April 1952. General MacArthur was its first Supreme Commander. The whole operation was mainly carried out by the United States.

Japan basically lost all the territory acquired after 1894. In addition, the Kurile islands were occupied by the Soviet Union, and the Ryukyu Islands, including Okinawa, were controlled by the USA. Okinawa was returned to Japan in 1972, however a territorial dispute with Russia concerning the Kurile Islands has not been resolved yet.

The remains of Japan's war machine were destroyed, and war crime trials were held. Over 500 military officers committed suicide right after Japan surrendered, and many hundreds more were executed for committing war crimes. Emperor Showa was not declared a war criminal.

A new constitution went into effect in 1947: The emperor lost all political and military power, and was solely made the symbol of the state. Universal suffrage was introduced and human rights were guaranteed. Japan was also forbidden to ever lead a war again or to maintain an army. Furthermore, Shinto and the state were clearly separated.

MacArthur also intended to break up power concentrations by dissolving the zaibatsu and other large companies, and by decentralizing the education system and the police. In a land reform, concentrations in land ownership were removed.

Especially during the first half of the occupation, Japan's media was subject to a rigid censorship of any anti-American statements and controversial topics such as the race issue.

The co-operation between the Japanese and the Allied powers worked relatively smooth. Critics started to grow when the United States acted increasingly according to her self interests in the Cold War, reintroduced the persecution of communists, stationed more troops in Japan, and wanted Japan to establish an own self defence force despite the anti-war article in the constitution. Many aspects of the occupation's so called "reverse course" were welcomed by conservative Japanese politicians.

With the peace treaty that went into effect in 1952, the occupation ended. Japan's Self Defence Force was established in 1954, accompanied by large public demonstrations. Great public unrest was also caused by the renewal of the US-Japan Security Treaty of 1960.

After the Korean War, and accelerated by it, the recovery of Japan's economy flourished. The economic growth resulted in a quick rise of the living standards, changes in society and the stabilization of the ruling position of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), but also in severe pollution.

Japan's relations to the Soviet Union were normalized in 1956, the ones to China in 1972.

The 1973 oil crisis shocked the Japanese economy which was heavily depended on oil. The reaction was a shift to high technology industries.


Militarism and WW2 (1912 - 1945)

During the era of the weak emperor Taisho (1912-26), the political power shifted from the oligarchic clique (genro) to the parliament and the democratic parties.

In the First World War, Japan joined the Allied powers, but played only a minor role in fighting German colonial forces in East Asia. At the following Paris Peace Conference of 1919, Japan's proposal of amending a "racial equality clause" to the covenant of the League of Nations was rejected by the United States, Britain and Australia. Arrogance and racial discrimination towards the Japanese had plagued Japanese-Western relations since the forced opening of the country in the 1800s, and were again a major factor for the deterioration of relations in the decades preceeding World War 2. In 1924, for example, the US Congress passed the Exclusion Act that prohibited further immigration from Japan.

After WW1, Japan's economical situation worsened. The Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923 and the world wide depression of 1929 intensified the crisis.

During the 1930s, the military established almost complete control over the government. Many political enemies were assassinated, and communists persecuted. Indoctrination and censorship in education and media were further intensified. Navy and army officers soon occupied most of the important offices, including the one of the prime minister.

Already earlier, Japan followed the example of Western nations and forced China into unequal economical and political treaties. Furthermore, Japan's influence over Manchuria had been steadily growing since the end of the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-05. When the Chinese Nationalists began to seriously challenge Japan's position in Manchuria in 1931, the Kwantung Army (Japanese armed forces in Manchuria) occupied Manchuria. In the following year, "Manchukuo" was declared an independent state, controlled by the Kwantung Army through a puppet government. In the same year, the Japanese air force bombarded Shanghai in order to protect Japanese residents from anti Japanese movements.


Edo Period (1603 - 1867)

Tokugawa Ieyasu was the most powerful man in Japan after Hideyoshi had died in 1598. Against his promises he did not respect Hideyoshi's successor Hideyori because he wanted to become the absolute ruler of Japan.

In the battle of Sekigahara in 1600, Ieyasu defeated the Hideyori loyalists and other Western rivals. Hence, he achieved almost unlimited power and wealth. In 1603, Ieyasu was appointed Shogun by the emperor and established his government in Edo (Tokyo). The Tokugawa shoguns continued to rule Japan for a remarkable 250 years.

Ieyasu brought the whole country under tight control. He cleverly redistributed the gained land among the daimyo: more loyal vassals (the ones who supported him already before Sekigahara) received strategically more important domains accordingly. Every daimyo was also required to spend every second year in Edo. This meant a huge financial burden for the daimyo and moderated his power at home.

Ieyasu continued to promote foreign trade. He established relations with the English and the Dutch. On the other hand, he enforced the suppression and persecution of Christianity from 1614 on.

After the destruction of the Toyotomi clan in 1615 when Ieyasu captured Osaka Castle, he and his successors had practically no rivals anymore, and peace prevailed throughout the Edo period. Therefore, the warriors (samurai) were educating themselves not only in the martial arts but also in literature, philosophy and the arts, e.g. the tea ceremony.

In 1633, shogun Iemitsu forbade travelling abroad and almost completely isolated Japan in 1639 by reducing the contacts to the outside world to very limited trade relations with China and the Netherlands in the port of Nagasaki. In addition, all foreign books were banned.

Despite the isolation, domestic trade and agricultural production continued to improve. During the Edo period and especially during the Genroku era (1688 - 1703), popular culture flourished. New art forms like kabuki and ukiyo-e became very popular especially among the townspeople.

The most important philosophy of Tokugawa Japan was Neo-Confucianism, stressing the importance of morals, education and hierarchical order in the government and society: A strict four class system existed during the Edo period: at the top of the social hierarchy stood the samurai, followed by the peasants, artisans and merchants. The members of the four classes were not allowed to change their social status. Outcasts (eta), people with professions that were considered impure, formed a fifth class.


Meiji Period (1868 - 1912)

In 1867/68, the Tokugawa era found an end in the Meiji Restoration. The emperor Meiji was moved from Kyoto to Tokyo which became the new capital; his imperial power was restored. The actual political power was transferred from the Tokugawa Bakufu into the hands of a small group of nobles and former samurai.

Like other subjugated Asian nations, the Japanese were forced to sign unequal treaties with Western powers. These treaties granted the Westerners one-sided economical and legal advantages in Japan. In order to regain independence from the Europeans and Americans and establish herself as a respected nation in the world, Meiji Japan was determined to close the gap to the Western powers economically and militarily. Drastic reforms were carried out in practically all areas.

The new government aimed to make Japan a democratic state with equality among all its people. The boundaries between the social classes of Tokugawa Japan were gradually broken down. Consequently, the samurai were the big losers of those social reforms since they lost all their privileges. The reforms also included the establishment of human rights such as religious freedom in 1873.

In order to stabilize the new government, the former feudal lords (daimyo) had to return all their lands to the emperor. This was achieved already in 1870 and followed by the restructuring of the country in prefectures.

The education system was reformed after the French and later after the German system. Among those reforms was the introduction of compulsory education.

After about one to two decades of intensive westernization, a revival of conservative and nationalistic feelings took place: principles of Confucianism and Shinto including the worship of the emperor were increasingly emphasized and taught at educational institutions.

Catching up on the military sector was, of course, a high priority for Japan in an era of European and American imperialism. Universal conscription was introduced, and a new army modelled after the Prussian force, and a navy after the British one were established.

In order to transform the agrarian economy of Tokugawa Japan into a developed industrial one, many Japanese scholars were sent abroad to study Western science and languages, while foreign experts taught in Japan. The transportation and communication networks were improved by means of large governmental investments. The government also directly supported the prospering of businesses and industries, especially the large and powerful family businesses called zaibatsu.

The large expenditures led to a financial crisis in the middle of the 1880's which was followed by a reform of the currency system and the establishment of the Bank of Japan. The textile industry grew fastest and remained the largest Japanese industry until WW2. Work conditions in the early factories were very bad, but developing socialist and liberal movements were soon suppressed by the ruling clique.

On the political sector, Japan received its first European style constitution in 1889. A parliament, the Diet was established while the emperor kept sovereignty: he stood at the top of the army, navy, executive and legislative power. The ruling clique, however, kept on holding the actual power, and the able and intelligent emperor Meiji agreed with most of their actions. Political parties did not yet gain real power due to the lack of unity among their members.

Conflicts of interests in Korea between China and Japan led to the Sino-Japanese War in 1894-95. Japan defeated China, received Taiwan, but was forced by Russia, France and Germany to return other territories. The so called Triple Intervention caused the Japanese army and navy to intensify their rearmament.

New conflicts of interests in Korea and Manchuria, this time between Russia and Japan, led to the Russo-Japanese War in 1904-05. The Japanese army also won this war gaining territory and finally some international respect. Japan further increased her influence on Korea and annexed her completely in 1910. In Japan, the war successes caused nationalism to increase even more, and other Asian nations also started to develop national self confidence.

In 1912 emperor Meiji died, and the era of the ruling clique of elder statesmen (genro) was about to end.


Emperor

According to mythology, Japan's first Emperor Jimmu, a descendant of the Sun Goddess Amaterasu, was enthroned in the year 660 BC. While the myths are not considered historically accurate, it is a commonly accepted fact that emperors have reigned over Japan for more than 1500 years, and that they have all descended from the same imperial family.

Despite the fact that the effective power of the emperors was limited or purely symbolic throughout most of Japan's history, all actual rulers, from the Fujiwara and Hojo regents to the Minamoto, Ashikaga and Tokugawa shoguns respected the emperor and were keen in having the imperial legitimization for their position as rulers of Japan.

With the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the Tokugawa shogunate was overthrown, and Emperor Meiji became the head of state. Under the new Meiji constitution, the Emperor held sovereign power, and his political and military power was theoretically close to absolute. In praxis, however, the real power first laid with the oligarchic genro and later with the generals and admirals.

The postwar constitution of 1946 states that the emperor has only a symbolic function. He now mainly participates at ceremonies and diplomatic meetings, but has no effective political power.

In 1989, Emperor Akihito became Japan's 125th emperor. He is married to Empress Michiko, the first empress who did not come from the nobility. Their eldest son is Crown Prince Naruhito. The imperial family resides in the Imperial Palace in Tokyo.


SOURCE:
http://www.japan-guide.com
http://www.cnmi-guide.com/history/japanese/

Joyce Ann Osorio said...

Group 6
Joyce Ann Osorio
Chiney Rose Eleria
Camille Angelique Lopez
Arichel Cabildo
Marianne Mejia
Madelaine Sophie Paje
Carmina Castro
Boa 1-10D
March 28, 2008
“JAPANESE PERIOD”


Japan withdrew from the League of Nations in 1935 after it had
virtually annexed the Islands into the Empire.
By 1936 a thriving fishing industry had developed as well as a
sugar industry which occupied 68 percent of the arable land on
Saipan, 80 percent on Tinian and 33 percent on Rota.
The resident population grew to 23,800 on Saipan (of which only
3,222 were originally from the islands); 1,530 on Tinian (25
Chamorros) and 5,600 on Rota (791 Chamorros).
By the time the dark clouds of war had gathered over the western
Pacific, some 29,692 Japanese military personnel were garrisoned
on Saipan.
The islands were assaulted by American forces on June 15, 1944
and one of the most hotly contested battles of the entire war was
fought on its sandy beaches and mountainous terrain. American
forces gained control of the island on July 1944 and the construction
of bases and airfields began.
It was from such airfield on Tinian that the first nuclear weapon was
dropped on Hiroshima by the B -29 aircraft Enola Gay hastening the
end of hostilities. The airfields on Tinian which in 1945 were the
busiest in the world are now largely abandoned.

Early Japan (until 710)

During the Jomon Period (13000 BC to 300 BC), the inhabitants of the Japanese islands were gatherers, fishers and hunters. Jomon is the name of the era's pottery.

During the Yayoi Period (300 BC to 300 AD), the rice culture was imported into Japan around 100 BC. With the introduction of agriculture, social classes started to evolve, and parts of the country began to unite under powerful land owners. Chinese travellers during the Han and Wei dynasties reported that a queen called Himiko (or Pimiku) reigned over Japan at that time. The Yayoi period brought also the introduction of iron and other modern ideas from Korea into Japan. Again, its pottery gave the period its name.

By the beginning of the Kofun Period (300 - 538), a center of power had developed in the fertile Kinai plain, and by about 400 AD the country was united as Yamato Japan with its political center in and around the province of Yamato (about today's Nara prefecture). The period's name comes from the large tombs (kofun) that were built for the political leaders of that era. Yamato Japan extended from Kyushu to the Kinai plain, but did not yet include the Kanto, Tohoku and Hokkaido.

The emperor was ruler of Yamato Japan and resided in a capital that was moved frequently from one city to another. However, the Soga clan soon took over the actual political power, resulting in the fact that most of the emperors only acted as the symbol of the state and performed Shinto rituals.

Due to friendly relations to the kingdom of Kudara (or Paikche) on the Korean peninsula, the influence from the mainland increased strongly. Buddhism was introduced to Japan in the year 538 or 552 and was promoted by the ruling class. Prince Shotoku is said to have played an especially important role in promoting Chinese ideas. He also wrote the Constitution of Seventeen Articles about moral and political principles. Also the theories of Confucianism and Taoism, as well as the Chinese writing system were introduced to Japan during the Yamato period.

In 645, Nakatomi no Kamatari started the era of the Fujiwara clan that was to last until the rise of the military class (samurai) in the 11th century. In the same year, the Taika reforms were realized: A new government and administrative system was established after the Chinese model. All land was bought by the state and redistributed equally among the farmers in a large land reform in order to introduce the new tax system that was also adopted from China.


Nara and Heian Periods (710 - 1185)

In the year 710, the first permanent Japanese capital was established in Nara, a city modelled after the Chinese capital. Large Buddhist monasteries were built in the new capital. The monasteries quickly gained such strong political influence that, in order to protect the position of the emperor and central government, the capital was moved to Nagaoka in 784, and finally to Heian (Kyoto) in 794 where it should remain for over one thousand years.

One characteristic of the Nara and Heian periods is a gradual decline of Chinese influence which, nevertheless, remained strong. Many of the imported ideas were gradually "Japanized". In order to meet particular Japanese needs, several governmental offices were established in addition to the government system which was copied after the Chinese model, for example. In the arts too, native Japanese movements became increasingly popular. The development of the Kana syllables made the creation of actual Japanese literature possible. Several new Buddhist sects that were imported from China during the Heian period, were also "Japanized".

Among the worst failures of the Taika reforms were the land and taxation reforms: High taxes resulted in the impoverishment of many farmers who then had to sell their properties and became tenants of larger land owners. Furthermore, many aristocrats and the Buddhist monasteries succeeded in achieving tax immunity. As a result, the state income decreased, and over the centuries, the political power steadily shifted from the central government to the large independent land owners.

The Fujiwara family controlled the political scene of the Heian period over several centuries through strategic intermarriages with the imperial family and by occupying all the important political offices in Kyoto and the major provinces. The power of the clan reached its peak with Fujiwara Michinaga in the year 1016. After Michinaga, however, the ability of the Fujiwara leaders began to decline, and public order could not be maintained. Many land owners hired samurai for the protection of their properties. That is how the military class became more and more influential, especially in Eastern Japan.

The Fujiwara supremacy came to an end in 1068 when the new emperor Go-Sanjo was determined to rule the country by himself, and the Fujiwara failed to control him. In the year 1086 Go-Sanjo abdicated but continued to rule from behind the political stage. This new form of government was called Insei government. Insei emperors exerted political power from 1086 until 1156 when Taira Kiyomori became the new leader of Japan.

In the 12th century, two military families with aristocratic backgrounds gained much power: the Minamoto (or Genji) and Taira (or Heike) families. The Taira replaced many Fujiwara nobles in important offices while the Minamoto gained military experience by bringing parts of Northern Honshu under Japanese control in the Early Nine Years War (1050 - 1059) and the Later Three Years war (1083 - 1087).

After the Heiji Rising (1159), a struggle for power between the two families, Taira Kiyomori evolved as the leader of Japan and ruled the country from 1168 to 1178 through the emperor. The major threats with which he was confronted were not only the rivalling Minamoto but also the increasingly militant Buddhist monasteries which frequently led wars between each other and disturbed public order.

After Kiyomori's death, the Taira and Minamoto clans fought a deciding war for supremacy, the Gempei War, which lasted from 1180 to 1185. By the end of the war, the Minamoto were able to put an end to Taira supremacy, and Minamoto Yoritomo succeeded as the leader of Japan. After eliminating all of his potential and acute enemies, including close family members, he was appointed Shogun (highest military officer) and established a new government in his home city Kamakura.

Kamakura Period (1192 - 1333)

In 1185, the Minamoto family took over the control over Japan after defeating the Taira clan in the Gempei war. Minamoto Yoritomo was appointed shogun in the year 1192 and established a new government, the Kamakura Bakufu. The new feudal government was organized in a simpler way than the one in Kyoto and worked much more efficient under Japanese conditions.

After Yoritomo's death in 1199, quarrels for supremacy started between the Bakufu of Kamakura and the Imperial court in Kyoto. Those quarrels for supremacy found an end in the Jokyu disturbance in 1221 when Kamakura defeated the Imperial army in Kyoto, and the Hojo regents in Kamakura achieved complete control over Japan. By redistributing the land gained during the Jokyu disturbance, they were able to achieve loyalty among all the powerful people throughout the country. The emperor and the remaining governmental offices in Kyoto lost practically all effective power.

Chinese influence continued to be relatively strong during the Kamakura period. New Buddhist sects were introduced: the Zen sect (introduced 1191) found large numbers of followers among the samurai, which were now the leading social class. Another new Buddhist sect, the radical and intolerant Lotus Sutra sect was founded in 1253 by Nichiren.

In 1232 a legal code, the Joei Shikimoku was promulgated. It stressed Confucian values such as the importance of loyalty to the master, and generally attempted to suppress a decline of morals and discipline. Tight control was maintained by the Hojo clan, and any signs of rebellions were destroyed immediately.

The shogun stayed in Kamakura without much power while deputies of him were located in Kyoto and Western Japan. Stewards and constables controlled the provinces tightly and loyally. Indeed, the Hojo regents were able to bring several decades of peace and economic expansion to the country until an external power began to threaten Japan.

By 1259, the Mongols had conquered China and became also interested in Japan. Several threatening messages of the powerful Mongols were ignored by Kamakura. This resulted in the first Mongol invasion attempt in 1274 on the island of Kyushu. After only a few hours of fighting, however, the large naval invasion fleet, was forced to pull back because of bad weather conditions. This was very fortunate for the Japanese since their odds against the large and modern Mongol force were not favourable at all.

Due to good preparations, the Japanese were able to maintain a strong defence for several weeks during a second invasion attempt which occurred in 1281. But again, the Mongols were finally forced to withdraw mainly because of bad weather. Kyushu remained in alert for a possible third invasion attempt, but the Mongols soon had too many problems on the mainland in order to care about Japan.

The consequences of the many years of war preparations against the Mongols were fatal to the Kamakura government since they resulted only in expenditures and no profits. Many of the loyal men who were fighting for Kamakura, were now waiting for rewards that the government could not pay. Hence, financial problems and decreasing loyalty among the powerful lords were some of the reasons for the fall of the Kamakura government.

By 1333 the power of the Hojo regents had declined to such a degree that the emperor Go-Daigo was able to restore imperial power and overthrow the Kamakura Bakufu.

Muromachi Period (1333 - 1573

The emperor Go-Daigo was able to restore imperial power in Kyoto and to overthrow the Kamakura Bakufu in 1333. However, the revival of the old imperial offices under the Kemmu restoration (1334) did not last for long because the old administration system was out of date and practice, and incompetent officials failed gaining the support of the powerful landowners.

Ashikaga Takauji, once fighting for the emperor, now challenged the imperial court and succeeded in capturing Kyoto in 1336. Go-Daigo, consequently, fled to Yoshino in the South of Kyoto where he founded the Southern court. At the same time, another emperor was appointed in Kyoto. This was possible because of a succession dispute that had been going on between two lines of the imperial family since the death of emperor Go-Saga in 1272.

In 1338 Takauji appointed himself shogun and established his government in Kyoto. The Muromachi district where the government buildings were located from 1378 gave the government and the historical period their names.

Two imperial courts existed in Japan for over 50 years: the Southern and Northern courts. They fought many battles against each other. The Northern court usually was in a more advantageous position; nevertheless, the South succeeded in capturing Kyoto several times for short time periods resulting in the destruction of the capital on a regular basis. The Southern court finally gave in in 1392, and the country became emperor-wise reunited again.

Religion in Japan

Shinto and Buddhism are Japan's two major religions. They have been co-existing for several centuries and have even complemented each other to a certain degree. Most Japanese consider themselves Buddhist, Shintoist or both.
Religion does not play a big role in the everyday life of most Japanese people today. The average person typically follows the religious rituals at ceremonies like birth, weddings and funerals, may visit a shrine or temple on New Year and participates at local festivals (matsuri), most of which have a religious background.

Postwar (since 1945)

After World War II had ended, Japan was devastated. All the large cities (with the exception of Kyoto), the industries and the transportation networks were severely damaged. A severe shortage of food continued for several years.

The occupation of Japan by the Allied Powers started in August 1945 and ended in April 1952. General MacArthur was its first Supreme Commander. The whole operation was mainly carried out by the United States.

Japan basically lost all the territory acquired after 1894. In addition, the Kurile islands were occupied by the Soviet Union, and the Ryukyu Islands, including Okinawa, were controlled by the USA. Okinawa was returned to Japan in 1972, however a territorial dispute with Russia concerning the Kurile Islands has not been resolved yet.

The remains of Japan's war machine were destroyed, and war crime trials were held. Over 500 military officers committed suicide right after Japan surrendered, and many hundreds more were executed for committing war crimes. Emperor Showa was not declared a war criminal.

A new constitution went into effect in 1947: The emperor lost all political and military power, and was solely made the symbol of the state. Universal suffrage was introduced and human rights were guaranteed. Japan was also forbidden to ever lead a war again or to maintain an army. Furthermore, Shinto and the state were clearly separated.

MacArthur also intended to break up power concentrations by dissolving the zaibatsu and other large companies, and by decentralizing the education system and the police. In a land reform, concentrations in land ownership were removed.

Especially during the first half of the occupation, Japan's media was subject to a rigid censorship of any anti-American statements and controversial topics such as the race issue.

The co-operation between the Japanese and the Allied powers worked relatively smooth. Critics started to grow when the United States acted increasingly according to her self interests in the Cold War, reintroduced the persecution of communists, stationed more troops in Japan, and wanted Japan to establish an own self defence force despite the anti-war article in the constitution. Many aspects of the occupation's so called "reverse course" were welcomed by conservative Japanese politicians.

With the peace treaty that went into effect in 1952, the occupation ended. Japan's Self Defence Force was established in 1954, accompanied by large public demonstrations. Great public unrest was also caused by the renewal of the US-Japan Security Treaty of 1960.

After the Korean War, and accelerated by it, the recovery of Japan's economy flourished. The economic growth resulted in a quick rise of the living standards, changes in society and the stabilization of the ruling position of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), but also in severe pollution.

Japan's relations to the Soviet Union were normalized in 1956, the ones to China in 1972.

The 1973 oil crisis shocked the Japanese economy which was heavily depended on oil. The reaction was a shift to high technology industries.


Militarism and WW2 (1912 - 1945)

During the era of the weak emperor Taisho (1912-26), the political power shifted from the oligarchic clique (genro) to the parliament and the democratic parties.

In the First World War, Japan joined the Allied powers, but played only a minor role in fighting German colonial forces in East Asia. At the following Paris Peace Conference of 1919, Japan's proposal of amending a "racial equality clause" to the covenant of the League of Nations was rejected by the United States, Britain and Australia. Arrogance and racial discrimination towards the Japanese had plagued Japanese-Western relations since the forced opening of the country in the 1800s, and were again a major factor for the deterioration of relations in the decades preceeding World War 2. In 1924, for example, the US Congress passed the Exclusion Act that prohibited further immigration from Japan.

After WW1, Japan's economical situation worsened. The Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923 and the world wide depression of 1929 intensified the crisis.

During the 1930s, the military established almost complete control over the government. Many political enemies were assassinated, and communists persecuted. Indoctrination and censorship in education and media were further intensified. Navy and army officers soon occupied most of the important offices, including the one of the prime minister.

Already earlier, Japan followed the example of Western nations and forced China into unequal economical and political treaties. Furthermore, Japan's influence over Manchuria had been steadily growing since the end of the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-05. When the Chinese Nationalists began to seriously challenge Japan's position in Manchuria in 1931, the Kwantung Army (Japanese armed forces in Manchuria) occupied Manchuria. In the following year, "Manchukuo" was declared an independent state, controlled by the Kwantung Army through a puppet government. In the same year, the Japanese air force bombarded Shanghai in order to protect Japanese residents from anti Japanese movements.


Edo Period (1603 - 1867)

Tokugawa Ieyasu was the most powerful man in Japan after Hideyoshi had died in 1598. Against his promises he did not respect Hideyoshi's successor Hideyori because he wanted to become the absolute ruler of Japan.

In the battle of Sekigahara in 1600, Ieyasu defeated the Hideyori loyalists and other Western rivals. Hence, he achieved almost unlimited power and wealth. In 1603, Ieyasu was appointed Shogun by the emperor and established his government in Edo (Tokyo). The Tokugawa shoguns continued to rule Japan for a remarkable 250 years.

Ieyasu brought the whole country under tight control. He cleverly redistributed the gained land among the daimyo: more loyal vassals (the ones who supported him already before Sekigahara) received strategically more important domains accordingly. Every daimyo was also required to spend every second year in Edo. This meant a huge financial burden for the daimyo and moderated his power at home.

Ieyasu continued to promote foreign trade. He established relations with the English and the Dutch. On the other hand, he enforced the suppression and persecution of Christianity from 1614 on.

After the destruction of the Toyotomi clan in 1615 when Ieyasu captured Osaka Castle, he and his successors had practically no rivals anymore, and peace prevailed throughout the Edo period. Therefore, the warriors (samurai) were educating themselves not only in the martial arts but also in literature, philosophy and the arts, e.g. the tea ceremony.

In 1633, shogun Iemitsu forbade travelling abroad and almost completely isolated Japan in 1639 by reducing the contacts to the outside world to very limited trade relations with China and the Netherlands in the port of Nagasaki. In addition, all foreign books were banned.

Despite the isolation, domestic trade and agricultural production continued to improve. During the Edo period and especially during the Genroku era (1688 - 1703), popular culture flourished. New art forms like kabuki and ukiyo-e became very popular especially among the townspeople.

The most important philosophy of Tokugawa Japan was Neo-Confucianism, stressing the importance of morals, education and hierarchical order in the government and society: A strict four class system existed during the Edo period: at the top of the social hierarchy stood the samurai, followed by the peasants, artisans and merchants. The members of the four classes were not allowed to change their social status. Outcasts (eta), people with professions that were considered impure, formed a fifth class.


Meiji Period (1868 - 1912)

In 1867/68, the Tokugawa era found an end in the Meiji Restoration. The emperor Meiji was moved from Kyoto to Tokyo which became the new capital; his imperial power was restored. The actual political power was transferred from the Tokugawa Bakufu into the hands of a small group of nobles and former samurai.

Like other subjugated Asian nations, the Japanese were forced to sign unequal treaties with Western powers. These treaties granted the Westerners one-sided economical and legal advantages in Japan. In order to regain independence from the Europeans and Americans and establish herself as a respected nation in the world, Meiji Japan was determined to close the gap to the Western powers economically and militarily. Drastic reforms were carried out in practically all areas.

The new government aimed to make Japan a democratic state with equality among all its people. The boundaries between the social classes of Tokugawa Japan were gradually broken down. Consequently, the samurai were the big losers of those social reforms since they lost all their privileges. The reforms also included the establishment of human rights such as religious freedom in 1873.

In order to stabilize the new government, the former feudal lords (daimyo) had to return all their lands to the emperor. This was achieved already in 1870 and followed by the restructuring of the country in prefectures.

The education system was reformed after the French and later after the German system. Among those reforms was the introduction of compulsory education.

After about one to two decades of intensive westernization, a revival of conservative and nationalistic feelings took place: principles of Confucianism and Shinto including the worship of the emperor were increasingly emphasized and taught at educational institutions.

Catching up on the military sector was, of course, a high priority for Japan in an era of European and American imperialism. Universal conscription was introduced, and a new army modelled after the Prussian force, and a navy after the British one were established.

In order to transform the agrarian economy of Tokugawa Japan into a developed industrial one, many Japanese scholars were sent abroad to study Western science and languages, while foreign experts taught in Japan. The transportation and communication networks were improved by means of large governmental investments. The government also directly supported the prospering of businesses and industries, especially the large and powerful family businesses called zaibatsu.

The large expenditures led to a financial crisis in the middle of the 1880's which was followed by a reform of the currency system and the establishment of the Bank of Japan. The textile industry grew fastest and remained the largest Japanese industry until WW2. Work conditions in the early factories were very bad, but developing socialist and liberal movements were soon suppressed by the ruling clique.

On the political sector, Japan received its first European style constitution in 1889. A parliament, the Diet was established while the emperor kept sovereignty: he stood at the top of the army, navy, executive and legislative power. The ruling clique, however, kept on holding the actual power, and the able and intelligent emperor Meiji agreed with most of their actions. Political parties did not yet gain real power due to the lack of unity among their members.

Conflicts of interests in Korea between China and Japan led to the Sino-Japanese War in 1894-95. Japan defeated China, received Taiwan, but was forced by Russia, France and Germany to return other territories. The so called Triple Intervention caused the Japanese army and navy to intensify their rearmament.

New conflicts of interests in Korea and Manchuria, this time between Russia and Japan, led to the Russo-Japanese War in 1904-05. The Japanese army also won this war gaining territory and finally some international respect. Japan further increased her influence on Korea and annexed her completely in 1910. In Japan, the war successes caused nationalism to increase even more, and other Asian nations also started to develop national self confidence.

In 1912 emperor Meiji died, and the era of the ruling clique of elder statesmen (genro) was about to end.


Emperor

According to mythology, Japan's first Emperor Jimmu, a descendant of the Sun Goddess Amaterasu, was enthroned in the year 660 BC. While the myths are not considered historically accurate, it is a commonly accepted fact that emperors have reigned over Japan for more than 1500 years, and that they have all descended from the same imperial family.

Despite the fact that the effective power of the emperors was limited or purely symbolic throughout most of Japan's history, all actual rulers, from the Fujiwara and Hojo regents to the Minamoto, Ashikaga and Tokugawa shoguns respected the emperor and were keen in having the imperial legitimization for their position as rulers of Japan.

With the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the Tokugawa shogunate was overthrown, and Emperor Meiji became the head of state. Under the new Meiji constitution, the Emperor held sovereign power, and his political and military power was theoretically close to absolute. In praxis, however, the real power first laid with the oligarchic genro and later with the generals and admirals.

The postwar constitution of 1946 states that the emperor has only a symbolic function. He now mainly participates at ceremonies and diplomatic meetings, but has no effective political power.

In 1989, Emperor Akihito became Japan's 125th emperor. He is married to Empress Michiko, the first empress who did not come from the nobility. Their eldest son is Crown Prince Naruhito. The imperial family resides in the Imperial Palace in Tokyo.


SOURCE:
http://www.japan-guide.com
http://www.cnmi-guide.com/history/japanese/

Joyce Ann Osorio said...

Group 6
Joyce Ann Osorio
Chiney Rose Eleria
Camille Angelique Lopez
Arichel Cabildo
Marianne Mejia
Madelaine Sophie Paje
Carmina Castro
Boa 1-10D
March 28, 2008
“JAPANESE PERIOD”


Japan withdrew from the League of Nations in 1935 after it had
virtually annexed the Islands into the Empire.
By 1936 a thriving fishing industry had developed as well as a
sugar industry which occupied 68 percent of the arable land on
Saipan, 80 percent on Tinian and 33 percent on Rota.
The resident population grew to 23,800 on Saipan (of which only
3,222 were originally from the islands); 1,530 on Tinian (25
Chamorros) and 5,600 on Rota (791 Chamorros).
By the time the dark clouds of war had gathered over the western
Pacific, some 29,692 Japanese military personnel were garrisoned
on Saipan.
The islands were assaulted by American forces on June 15, 1944
and one of the most hotly contested battles of the entire war was
fought on its sandy beaches and mountainous terrain. American
forces gained control of the island on July 1944 and the construction
of bases and airfields began.
It was from such airfield on Tinian that the first nuclear weapon was
dropped on Hiroshima by the B -29 aircraft Enola Gay hastening the
end of hostilities. The airfields on Tinian which in 1945 were the
busiest in the world are now largely abandoned.

Early Japan (until 710)

During the Jomon Period (13000 BC to 300 BC), the inhabitants of the Japanese islands were gatherers, fishers and hunters. Jomon is the name of the era's pottery.

During the Yayoi Period (300 BC to 300 AD), the rice culture was imported into Japan around 100 BC. With the introduction of agriculture, social classes started to evolve, and parts of the country began to unite under powerful land owners. Chinese travellers during the Han and Wei dynasties reported that a queen called Himiko (or Pimiku) reigned over Japan at that time. The Yayoi period brought also the introduction of iron and other modern ideas from Korea into Japan. Again, its pottery gave the period its name.

By the beginning of the Kofun Period (300 - 538), a center of power had developed in the fertile Kinai plain, and by about 400 AD the country was united as Yamato Japan with its political center in and around the province of Yamato (about today's Nara prefecture). The period's name comes from the large tombs (kofun) that were built for the political leaders of that era. Yamato Japan extended from Kyushu to the Kinai plain, but did not yet include the Kanto, Tohoku and Hokkaido.

The emperor was ruler of Yamato Japan and resided in a capital that was moved frequently from one city to another. However, the Soga clan soon took over the actual political power, resulting in the fact that most of the emperors only acted as the symbol of the state and performed Shinto rituals.

Due to friendly relations to the kingdom of Kudara (or Paikche) on the Korean peninsula, the influence from the mainland increased strongly. Buddhism was introduced to Japan in the year 538 or 552 and was promoted by the ruling class. Prince Shotoku is said to have played an especially important role in promoting Chinese ideas. He also wrote the Constitution of Seventeen Articles about moral and political principles. Also the theories of Confucianism and Taoism, as well as the Chinese writing system were introduced to Japan during the Yamato period.

In 645, Nakatomi no Kamatari started the era of the Fujiwara clan that was to last until the rise of the military class (samurai) in the 11th century. In the same year, the Taika reforms were realized: A new government and administrative system was established after the Chinese model. All land was bought by the state and redistributed equally among the farmers in a large land reform in order to introduce the new tax system that was also adopted from China.


Nara and Heian Periods (710 - 1185)

In the year 710, the first permanent Japanese capital was established in Nara, a city modelled after the Chinese capital. Large Buddhist monasteries were built in the new capital. The monasteries quickly gained such strong political influence that, in order to protect the position of the emperor and central government, the capital was moved to Nagaoka in 784, and finally to Heian (Kyoto) in 794 where it should remain for over one thousand years.

One characteristic of the Nara and Heian periods is a gradual decline of Chinese influence which, nevertheless, remained strong. Many of the imported ideas were gradually "Japanized". In order to meet particular Japanese needs, several governmental offices were established in addition to the government system which was copied after the Chinese model, for example. In the arts too, native Japanese movements became increasingly popular. The development of the Kana syllables made the creation of actual Japanese literature possible. Several new Buddhist sects that were imported from China during the Heian period, were also "Japanized".

Among the worst failures of the Taika reforms were the land and taxation reforms: High taxes resulted in the impoverishment of many farmers who then had to sell their properties and became tenants of larger land owners. Furthermore, many aristocrats and the Buddhist monasteries succeeded in achieving tax immunity. As a result, the state income decreased, and over the centuries, the political power steadily shifted from the central government to the large independent land owners.

The Fujiwara family controlled the political scene of the Heian period over several centuries through strategic intermarriages with the imperial family and by occupying all the important political offices in Kyoto and the major provinces. The power of the clan reached its peak with Fujiwara Michinaga in the year 1016. After Michinaga, however, the ability of the Fujiwara leaders began to decline, and public order could not be maintained. Many land owners hired samurai for the protection of their properties. That is how the military class became more and more influential, especially in Eastern Japan.

The Fujiwara supremacy came to an end in 1068 when the new emperor Go-Sanjo was determined to rule the country by himself, and the Fujiwara failed to control him. In the year 1086 Go-Sanjo abdicated but continued to rule from behind the political stage. This new form of government was called Insei government. Insei emperors exerted political power from 1086 until 1156 when Taira Kiyomori became the new leader of Japan.

In the 12th century, two military families with aristocratic backgrounds gained much power: the Minamoto (or Genji) and Taira (or Heike) families. The Taira replaced many Fujiwara nobles in important offices while the Minamoto gained military experience by bringing parts of Northern Honshu under Japanese control in the Early Nine Years War (1050 - 1059) and the Later Three Years war (1083 - 1087).

After the Heiji Rising (1159), a struggle for power between the two families, Taira Kiyomori evolved as the leader of Japan and ruled the country from 1168 to 1178 through the emperor. The major threats with which he was confronted were not only the rivalling Minamoto but also the increasingly militant Buddhist monasteries which frequently led wars between each other and disturbed public order.

After Kiyomori's death, the Taira and Minamoto clans fought a deciding war for supremacy, the Gempei War, which lasted from 1180 to 1185. By the end of the war, the Minamoto were able to put an end to Taira supremacy, and Minamoto Yoritomo succeeded as the leader of Japan. After eliminating all of his potential and acute enemies, including close family members, he was appointed Shogun (highest military officer) and established a new government in his home city Kamakura.

Kamakura Period (1192 - 1333)

In 1185, the Minamoto family took over the control over Japan after defeating the Taira clan in the Gempei war. Minamoto Yoritomo was appointed shogun in the year 1192 and established a new government, the Kamakura Bakufu. The new feudal government was organized in a simpler way than the one in Kyoto and worked much more efficient under Japanese conditions.

After Yoritomo's death in 1199, quarrels for supremacy started between the Bakufu of Kamakura and the Imperial court in Kyoto. Those quarrels for supremacy found an end in the Jokyu disturbance in 1221 when Kamakura defeated the Imperial army in Kyoto, and the Hojo regents in Kamakura achieved complete control over Japan. By redistributing the land gained during the Jokyu disturbance, they were able to achieve loyalty among all the powerful people throughout the country. The emperor and the remaining governmental offices in Kyoto lost practically all effective power.

Chinese influence continued to be relatively strong during the Kamakura period. New Buddhist sects were introduced: the Zen sect (introduced 1191) found large numbers of followers among the samurai, which were now the leading social class. Another new Buddhist sect, the radical and intolerant Lotus Sutra sect was founded in 1253 by Nichiren.

In 1232 a legal code, the Joei Shikimoku was promulgated. It stressed Confucian values such as the importance of loyalty to the master, and generally attempted to suppress a decline of morals and discipline. Tight control was maintained by the Hojo clan, and any signs of rebellions were destroyed immediately.

The shogun stayed in Kamakura without much power while deputies of him were located in Kyoto and Western Japan. Stewards and constables controlled the provinces tightly and loyally. Indeed, the Hojo regents were able to bring several decades of peace and economic expansion to the country until an external power began to threaten Japan.

By 1259, the Mongols had conquered China and became also interested in Japan. Several threatening messages of the powerful Mongols were ignored by Kamakura. This resulted in the first Mongol invasion attempt in 1274 on the island of Kyushu. After only a few hours of fighting, however, the large naval invasion fleet, was forced to pull back because of bad weather conditions. This was very fortunate for the Japanese since their odds against the large and modern Mongol force were not favourable at all.

Due to good preparations, the Japanese were able to maintain a strong defence for several weeks during a second invasion attempt which occurred in 1281. But again, the Mongols were finally forced to withdraw mainly because of bad weather. Kyushu remained in alert for a possible third invasion attempt, but the Mongols soon had too many problems on the mainland in order to care about Japan.

The consequences of the many years of war preparations against the Mongols were fatal to the Kamakura government since they resulted only in expenditures and no profits. Many of the loyal men who were fighting for Kamakura, were now waiting for rewards that the government could not pay. Hence, financial problems and decreasing loyalty among the powerful lords were some of the reasons for the fall of the Kamakura government.

By 1333 the power of the Hojo regents had declined to such a degree that the emperor Go-Daigo was able to restore imperial power and overthrow the Kamakura Bakufu.

Muromachi Period (1333 - 1573

The emperor Go-Daigo was able to restore imperial power in Kyoto and to overthrow the Kamakura Bakufu in 1333. However, the revival of the old imperial offices under the Kemmu restoration (1334) did not last for long because the old administration system was out of date and practice, and incompetent officials failed gaining the support of the powerful landowners.

Ashikaga Takauji, once fighting for the emperor, now challenged the imperial court and succeeded in capturing Kyoto in 1336. Go-Daigo, consequently, fled to Yoshino in the South of Kyoto where he founded the Southern court. At the same time, another emperor was appointed in Kyoto. This was possible because of a succession dispute that had been going on between two lines of the imperial family since the death of emperor Go-Saga in 1272.

In 1338 Takauji appointed himself shogun and established his government in Kyoto. The Muromachi district where the government buildings were located from 1378 gave the government and the historical period their names.

Two imperial courts existed in Japan for over 50 years: the Southern and Northern courts. They fought many battles against each other. The Northern court usually was in a more advantageous position; nevertheless, the South succeeded in capturing Kyoto several times for short time periods resulting in the destruction of the capital on a regular basis. The Southern court finally gave in in 1392, and the country became emperor-wise reunited again.

Religion in Japan

Shinto and Buddhism are Japan's two major religions. They have been co-existing for several centuries and have even complemented each other to a certain degree. Most Japanese consider themselves Buddhist, Shintoist or both.
Religion does not play a big role in the everyday life of most Japanese people today. The average person typically follows the religious rituals at ceremonies like birth, weddings and funerals, may visit a shrine or temple on New Year and participates at local festivals (matsuri), most of which have a religious background.

Postwar (since 1945)

After World War II had ended, Japan was devastated. All the large cities (with the exception of Kyoto), the industries and the transportation networks were severely damaged. A severe shortage of food continued for several years.

The occupation of Japan by the Allied Powers started in August 1945 and ended in April 1952. General MacArthur was its first Supreme Commander. The whole operation was mainly carried out by the United States.

Japan basically lost all the territory acquired after 1894. In addition, the Kurile islands were occupied by the Soviet Union, and the Ryukyu Islands, including Okinawa, were controlled by the USA. Okinawa was returned to Japan in 1972, however a territorial dispute with Russia concerning the Kurile Islands has not been resolved yet.

The remains of Japan's war machine were destroyed, and war crime trials were held. Over 500 military officers committed suicide right after Japan surrendered, and many hundreds more were executed for committing war crimes. Emperor Showa was not declared a war criminal.

A new constitution went into effect in 1947: The emperor lost all political and military power, and was solely made the symbol of the state. Universal suffrage was introduced and human rights were guaranteed. Japan was also forbidden to ever lead a war again or to maintain an army. Furthermore, Shinto and the state were clearly separated.

MacArthur also intended to break up power concentrations by dissolving the zaibatsu and other large companies, and by decentralizing the education system and the police. In a land reform, concentrations in land ownership were removed.

Especially during the first half of the occupation, Japan's media was subject to a rigid censorship of any anti-American statements and controversial topics such as the race issue.

The co-operation between the Japanese and the Allied powers worked relatively smooth. Critics started to grow when the United States acted increasingly according to her self interests in the Cold War, reintroduced the persecution of communists, stationed more troops in Japan, and wanted Japan to establish an own self defence force despite the anti-war article in the constitution. Many aspects of the occupation's so called "reverse course" were welcomed by conservative Japanese politicians.

With the peace treaty that went into effect in 1952, the occupation ended. Japan's Self Defence Force was established in 1954, accompanied by large public demonstrations. Great public unrest was also caused by the renewal of the US-Japan Security Treaty of 1960.

After the Korean War, and accelerated by it, the recovery of Japan's economy flourished. The economic growth resulted in a quick rise of the living standards, changes in society and the stabilization of the ruling position of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), but also in severe pollution.

Japan's relations to the Soviet Union were normalized in 1956, the ones to China in 1972.

The 1973 oil crisis shocked the Japanese economy which was heavily depended on oil. The reaction was a shift to high technology industries.


Militarism and WW2 (1912 - 1945)

During the era of the weak emperor Taisho (1912-26), the political power shifted from the oligarchic clique (genro) to the parliament and the democratic parties.

In the First World War, Japan joined the Allied powers, but played only a minor role in fighting German colonial forces in East Asia. At the following Paris Peace Conference of 1919, Japan's proposal of amending a "racial equality clause" to the covenant of the League of Nations was rejected by the United States, Britain and Australia. Arrogance and racial discrimination towards the Japanese had plagued Japanese-Western relations since the forced opening of the country in the 1800s, and were again a major factor for the deterioration of relations in the decades preceeding World War 2. In 1924, for example, the US Congress passed the Exclusion Act that prohibited further immigration from Japan.

After WW1, Japan's economical situation worsened. The Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923 and the world wide depression of 1929 intensified the crisis.

During the 1930s, the military established almost complete control over the government. Many political enemies were assassinated, and communists persecuted. Indoctrination and censorship in education and media were further intensified. Navy and army officers soon occupied most of the important offices, including the one of the prime minister.

Already earlier, Japan followed the example of Western nations and forced China into unequal economical and political treaties. Furthermore, Japan's influence over Manchuria had been steadily growing since the end of the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-05. When the Chinese Nationalists began to seriously challenge Japan's position in Manchuria in 1931, the Kwantung Army (Japanese armed forces in Manchuria) occupied Manchuria. In the following year, "Manchukuo" was declared an independent state, controlled by the Kwantung Army through a puppet government. In the same year, the Japanese air force bombarded Shanghai in order to protect Japanese residents from anti Japanese movements.


Edo Period (1603 - 1867)

Tokugawa Ieyasu was the most powerful man in Japan after Hideyoshi had died in 1598. Against his promises he did not respect Hideyoshi's successor Hideyori because he wanted to become the absolute ruler of Japan.

In the battle of Sekigahara in 1600, Ieyasu defeated the Hideyori loyalists and other Western rivals. Hence, he achieved almost unlimited power and wealth. In 1603, Ieyasu was appointed Shogun by the emperor and established his government in Edo (Tokyo). The Tokugawa shoguns continued to rule Japan for a remarkable 250 years.

Ieyasu brought the whole country under tight control. He cleverly redistributed the gained land among the daimyo: more loyal vassals (the ones who supported him already before Sekigahara) received strategically more important domains accordingly. Every daimyo was also required to spend every second year in Edo. This meant a huge financial burden for the daimyo and moderated his power at home.

Ieyasu continued to promote foreign trade. He established relations with the English and the Dutch. On the other hand, he enforced the suppression and persecution of Christianity from 1614 on.

After the destruction of the Toyotomi clan in 1615 when Ieyasu captured Osaka Castle, he and his successors had practically no rivals anymore, and peace prevailed throughout the Edo period. Therefore, the warriors (samurai) were educating themselves not only in the martial arts but also in literature, philosophy and the arts, e.g. the tea ceremony.

In 1633, shogun Iemitsu forbade travelling abroad and almost completely isolated Japan in 1639 by reducing the contacts to the outside world to very limited trade relations with China and the Netherlands in the port of Nagasaki. In addition, all foreign books were banned.

Despite the isolation, domestic trade and agricultural production continued to improve. During the Edo period and especially during the Genroku era (1688 - 1703), popular culture flourished. New art forms like kabuki and ukiyo-e became very popular especially among the townspeople.

The most important philosophy of Tokugawa Japan was Neo-Confucianism, stressing the importance of morals, education and hierarchical order in the government and society: A strict four class system existed during the Edo period: at the top of the social hierarchy stood the samurai, followed by the peasants, artisans and merchants. The members of the four classes were not allowed to change their social status. Outcasts (eta), people with professions that were considered impure, formed a fifth class.


Meiji Period (1868 - 1912)

In 1867/68, the Tokugawa era found an end in the Meiji Restoration. The emperor Meiji was moved from Kyoto to Tokyo which became the new capital; his imperial power was restored. The actual political power was transferred from the Tokugawa Bakufu into the hands of a small group of nobles and former samurai.

Like other subjugated Asian nations, the Japanese were forced to sign unequal treaties with Western powers. These treaties granted the Westerners one-sided economical and legal advantages in Japan. In order to regain independence from the Europeans and Americans and establish herself as a respected nation in the world, Meiji Japan was determined to close the gap to the Western powers economically and militarily. Drastic reforms were carried out in practically all areas.

The new government aimed to make Japan a democratic state with equality among all its people. The boundaries between the social classes of Tokugawa Japan were gradually broken down. Consequently, the samurai were the big losers of those social reforms since they lost all their privileges. The reforms also included the establishment of human rights such as religious freedom in 1873.

In order to stabilize the new government, the former feudal lords (daimyo) had to return all their lands to the emperor. This was achieved already in 1870 and followed by the restructuring of the country in prefectures.

The education system was reformed after the French and later after the German system. Among those reforms was the introduction of compulsory education.

After about one to two decades of intensive westernization, a revival of conservative and nationalistic feelings took place: principles of Confucianism and Shinto including the worship of the emperor were increasingly emphasized and taught at educational institutions.

Catching up on the military sector was, of course, a high priority for Japan in an era of European and American imperialism. Universal conscription was introduced, and a new army modelled after the Prussian force, and a navy after the British one were established.

In order to transform the agrarian economy of Tokugawa Japan into a developed industrial one, many Japanese scholars were sent abroad to study Western science and languages, while foreign experts taught in Japan. The transportation and communication networks were improved by means of large governmental investments. The government also directly supported the prospering of businesses and industries, especially the large and powerful family businesses called zaibatsu.

The large expenditures led to a financial crisis in the middle of the 1880's which was followed by a reform of the currency system and the establishment of the Bank of Japan. The textile industry grew fastest and remained the largest Japanese industry until WW2. Work conditions in the early factories were very bad, but developing socialist and liberal movements were soon suppressed by the ruling clique.

On the political sector, Japan received its first European style constitution in 1889. A parliament, the Diet was established while the emperor kept sovereignty: he stood at the top of the army, navy, executive and legislative power. The ruling clique, however, kept on holding the actual power, and the able and intelligent emperor Meiji agreed with most of their actions. Political parties did not yet gain real power due to the lack of unity among their members.

Conflicts of interests in Korea between China and Japan led to the Sino-Japanese War in 1894-95. Japan defeated China, received Taiwan, but was forced by Russia, France and Germany to return other territories. The so called Triple Intervention caused the Japanese army and navy to intensify their rearmament.

New conflicts of interests in Korea and Manchuria, this time between Russia and Japan, led to the Russo-Japanese War in 1904-05. The Japanese army also won this war gaining territory and finally some international respect. Japan further increased her influence on Korea and annexed her completely in 1910. In Japan, the war successes caused nationalism to increase even more, and other Asian nations also started to develop national self confidence.

In 1912 emperor Meiji died, and the era of the ruling clique of elder statesmen (genro) was about to end.


Emperor

According to mythology, Japan's first Emperor Jimmu, a descendant of the Sun Goddess Amaterasu, was enthroned in the year 660 BC. While the myths are not considered historically accurate, it is a commonly accepted fact that emperors have reigned over Japan for more than 1500 years, and that they have all descended from the same imperial family.

Despite the fact that the effective power of the emperors was limited or purely symbolic throughout most of Japan's history, all actual rulers, from the Fujiwara and Hojo regents to the Minamoto, Ashikaga and Tokugawa shoguns respected the emperor and were keen in having the imperial legitimization for their position as rulers of Japan.

With the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the Tokugawa shogunate was overthrown, and Emperor Meiji became the head of state. Under the new Meiji constitution, the Emperor held sovereign power, and his political and military power was theoretically close to absolute. In praxis, however, the real power first laid with the oligarchic genro and later with the generals and admirals.

The postwar constitution of 1946 states that the emperor has only a symbolic function. He now mainly participates at ceremonies and diplomatic meetings, but has no effective political power.

In 1989, Emperor Akihito became Japan's 125th emperor. He is married to Empress Michiko, the first empress who did not come from the nobility. Their eldest son is Crown Prince Naruhito. The imperial family resides in the Imperial Palace in Tokyo.


SOURCE:
http://www.japan-guide.com
http://www.cnmi-guide.com/history/japanese/

Joyce Ann Osorio said...

Group 6
Joyce Ann Osorio
Chiney Rose Eleria
Camille Angelique Lopez
Arichel Cabildo
Marianne Mejia
Madelaine Sophie Paje
Carmina Castro
Boa 1-10D
March 28, 2008
“JAPANESE PERIOD”


Japan withdrew from the League of Nations in 1935 after it had
virtually annexed the Islands into the Empire.
By 1936 a thriving fishing industry had developed as well as a
sugar industry which occupied 68 percent of the arable land on
Saipan, 80 percent on Tinian and 33 percent on Rota.
The resident population grew to 23,800 on Saipan (of which only
3,222 were originally from the islands); 1,530 on Tinian (25
Chamorros) and 5,600 on Rota (791 Chamorros).
By the time the dark clouds of war had gathered over the western
Pacific, some 29,692 Japanese military personnel were garrisoned
on Saipan.
The islands were assaulted by American forces on June 15, 1944
and one of the most hotly contested battles of the entire war was
fought on its sandy beaches and mountainous terrain. American
forces gained control of the island on July 1944 and the construction
of bases and airfields began.
It was from such airfield on Tinian that the first nuclear weapon was
dropped on Hiroshima by the B -29 aircraft Enola Gay hastening the
end of hostilities. The airfields on Tinian which in 1945 were the
busiest in the world are now largely abandoned.

Early Japan (until 710)

During the Jomon Period (13000 BC to 300 BC), the inhabitants of the Japanese islands were gatherers, fishers and hunters. Jomon is the name of the era's pottery.

During the Yayoi Period (300 BC to 300 AD), the rice culture was imported into Japan around 100 BC. With the introduction of agriculture, social classes started to evolve, and parts of the country began to unite under powerful land owners. Chinese travellers during the Han and Wei dynasties reported that a queen called Himiko (or Pimiku) reigned over Japan at that time. The Yayoi period brought also the introduction of iron and other modern ideas from Korea into Japan. Again, its pottery gave the period its name.

By the beginning of the Kofun Period (300 - 538), a center of power had developed in the fertile Kinai plain, and by about 400 AD the country was united as Yamato Japan with its political center in and around the province of Yamato (about today's Nara prefecture). The period's name comes from the large tombs (kofun) that were built for the political leaders of that era. Yamato Japan extended from Kyushu to the Kinai plain, but did not yet include the Kanto, Tohoku and Hokkaido.

The emperor was ruler of Yamato Japan and resided in a capital that was moved frequently from one city to another. However, the Soga clan soon took over the actual political power, resulting in the fact that most of the emperors only acted as the symbol of the state and performed Shinto rituals.

Due to friendly relations to the kingdom of Kudara (or Paikche) on the Korean peninsula, the influence from the mainland increased strongly. Buddhism was introduced to Japan in the year 538 or 552 and was promoted by the ruling class. Prince Shotoku is said to have played an especially important role in promoting Chinese ideas. He also wrote the Constitution of Seventeen Articles about moral and political principles. Also the theories of Confucianism and Taoism, as well as the Chinese writing system were introduced to Japan during the Yamato period.

In 645, Nakatomi no Kamatari started the era of the Fujiwara clan that was to last until the rise of the military class (samurai) in the 11th century. In the same year, the Taika reforms were realized: A new government and administrative system was established after the Chinese model. All land was bought by the state and redistributed equally among the farmers in a large land reform in order to introduce the new tax system that was also adopted from China.


Nara and Heian Periods (710 - 1185)

In the year 710, the first permanent Japanese capital was established in Nara, a city modelled after the Chinese capital. Large Buddhist monasteries were built in the new capital. The monasteries quickly gained such strong political influence that, in order to protect the position of the emperor and central government, the capital was moved to Nagaoka in 784, and finally to Heian (Kyoto) in 794 where it should remain for over one thousand years.

One characteristic of the Nara and Heian periods is a gradual decline of Chinese influence which, nevertheless, remained strong. Many of the imported ideas were gradually "Japanized". In order to meet particular Japanese needs, several governmental offices were established in addition to the government system which was copied after the Chinese model, for example. In the arts too, native Japanese movements became increasingly popular. The development of the Kana syllables made the creation of actual Japanese literature possible. Several new Buddhist sects that were imported from China during the Heian period, were also "Japanized".

Among the worst failures of the Taika reforms were the land and taxation reforms: High taxes resulted in the impoverishment of many farmers who then had to sell their properties and became tenants of larger land owners. Furthermore, many aristocrats and the Buddhist monasteries succeeded in achieving tax immunity. As a result, the state income decreased, and over the centuries, the political power steadily shifted from the central government to the large independent land owners.

The Fujiwara family controlled the political scene of the Heian period over several centuries through strategic intermarriages with the imperial family and by occupying all the important political offices in Kyoto and the major provinces. The power of the clan reached its peak with Fujiwara Michinaga in the year 1016. After Michinaga, however, the ability of the Fujiwara leaders began to decline, and public order could not be maintained. Many land owners hired samurai for the protection of their properties. That is how the military class became more and more influential, especially in Eastern Japan.

The Fujiwara supremacy came to an end in 1068 when the new emperor Go-Sanjo was determined to rule the country by himself, and the Fujiwara failed to control him. In the year 1086 Go-Sanjo abdicated but continued to rule from behind the political stage. This new form of government was called Insei government. Insei emperors exerted political power from 1086 until 1156 when Taira Kiyomori became the new leader of Japan.

In the 12th century, two military families with aristocratic backgrounds gained much power: the Minamoto (or Genji) and Taira (or Heike) families. The Taira replaced many Fujiwara nobles in important offices while the Minamoto gained military experience by bringing parts of Northern Honshu under Japanese control in the Early Nine Years War (1050 - 1059) and the Later Three Years war (1083 - 1087).

After the Heiji Rising (1159), a struggle for power between the two families, Taira Kiyomori evolved as the leader of Japan and ruled the country from 1168 to 1178 through the emperor. The major threats with which he was confronted were not only the rivalling Minamoto but also the increasingly militant Buddhist monasteries which frequently led wars between each other and disturbed public order.

After Kiyomori's death, the Taira and Minamoto clans fought a deciding war for supremacy, the Gempei War, which lasted from 1180 to 1185. By the end of the war, the Minamoto were able to put an end to Taira supremacy, and Minamoto Yoritomo succeeded as the leader of Japan. After eliminating all of his potential and acute enemies, including close family members, he was appointed Shogun (highest military officer) and established a new government in his home city Kamakura.

Kamakura Period (1192 - 1333)

In 1185, the Minamoto family took over the control over Japan after defeating the Taira clan in the Gempei war. Minamoto Yoritomo was appointed shogun in the year 1192 and established a new government, the Kamakura Bakufu. The new feudal government was organized in a simpler way than the one in Kyoto and worked much more efficient under Japanese conditions.

After Yoritomo's death in 1199, quarrels for supremacy started between the Bakufu of Kamakura and the Imperial court in Kyoto. Those quarrels for supremacy found an end in the Jokyu disturbance in 1221 when Kamakura defeated the Imperial army in Kyoto, and the Hojo regents in Kamakura achieved complete control over Japan. By redistributing the land gained during the Jokyu disturbance, they were able to achieve loyalty among all the powerful people throughout the country. The emperor and the remaining governmental offices in Kyoto lost practically all effective power.

Chinese influence continued to be relatively strong during the Kamakura period. New Buddhist sects were introduced: the Zen sect (introduced 1191) found large numbers of followers among the samurai, which were now the leading social class. Another new Buddhist sect, the radical and intolerant Lotus Sutra sect was founded in 1253 by Nichiren.

In 1232 a legal code, the Joei Shikimoku was promulgated. It stressed Confucian values such as the importance of loyalty to the master, and generally attempted to suppress a decline of morals and discipline. Tight control was maintained by the Hojo clan, and any signs of rebellions were destroyed immediately.

The shogun stayed in Kamakura without much power while deputies of him were located in Kyoto and Western Japan. Stewards and constables controlled the provinces tightly and loyally. Indeed, the Hojo regents were able to bring several decades of peace and economic expansion to the country until an external power began to threaten Japan.

By 1259, the Mongols had conquered China and became also interested in Japan. Several threatening messages of the powerful Mongols were ignored by Kamakura. This resulted in the first Mongol invasion attempt in 1274 on the island of Kyushu. After only a few hours of fighting, however, the large naval invasion fleet, was forced to pull back because of bad weather conditions. This was very fortunate for the Japanese since their odds against the large and modern Mongol force were not favourable at all.

Due to good preparations, the Japanese were able to maintain a strong defence for several weeks during a second invasion attempt which occurred in 1281. But again, the Mongols were finally forced to withdraw mainly because of bad weather. Kyushu remained in alert for a possible third invasion attempt, but the Mongols soon had too many problems on the mainland in order to care about Japan.

The consequences of the many years of war preparations against the Mongols were fatal to the Kamakura government since they resulted only in expenditures and no profits. Many of the loyal men who were fighting for Kamakura, were now waiting for rewards that the government could not pay. Hence, financial problems and decreasing loyalty among the powerful lords were some of the reasons for the fall of the Kamakura government.

By 1333 the power of the Hojo regents had declined to such a degree that the emperor Go-Daigo was able to restore imperial power and overthrow the Kamakura Bakufu.

Muromachi Period (1333 - 1573

The emperor Go-Daigo was able to restore imperial power in Kyoto and to overthrow the Kamakura Bakufu in 1333. However, the revival of the old imperial offices under the Kemmu restoration (1334) did not last for long because the old administration system was out of date and practice, and incompetent officials failed gaining the support of the powerful landowners.

Ashikaga Takauji, once fighting for the emperor, now challenged the imperial court and succeeded in capturing Kyoto in 1336. Go-Daigo, consequently, fled to Yoshino in the South of Kyoto where he founded the Southern court. At the same time, another emperor was appointed in Kyoto. This was possible because of a succession dispute that had been going on between two lines of the imperial family since the death of emperor Go-Saga in 1272.

In 1338 Takauji appointed himself shogun and established his government in Kyoto. The Muromachi district where the government buildings were located from 1378 gave the government and the historical period their names.

Two imperial courts existed in Japan for over 50 years: the Southern and Northern courts. They fought many battles against each other. The Northern court usually was in a more advantageous position; nevertheless, the South succeeded in capturing Kyoto several times for short time periods resulting in the destruction of the capital on a regular basis. The Southern court finally gave in in 1392, and the country became emperor-wise reunited again.

Religion in Japan

Shinto and Buddhism are Japan's two major religions. They have been co-existing for several centuries and have even complemented each other to a certain degree. Most Japanese consider themselves Buddhist, Shintoist or both.
Religion does not play a big role in the everyday life of most Japanese people today. The average person typically follows the religious rituals at ceremonies like birth, weddings and funerals, may visit a shrine or temple on New Year and participates at local festivals (matsuri), most of which have a religious background.

Postwar (since 1945)

After World War II had ended, Japan was devastated. All the large cities (with the exception of Kyoto), the industries and the transportation networks were severely damaged. A severe shortage of food continued for several years.

The occupation of Japan by the Allied Powers started in August 1945 and ended in April 1952. General MacArthur was its first Supreme Commander. The whole operation was mainly carried out by the United States.

Japan basically lost all the territory acquired after 1894. In addition, the Kurile islands were occupied by the Soviet Union, and the Ryukyu Islands, including Okinawa, were controlled by the USA. Okinawa was returned to Japan in 1972, however a territorial dispute with Russia concerning the Kurile Islands has not been resolved yet.

The remains of Japan's war machine were destroyed, and war crime trials were held. Over 500 military officers committed suicide right after Japan surrendered, and many hundreds more were executed for committing war crimes. Emperor Showa was not declared a war criminal.

A new constitution went into effect in 1947: The emperor lost all political and military power, and was solely made the symbol of the state. Universal suffrage was introduced and human rights were guaranteed. Japan was also forbidden to ever lead a war again or to maintain an army. Furthermore, Shinto and the state were clearly separated.

MacArthur also intended to break up power concentrations by dissolving the zaibatsu and other large companies, and by decentralizing the education system and the police. In a land reform, concentrations in land ownership were removed.

Especially during the first half of the occupation, Japan's media was subject to a rigid censorship of any anti-American statements and controversial topics such as the race issue.

The co-operation between the Japanese and the Allied powers worked relatively smooth. Critics started to grow when the United States acted increasingly according to her self interests in the Cold War, reintroduced the persecution of communists, stationed more troops in Japan, and wanted Japan to establish an own self defence force despite the anti-war article in the constitution. Many aspects of the occupation's so called "reverse course" were welcomed by conservative Japanese politicians.

With the peace treaty that went into effect in 1952, the occupation ended. Japan's Self Defence Force was established in 1954, accompanied by large public demonstrations. Great public unrest was also caused by the renewal of the US-Japan Security Treaty of 1960.

After the Korean War, and accelerated by it, the recovery of Japan's economy flourished. The economic growth resulted in a quick rise of the living standards, changes in society and the stabilization of the ruling position of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), but also in severe pollution.

Japan's relations to the Soviet Union were normalized in 1956, the ones to China in 1972.

The 1973 oil crisis shocked the Japanese economy which was heavily depended on oil. The reaction was a shift to high technology industries.


Militarism and WW2 (1912 - 1945)

During the era of the weak emperor Taisho (1912-26), the political power shifted from the oligarchic clique (genro) to the parliament and the democratic parties.

In the First World War, Japan joined the Allied powers, but played only a minor role in fighting German colonial forces in East Asia. At the following Paris Peace Conference of 1919, Japan's proposal of amending a "racial equality clause" to the covenant of the League of Nations was rejected by the United States, Britain and Australia. Arrogance and racial discrimination towards the Japanese had plagued Japanese-Western relations since the forced opening of the country in the 1800s, and were again a major factor for the deterioration of relations in the decades preceeding World War 2. In 1924, for example, the US Congress passed the Exclusion Act that prohibited further immigration from Japan.

After WW1, Japan's economical situation worsened. The Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923 and the world wide depression of 1929 intensified the crisis.

During the 1930s, the military established almost complete control over the government. Many political enemies were assassinated, and communists persecuted. Indoctrination and censorship in education and media were further intensified. Navy and army officers soon occupied most of the important offices, including the one of the prime minister.

Already earlier, Japan followed the example of Western nations and forced China into unequal economical and political treaties. Furthermore, Japan's influence over Manchuria had been steadily growing since the end of the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-05. When the Chinese Nationalists began to seriously challenge Japan's position in Manchuria in 1931, the Kwantung Army (Japanese armed forces in Manchuria) occupied Manchuria. In the following year, "Manchukuo" was declared an independent state, controlled by the Kwantung Army through a puppet government. In the same year, the Japanese air force bombarded Shanghai in order to protect Japanese residents from anti Japanese movements.


Edo Period (1603 - 1867)

Tokugawa Ieyasu was the most powerful man in Japan after Hideyoshi had died in 1598. Against his promises he did not respect Hideyoshi's successor Hideyori because he wanted to become the absolute ruler of Japan.

In the battle of Sekigahara in 1600, Ieyasu defeated the Hideyori loyalists and other Western rivals. Hence, he achieved almost unlimited power and wealth. In 1603, Ieyasu was appointed Shogun by the emperor and established his government in Edo (Tokyo). The Tokugawa shoguns continued to rule Japan for a remarkable 250 years.

Ieyasu brought the whole country under tight control. He cleverly redistributed the gained land among the daimyo: more loyal vassals (the ones who supported him already before Sekigahara) received strategically more important domains accordingly. Every daimyo was also required to spend every second year in Edo. This meant a huge financial burden for the daimyo and moderated his power at home.

Ieyasu continued to promote foreign trade. He established relations with the English and the Dutch. On the other hand, he enforced the suppression and persecution of Christianity from 1614 on.

After the destruction of the Toyotomi clan in 1615 when Ieyasu captured Osaka Castle, he and his successors had practically no rivals anymore, and peace prevailed throughout the Edo period. Therefore, the warriors (samurai) were educating themselves not only in the martial arts but also in literature, philosophy and the arts, e.g. the tea ceremony.

In 1633, shogun Iemitsu forbade travelling abroad and almost completely isolated Japan in 1639 by reducing the contacts to the outside world to very limited trade relations with China and the Netherlands in the port of Nagasaki. In addition, all foreign books were banned.

Despite the isolation, domestic trade and agricultural production continued to improve. During the Edo period and especially during the Genroku era (1688 - 1703), popular culture flourished. New art forms like kabuki and ukiyo-e became very popular especially among the townspeople.

The most important philosophy of Tokugawa Japan was Neo-Confucianism, stressing the importance of morals, education and hierarchical order in the government and society: A strict four class system existed during the Edo period: at the top of the social hierarchy stood the samurai, followed by the peasants, artisans and merchants. The members of the four classes were not allowed to change their social status. Outcasts (eta), people with professions that were considered impure, formed a fifth class.


Meiji Period (1868 - 1912)

In 1867/68, the Tokugawa era found an end in the Meiji Restoration. The emperor Meiji was moved from Kyoto to Tokyo which became the new capital; his imperial power was restored. The actual political power was transferred from the Tokugawa Bakufu into the hands of a small group of nobles and former samurai.

Like other subjugated Asian nations, the Japanese were forced to sign unequal treaties with Western powers. These treaties granted the Westerners one-sided economical and legal advantages in Japan. In order to regain independence from the Europeans and Americans and establish herself as a respected nation in the world, Meiji Japan was determined to close the gap to the Western powers economically and militarily. Drastic reforms were carried out in practically all areas.

The new government aimed to make Japan a democratic state with equality among all its people. The boundaries between the social classes of Tokugawa Japan were gradually broken down. Consequently, the samurai were the big losers of those social reforms since they lost all their privileges. The reforms also included the establishment of human rights such as religious freedom in 1873.

In order to stabilize the new government, the former feudal lords (daimyo) had to return all their lands to the emperor. This was achieved already in 1870 and followed by the restructuring of the country in prefectures.

The education system was reformed after the French and later after the German system. Among those reforms was the introduction of compulsory education.

After about one to two decades of intensive westernization, a revival of conservative and nationalistic feelings took place: principles of Confucianism and Shinto including the worship of the emperor were increasingly emphasized and taught at educational institutions.

Catching up on the military sector was, of course, a high priority for Japan in an era of European and American imperialism. Universal conscription was introduced, and a new army modelled after the Prussian force, and a navy after the British one were established.

In order to transform the agrarian economy of Tokugawa Japan into a developed industrial one, many Japanese scholars were sent abroad to study Western science and languages, while foreign experts taught in Japan. The transportation and communication networks were improved by means of large governmental investments. The government also directly supported the prospering of businesses and industries, especially the large and powerful family businesses called zaibatsu.

The large expenditures led to a financial crisis in the middle of the 1880's which was followed by a reform of the currency system and the establishment of the Bank of Japan. The textile industry grew fastest and remained the largest Japanese industry until WW2. Work conditions in the early factories were very bad, but developing socialist and liberal movements were soon suppressed by the ruling clique.

On the political sector, Japan received its first European style constitution in 1889. A parliament, the Diet was established while the emperor kept sovereignty: he stood at the top of the army, navy, executive and legislative power. The ruling clique, however, kept on holding the actual power, and the able and intelligent emperor Meiji agreed with most of their actions. Political parties did not yet gain real power due to the lack of unity among their members.

Conflicts of interests in Korea between China and Japan led to the Sino-Japanese War in 1894-95. Japan defeated China, received Taiwan, but was forced by Russia, France and Germany to return other territories. The so called Triple Intervention caused the Japanese army and navy to intensify their rearmament.

New conflicts of interests in Korea and Manchuria, this time between Russia and Japan, led to the Russo-Japanese War in 1904-05. The Japanese army also won this war gaining territory and finally some international respect. Japan further increased her influence on Korea and annexed her completely in 1910. In Japan, the war successes caused nationalism to increase even more, and other Asian nations also started to develop national self confidence.

In 1912 emperor Meiji died, and the era of the ruling clique of elder statesmen (genro) was about to end.


Emperor

According to mythology, Japan's first Emperor Jimmu, a descendant of the Sun Goddess Amaterasu, was enthroned in the year 660 BC. While the myths are not considered historically accurate, it is a commonly accepted fact that emperors have reigned over Japan for more than 1500 years, and that they have all descended from the same imperial family.

Despite the fact that the effective power of the emperors was limited or purely symbolic throughout most of Japan's history, all actual rulers, from the Fujiwara and Hojo regents to the Minamoto, Ashikaga and Tokugawa shoguns respected the emperor and were keen in having the imperial legitimization for their position as rulers of Japan.

With the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the Tokugawa shogunate was overthrown, and Emperor Meiji became the head of state. Under the new Meiji constitution, the Emperor held sovereign power, and his political and military power was theoretically close to absolute. In praxis, however, the real power first laid with the oligarchic genro and later with the generals and admirals.

The postwar constitution of 1946 states that the emperor has only a symbolic function. He now mainly participates at ceremonies and diplomatic meetings, but has no effective political power.

In 1989, Emperor Akihito became Japan's 125th emperor. He is married to Empress Michiko, the first empress who did not come from the nobility. Their eldest son is Crown Prince Naruhito. The imperial family resides in the Imperial Palace in Tokyo.


SOURCE:
http://www.japan-guide.com
http://www.cnmi-guide.com/history/japanese/

Joyce Ann Osorio said...

Group 6
Joyce Ann Osorio
Chiney Rose Eleria
Camille Angelique Lopez
Arichel Cabildo
Marianne Mejia
Madelaine Sophie Paje
Carmina Castro
Boa 1-10D
March 28, 2008
“JAPANESE PERIOD”


Japan withdrew from the League of Nations in 1935 after it had
virtually annexed the Islands into the Empire.
By 1936 a thriving fishing industry had developed as well as a
sugar industry which occupied 68 percent of the arable land on
Saipan, 80 percent on Tinian and 33 percent on Rota.
The resident population grew to 23,800 on Saipan (of which only
3,222 were originally from the islands); 1,530 on Tinian (25
Chamorros) and 5,600 on Rota (791 Chamorros).
By the time the dark clouds of war had gathered over the western
Pacific, some 29,692 Japanese military personnel were garrisoned
on Saipan.
The islands were assaulted by American forces on June 15, 1944
and one of the most hotly contested battles of the entire war was
fought on its sandy beaches and mountainous terrain. American
forces gained control of the island on July 1944 and the construction
of bases and airfields began.
It was from such airfield on Tinian that the first nuclear weapon was
dropped on Hiroshima by the B -29 aircraft Enola Gay hastening the
end of hostilities. The airfields on Tinian which in 1945 were the
busiest in the world are now largely abandoned.

Early Japan (until 710)

During the Jomon Period (13000 BC to 300 BC), the inhabitants of the Japanese islands were gatherers, fishers and hunters. Jomon is the name of the era's pottery.

During the Yayoi Period (300 BC to 300 AD), the rice culture was imported into Japan around 100 BC. With the introduction of agriculture, social classes started to evolve, and parts of the country began to unite under powerful land owners. Chinese travellers during the Han and Wei dynasties reported that a queen called Himiko (or Pimiku) reigned over Japan at that time. The Yayoi period brought also the introduction of iron and other modern ideas from Korea into Japan. Again, its pottery gave the period its name.

By the beginning of the Kofun Period (300 - 538), a center of power had developed in the fertile Kinai plain, and by about 400 AD the country was united as Yamato Japan with its political center in and around the province of Yamato (about today's Nara prefecture). The period's name comes from the large tombs (kofun) that were built for the political leaders of that era. Yamato Japan extended from Kyushu to the Kinai plain, but did not yet include the Kanto, Tohoku and Hokkaido.

The emperor was ruler of Yamato Japan and resided in a capital that was moved frequently from one city to another. However, the Soga clan soon took over the actual political power, resulting in the fact that most of the emperors only acted as the symbol of the state and performed Shinto rituals.

Due to friendly relations to the kingdom of Kudara (or Paikche) on the Korean peninsula, the influence from the mainland increased strongly. Buddhism was introduced to Japan in the year 538 or 552 and was promoted by the ruling class. Prince Shotoku is said to have played an especially important role in promoting Chinese ideas. He also wrote the Constitution of Seventeen Articles about moral and political principles. Also the theories of Confucianism and Taoism, as well as the Chinese writing system were introduced to Japan during the Yamato period.

In 645, Nakatomi no Kamatari started the era of the Fujiwara clan that was to last until the rise of the military class (samurai) in the 11th century. In the same year, the Taika reforms were realized: A new government and administrative system was established after the Chinese model. All land was bought by the state and redistributed equally among the farmers in a large land reform in order to introduce the new tax system that was also adopted from China.


Nara and Heian Periods (710 - 1185)

In the year 710, the first permanent Japanese capital was established in Nara, a city modelled after the Chinese capital. Large Buddhist monasteries were built in the new capital. The monasteries quickly gained such strong political influence that, in order to protect the position of the emperor and central government, the capital was moved to Nagaoka in 784, and finally to Heian (Kyoto) in 794 where it should remain for over one thousand years.

One characteristic of the Nara and Heian periods is a gradual decline of Chinese influence which, nevertheless, remained strong. Many of the imported ideas were gradually "Japanized". In order to meet particular Japanese needs, several governmental offices were established in addition to the government system which was copied after the Chinese model, for example. In the arts too, native Japanese movements became increasingly popular. The development of the Kana syllables made the creation of actual Japanese literature possible. Several new Buddhist sects that were imported from China during the Heian period, were also "Japanized".

Among the worst failures of the Taika reforms were the land and taxation reforms: High taxes resulted in the impoverishment of many farmers who then had to sell their properties and became tenants of larger land owners. Furthermore, many aristocrats and the Buddhist monasteries succeeded in achieving tax immunity. As a result, the state income decreased, and over the centuries, the political power steadily shifted from the central government to the large independent land owners.

The Fujiwara family controlled the political scene of the Heian period over several centuries through strategic intermarriages with the imperial family and by occupying all the important political offices in Kyoto and the major provinces. The power of the clan reached its peak with Fujiwara Michinaga in the year 1016. After Michinaga, however, the ability of the Fujiwara leaders began to decline, and public order could not be maintained. Many land owners hired samurai for the protection of their properties. That is how the military class became more and more influential, especially in Eastern Japan.

The Fujiwara supremacy came to an end in 1068 when the new emperor Go-Sanjo was determined to rule the country by himself, and the Fujiwara failed to control him. In the year 1086 Go-Sanjo abdicated but continued to rule from behind the political stage. This new form of government was called Insei government. Insei emperors exerted political power from 1086 until 1156 when Taira Kiyomori became the new leader of Japan.

In the 12th century, two military families with aristocratic backgrounds gained much power: the Minamoto (or Genji) and Taira (or Heike) families. The Taira replaced many Fujiwara nobles in important offices while the Minamoto gained military experience by bringing parts of Northern Honshu under Japanese control in the Early Nine Years War (1050 - 1059) and the Later Three Years war (1083 - 1087).

After the Heiji Rising (1159), a struggle for power between the two families, Taira Kiyomori evolved as the leader of Japan and ruled the country from 1168 to 1178 through the emperor. The major threats with which he was confronted were not only the rivalling Minamoto but also the increasingly militant Buddhist monasteries which frequently led wars between each other and disturbed public order.

After Kiyomori's death, the Taira and Minamoto clans fought a deciding war for supremacy, the Gempei War, which lasted from 1180 to 1185. By the end of the war, the Minamoto were able to put an end to Taira supremacy, and Minamoto Yoritomo succeeded as the leader of Japan. After eliminating all of his potential and acute enemies, including close family members, he was appointed Shogun (highest military officer) and established a new government in his home city Kamakura.

Kamakura Period (1192 - 1333)

In 1185, the Minamoto family took over the control over Japan after defeating the Taira clan in the Gempei war. Minamoto Yoritomo was appointed shogun in the year 1192 and established a new government, the Kamakura Bakufu. The new feudal government was organized in a simpler way than the one in Kyoto and worked much more efficient under Japanese conditions.

After Yoritomo's death in 1199, quarrels for supremacy started between the Bakufu of Kamakura and the Imperial court in Kyoto. Those quarrels for supremacy found an end in the Jokyu disturbance in 1221 when Kamakura defeated the Imperial army in Kyoto, and the Hojo regents in Kamakura achieved complete control over Japan. By redistributing the land gained during the Jokyu disturbance, they were able to achieve loyalty among all the powerful people throughout the country. The emperor and the remaining governmental offices in Kyoto lost practically all effective power.

Chinese influence continued to be relatively strong during the Kamakura period. New Buddhist sects were introduced: the Zen sect (introduced 1191) found large numbers of followers among the samurai, which were now the leading social class. Another new Buddhist sect, the radical and intolerant Lotus Sutra sect was founded in 1253 by Nichiren.

In 1232 a legal code, the Joei Shikimoku was promulgated. It stressed Confucian values such as the importance of loyalty to the master, and generally attempted to suppress a decline of morals and discipline. Tight control was maintained by the Hojo clan, and any signs of rebellions were destroyed immediately.

The shogun stayed in Kamakura without much power while deputies of him were located in Kyoto and Western Japan. Stewards and constables controlled the provinces tightly and loyally. Indeed, the Hojo regents were able to bring several decades of peace and economic expansion to the country until an external power began to threaten Japan.

By 1259, the Mongols had conquered China and became also interested in Japan. Several threatening messages of the powerful Mongols were ignored by Kamakura. This resulted in the first Mongol invasion attempt in 1274 on the island of Kyushu. After only a few hours of fighting, however, the large naval invasion fleet, was forced to pull back because of bad weather conditions. This was very fortunate for the Japanese since their odds against the large and modern Mongol force were not favourable at all.

Due to good preparations, the Japanese were able to maintain a strong defence for several weeks during a second invasion attempt which occurred in 1281. But again, the Mongols were finally forced to withdraw mainly because of bad weather. Kyushu remained in alert for a possible third invasion attempt, but the Mongols soon had too many problems on the mainland in order to care about Japan.

The consequences of the many years of war preparations against the Mongols were fatal to the Kamakura government since they resulted only in expenditures and no profits. Many of the loyal men who were fighting for Kamakura, were now waiting for rewards that the government could not pay. Hence, financial problems and decreasing loyalty among the powerful lords were some of the reasons for the fall of the Kamakura government.

By 1333 the power of the Hojo regents had declined to such a degree that the emperor Go-Daigo was able to restore imperial power and overthrow the Kamakura Bakufu.

Muromachi Period (1333 - 1573

The emperor Go-Daigo was able to restore imperial power in Kyoto and to overthrow the Kamakura Bakufu in 1333. However, the revival of the old imperial offices under the Kemmu restoration (1334) did not last for long because the old administration system was out of date and practice, and incompetent officials failed gaining the support of the powerful landowners.

Ashikaga Takauji, once fighting for the emperor, now challenged the imperial court and succeeded in capturing Kyoto in 1336. Go-Daigo, consequently, fled to Yoshino in the South of Kyoto where he founded the Southern court. At the same time, another emperor was appointed in Kyoto. This was possible because of a succession dispute that had been going on between two lines of the imperial family since the death of emperor Go-Saga in 1272.

In 1338 Takauji appointed himself shogun and established his government in Kyoto. The Muromachi district where the government buildings were located from 1378 gave the government and the historical period their names.

Two imperial courts existed in Japan for over 50 years: the Southern and Northern courts. They fought many battles against each other. The Northern court usually was in a more advantageous position; nevertheless, the South succeeded in capturing Kyoto several times for short time periods resulting in the destruction of the capital on a regular basis. The Southern court finally gave in in 1392, and the country became emperor-wise reunited again.

Religion in Japan

Shinto and Buddhism are Japan's two major religions. They have been co-existing for several centuries and have even complemented each other to a certain degree. Most Japanese consider themselves Buddhist, Shintoist or both.
Religion does not play a big role in the everyday life of most Japanese people today. The average person typically follows the religious rituals at ceremonies like birth, weddings and funerals, may visit a shrine or temple on New Year and participates at local festivals (matsuri), most of which have a religious background.

Postwar (since 1945)

After World War II had ended, Japan was devastated. All the large cities (with the exception of Kyoto), the industries and the transportation networks were severely damaged. A severe shortage of food continued for several years.

The occupation of Japan by the Allied Powers started in August 1945 and ended in April 1952. General MacArthur was its first Supreme Commander. The whole operation was mainly carried out by the United States.

Japan basically lost all the territory acquired after 1894. In addition, the Kurile islands were occupied by the Soviet Union, and the Ryukyu Islands, including Okinawa, were controlled by the USA. Okinawa was returned to Japan in 1972, however a territorial dispute with Russia concerning the Kurile Islands has not been resolved yet.

The remains of Japan's war machine were destroyed, and war crime trials were held. Over 500 military officers committed suicide right after Japan surrendered, and many hundreds more were executed for committing war crimes. Emperor Showa was not declared a war criminal.

A new constitution went into effect in 1947: The emperor lost all political and military power, and was solely made the symbol of the state. Universal suffrage was introduced and human rights were guaranteed. Japan was also forbidden to ever lead a war again or to maintain an army. Furthermore, Shinto and the state were clearly separated.

MacArthur also intended to break up power concentrations by dissolving the zaibatsu and other large companies, and by decentralizing the education system and the police. In a land reform, concentrations in land ownership were removed.

Especially during the first half of the occupation, Japan's media was subject to a rigid censorship of any anti-American statements and controversial topics such as the race issue.

The co-operation between the Japanese and the Allied powers worked relatively smooth. Critics started to grow when the United States acted increasingly according to her self interests in the Cold War, reintroduced the persecution of communists, stationed more troops in Japan, and wanted Japan to establish an own self defence force despite the anti-war article in the constitution. Many aspects of the occupation's so called "reverse course" were welcomed by conservative Japanese politicians.

With the peace treaty that went into effect in 1952, the occupation ended. Japan's Self Defence Force was established in 1954, accompanied by large public demonstrations. Great public unrest was also caused by the renewal of the US-Japan Security Treaty of 1960.

After the Korean War, and accelerated by it, the recovery of Japan's economy flourished. The economic growth resulted in a quick rise of the living standards, changes in society and the stabilization of the ruling position of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), but also in severe pollution.

Japan's relations to the Soviet Union were normalized in 1956, the ones to China in 1972.

The 1973 oil crisis shocked the Japanese economy which was heavily depended on oil. The reaction was a shift to high technology industries.


Militarism and WW2 (1912 - 1945)

During the era of the weak emperor Taisho (1912-26), the political power shifted from the oligarchic clique (genro) to the parliament and the democratic parties.

In the First World War, Japan joined the Allied powers, but played only a minor role in fighting German colonial forces in East Asia. At the following Paris Peace Conference of 1919, Japan's proposal of amending a "racial equality clause" to the covenant of the League of Nations was rejected by the United States, Britain and Australia. Arrogance and racial discrimination towards the Japanese had plagued Japanese-Western relations since the forced opening of the country in the 1800s, and were again a major factor for the deterioration of relations in the decades preceeding World War 2. In 1924, for example, the US Congress passed the Exclusion Act that prohibited further immigration from Japan.

After WW1, Japan's economical situation worsened. The Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923 and the world wide depression of 1929 intensified the crisis.

During the 1930s, the military established almost complete control over the government. Many political enemies were assassinated, and communists persecuted. Indoctrination and censorship in education and media were further intensified. Navy and army officers soon occupied most of the important offices, including the one of the prime minister.

Already earlier, Japan followed the example of Western nations and forced China into unequal economical and political treaties. Furthermore, Japan's influence over Manchuria had been steadily growing since the end of the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-05. When the Chinese Nationalists began to seriously challenge Japan's position in Manchuria in 1931, the Kwantung Army (Japanese armed forces in Manchuria) occupied Manchuria. In the following year, "Manchukuo" was declared an independent state, controlled by the Kwantung Army through a puppet government. In the same year, the Japanese air force bombarded Shanghai in order to protect Japanese residents from anti Japanese movements.


Edo Period (1603 - 1867)

Tokugawa Ieyasu was the most powerful man in Japan after Hideyoshi had died in 1598. Against his promises he did not respect Hideyoshi's successor Hideyori because he wanted to become the absolute ruler of Japan.

In the battle of Sekigahara in 1600, Ieyasu defeated the Hideyori loyalists and other Western rivals. Hence, he achieved almost unlimited power and wealth. In 1603, Ieyasu was appointed Shogun by the emperor and established his government in Edo (Tokyo). The Tokugawa shoguns continued to rule Japan for a remarkable 250 years.

Ieyasu brought the whole country under tight control. He cleverly redistributed the gained land among the daimyo: more loyal vassals (the ones who supported him already before Sekigahara) received strategically more important domains accordingly. Every daimyo was also required to spend every second year in Edo. This meant a huge financial burden for the daimyo and moderated his power at home.

Ieyasu continued to promote foreign trade. He established relations with the English and the Dutch. On the other hand, he enforced the suppression and persecution of Christianity from 1614 on.

After the destruction of the Toyotomi clan in 1615 when Ieyasu captured Osaka Castle, he and his successors had practically no rivals anymore, and peace prevailed throughout the Edo period. Therefore, the warriors (samurai) were educating themselves not only in the martial arts but also in literature, philosophy and the arts, e.g. the tea ceremony.

In 1633, shogun Iemitsu forbade travelling abroad and almost completely isolated Japan in 1639 by reducing the contacts to the outside world to very limited trade relations with China and the Netherlands in the port of Nagasaki. In addition, all foreign books were banned.

Despite the isolation, domestic trade and agricultural production continued to improve. During the Edo period and especially during the Genroku era (1688 - 1703), popular culture flourished. New art forms like kabuki and ukiyo-e became very popular especially among the townspeople.

The most important philosophy of Tokugawa Japan was Neo-Confucianism, stressing the importance of morals, education and hierarchical order in the government and society: A strict four class system existed during the Edo period: at the top of the social hierarchy stood the samurai, followed by the peasants, artisans and merchants. The members of the four classes were not allowed to change their social status. Outcasts (eta), people with professions that were considered impure, formed a fifth class.


Meiji Period (1868 - 1912)

In 1867/68, the Tokugawa era found an end in the Meiji Restoration. The emperor Meiji was moved from Kyoto to Tokyo which became the new capital; his imperial power was restored. The actual political power was transferred from the Tokugawa Bakufu into the hands of a small group of nobles and former samurai.

Like other subjugated Asian nations, the Japanese were forced to sign unequal treaties with Western powers. These treaties granted the Westerners one-sided economical and legal advantages in Japan. In order to regain independence from the Europeans and Americans and establish herself as a respected nation in the world, Meiji Japan was determined to close the gap to the Western powers economically and militarily. Drastic reforms were carried out in practically all areas.

The new government aimed to make Japan a democratic state with equality among all its people. The boundaries between the social classes of Tokugawa Japan were gradually broken down. Consequently, the samurai were the big losers of those social reforms since they lost all their privileges. The reforms also included the establishment of human rights such as religious freedom in 1873.

In order to stabilize the new government, the former feudal lords (daimyo) had to return all their lands to the emperor. This was achieved already in 1870 and followed by the restructuring of the country in prefectures.

The education system was reformed after the French and later after the German system. Among those reforms was the introduction of compulsory education.

After about one to two decades of intensive westernization, a revival of conservative and nationalistic feelings took place: principles of Confucianism and Shinto including the worship of the emperor were increasingly emphasized and taught at educational institutions.

Catching up on the military sector was, of course, a high priority for Japan in an era of European and American imperialism. Universal conscription was introduced, and a new army modelled after the Prussian force, and a navy after the British one were established.

In order to transform the agrarian economy of Tokugawa Japan into a developed industrial one, many Japanese scholars were sent abroad to study Western science and languages, while foreign experts taught in Japan. The transportation and communication networks were improved by means of large governmental investments. The government also directly supported the prospering of businesses and industries, especially the large and powerful family businesses called zaibatsu.

The large expenditures led to a financial crisis in the middle of the 1880's which was followed by a reform of the currency system and the establishment of the Bank of Japan. The textile industry grew fastest and remained the largest Japanese industry until WW2. Work conditions in the early factories were very bad, but developing socialist and liberal movements were soon suppressed by the ruling clique.

On the political sector, Japan received its first European style constitution in 1889. A parliament, the Diet was established while the emperor kept sovereignty: he stood at the top of the army, navy, executive and legislative power. The ruling clique, however, kept on holding the actual power, and the able and intelligent emperor Meiji agreed with most of their actions. Political parties did not yet gain real power due to the lack of unity among their members.

Conflicts of interests in Korea between China and Japan led to the Sino-Japanese War in 1894-95. Japan defeated China, received Taiwan, but was forced by Russia, France and Germany to return other territories. The so called Triple Intervention caused the Japanese army and navy to intensify their rearmament.

New conflicts of interests in Korea and Manchuria, this time between Russia and Japan, led to the Russo-Japanese War in 1904-05. The Japanese army also won this war gaining territory and finally some international respect. Japan further increased her influence on Korea and annexed her completely in 1910. In Japan, the war successes caused nationalism to increase even more, and other Asian nations also started to develop national self confidence.

In 1912 emperor Meiji died, and the era of the ruling clique of elder statesmen (genro) was about to end.


Emperor

According to mythology, Japan's first Emperor Jimmu, a descendant of the Sun Goddess Amaterasu, was enthroned in the year 660 BC. While the myths are not considered historically accurate, it is a commonly accepted fact that emperors have reigned over Japan for more than 1500 years, and that they have all descended from the same imperial family.

Despite the fact that the effective power of the emperors was limited or purely symbolic throughout most of Japan's history, all actual rulers, from the Fujiwara and Hojo regents to the Minamoto, Ashikaga and Tokugawa shoguns respected the emperor and were keen in having the imperial legitimization for their position as rulers of Japan.

With the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the Tokugawa shogunate was overthrown, and Emperor Meiji became the head of state. Under the new Meiji constitution, the Emperor held sovereign power, and his political and military power was theoretically close to absolute. In praxis, however, the real power first laid with the oligarchic genro and later with the generals and admirals.

The postwar constitution of 1946 states that the emperor has only a symbolic function. He now mainly participates at ceremonies and diplomatic meetings, but has no effective political power.

In 1989, Emperor Akihito became Japan's 125th emperor. He is married to Empress Michiko, the first empress who did not come from the nobility. Their eldest son is Crown Prince Naruhito. The imperial family resides in the Imperial Palace in Tokyo.


SOURCE:
http://www.japan-guide.com
http://www.cnmi-guide.com/history/japanese/

jahooooooon said...

Jay C. Angeles
BBA MN IV-3
Rizal
Monday and Thursday, 7:30-9:00am
"LA LIGA FILIPINA"

La Liga Filipina (The Philippine League) was a progressive organization created by Dr. Jose Rizal in the Philippines in a house at Ilaya Street, Tondo in 1892. Its motto was Unus Instar Onium ("One Like All").

Almost simultaneously with the introduction of Masonry in the Philippines, a civic society called La Propaganda (Junta de la Propaganda / Junta de Programa) was established by a group of patriots in Manila, headed by Deodato Arellano, brother-in-law of Marcelo H. del Pilar. Its members, composed mostly, if not exclusively, of the middle class, constituted the liaison between the propagandists in Spain and Philippines, collected the subscriptions and contributions given by patriots in Manila and neighboring provinces to carry the propaganda work and to defray the expenses of the Filipino reformers in Spain, disseminated propaganda materials and the issues of "La Solidaridad", which were smuggled into the city.

At such times as they had occasion to visit the capital, well-to-do and educated persons from distant provinces also wanted to give their help. If the rich men of Manila contributed very little it was because they mistrusted the persons in charge of the funds, and feared for their own interests. The funds collected were forwarded to the Hispano-Filipino Association. In time, however, the funds of the organization were malversed, and the society passed out of existence.

When Rizal realized that these disorderly and ill-coordinated efforts yielded little, he planned the founding of the Liga Filipina while still at Hongkong. He too had prepared a constitution for this society, thinking that the time has come for concrete action.
On the night of July 3, 1892, at a house in Tondo, Rizal founded and inaugurated La Liga Filipina. Elected were Ambrosio Salvador, President; Agustin de la Rosa, Fiscal; Bonifacio Arevalo, Treasurer; and Deodato Arellano, Secretary.

This constituted a forward step in the reformist ideas of the times in the sense that the new group sought to involve the people directly in the reform movement. Many elements of society who were anxious for change were attracted to the Liga, among them, Andres Bonifacio who became one of the founders of the organization.

As listed in the constitution Rizal prepared, the Liga's aims were:

1. To unite the whole archipelago into one compact, vigorous, and homogenous body;
2. Mutual protection in every want and necessity;
3. Defense against all violence and injustice;
4. Encouragement of instruction, agriculture, and commerce; and
5. Study and application of reforms.

As Rizal envisioned it, the league was to be a sort of mutual aid and self-help society dispensing scholarship funds and legal aid, loaning capital and setting up cooperatives. These were innocent, even naive objectives that could hardly alleviate the social ills of those times, but the Spanish authorities were so alarmed that they arrested Rizal on July 6, 1892, a scant four days after the Liga was organized.

The aims of the Liga were to be carried out through the creation of a governing body composed of the Supreme Council, the Provincial Council, and the Popular Council. The members were each to pay ten centavos as monthly dues. Each of the members was free to choose a symbolic name for himself.

The funds of the society were to be used in the following manner:

1. The member or his son who, while not having the means shall show application and great capacity, shall be sustained;
2. The poor shall be supported in his right against any powerful person;
3. The member who shall have suffered any loss shall be aided;
4. Capital shall be loaned to the member who shall need it for an industry or agriculture;
5. The introduction of machines and industries, new or necessary in the country, shall be favored; and
6. Shops, stores, and establishment shall be opened where the members may be accommodated more economically than elsewhere.

Innocent as the society was, the Spanish authorities considered it dangerous and on the night of July 6, 1892, Rizal was secretly arrested. The following day, Governor-General Eulogio Despujol ordered Rizal's deportation to Dapitan.

With Rizal deported to Dapitan, the Liga languished for a while until, through the efforts of Domingo Franco and Andres Bonifacio, it was reorganized. Domingo Franco was elected President; Deodato Arellano, Secretary-Treasurer; Isidro Francisco, Fiscal; Juan Zulueta and Timoteo Paez, members of the Supreme Council. Later on, Mabini became the Liga's Secretary. Upon his suggestion, the organization decided to declare its support for La Solidaridad and the reforms it advocated, raise funds for the paper, and defray the expenses of deputies advocating reforms for the country before the Spanish Cortes.

Yet the association did not have a better fate this time for it had to be dissolved after a few months of life. However, it had promising beginnings. At first the Liga was quite active. Thanks to the efforts of Andres Bonifacio and others, people's councils were soon organized in Tondo and Trozo, and others in Santa Cruz, Ermita, Malate, Sampaloc, Pandacan, etc.

Subsequently a small monthly contribution was required from every member, the proceeds of which were applied to the expenses of La Solidaridad, which were the most urgently to be met. A few months later, however, the Supreme Council of the Liga dissolved the society.

Upon investigation the reformist leaders found out that most of the popular councils which Bonifacio had organized were no longer willing to send funds to the Madrid propagandists because they had become convinced that peaceful agitation for reforms was futile as the Spanish government paid no attention to the periodical. Furthermore it then transpired that those commissioned to organize the people's councils had not required previous assent to the society's program as a condition for membership in the society; and that, on the contrary, Andres Bonifacio, who had recruited more members for the society with his tireless activity, was firmly convinced of the uselessness of peaceful means.

The supreme council, which was more of an organizing committee because its members had not been elected by vote, saw clearly that, as soon as the rank and file elected their leaders according to the by-laws, the program, would be changed. Afraid that the more radical rank and file members might capture the organization and unwilling to involve themselves in an enterprise which would surely invite reprisals from the authorities as the disagreements among its members could lead to its discovery by the authorities, the leaders of the Liga opted for dissolution.

The Liga membership split into two groups: the conservatives formed the Cuerpo de Compromisarios (compromisers) which pledged to continue supporting the "La Solidaridad", while Andres Bonifacio, for his part, on July 7th, 1892 founded a new and secret society - with independence as its objective - under the name of "Katipunan ng manga Anak ng Bayan" (Association of the Sons of the People; in full: Kataas-taasan Kagalang-galang na Katipunan nang mga Anak ng Bayan - Highest and Most Respectable Society of the Sons of the People), already on the very day Rizal was deported to Dapitan.

References:

History of the Filipino People - Teodoro A. Agoncillo
The Philippines: A Past Revisited - Renato Constantino
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_Liga_Filipina

jehess said...

Name: Jeschary P. Arrojado
Course, Year and Sec.:BBA-MN IV-3
Subject:Ang Buhay,Kaisipan at mga Gawa ni Rizal
Date:March 28,2008
Title of your report:Last Homecoming and Preliminary Investigation


Summary:

Rizal's homecoming in 1896 was the last and the saddest return to the Philippines. He knew he was facing a great deal of adversary. He well knew that he is in big trouble, which could also mean that his head was at stake. But through it all, he was still gladly accepting the fact because he knew that he was doing this for his beloved country.

Rizal would keep a diary, which would later be confiscated and used as evidences against Rizal, but to no avail. His arrival in Manila on a steamboat Colon, was greeted by the spaniards with glee, for it was time for reinforcing their militarymen. It also marked the trial of Jose Rizal.

Rizal was subjected to a five-day grueling investigation. He was presented with both testimonial and documentary evidences. First, the trial was presided by Colonel Francisco Olive. Results of the preliminary investigation was forwarded to Governor General Ramon Blanco. Rizal was allowed to choose his defender. Although he only had a limited list to choose from, he chose a man that has a familiar thing with him. Luis Taviel de Andrade was chosen by Rizal to be his lawyer. He chose Luis because of the simliaraity of names between his then bodyguard Jose Taviel de Andrade. True enough, Luis and Jose were brothers.

While at his prison cell at Fort Santiago, there was a battle outside of the court. Rizal, being a man of peace and calmness, wrote a Manifesto to his people appealing to stop the unneccessary bloodshed. It hasn't been distributed because of the intervention of Governor General Polavieja.

Luis Taviel de Andrade tried everything in his power to defend Rizal, but to no avail. Polvieja signed the document ordering the execution of Rizal. This would go down as one of the important person of history because of his infamous deed. This would lead to Rizal's last march to Bagumbayan.

Reference:www.google.com,First Filipino by Leon Ma.Guerrero

Mari said...

Joanna Marie Cabrera
BBA MN IV-3
HS 110-Buhay,Gawain at Kaisipan ni Rizal
Monday/Thursday 7:30-9:00 AM

Topic:
Chapter 8:NOLI ME TANGERE PUBLISHED IN BERLIN, 1887

The winter of 1186 was very memorable in the life of Dr. Jose Rizal for the following reasons: first, it was a painful experience that he was hungry, sick and despondent in a strange city; secondly, it gave him great joy after enduring so many sufferings because his first novel Noli Me Tangere was off the press March 21, 1887.

Dr. Maximo Viola, his friend from Bulacan came to Berlin at the time of his predicament or sufferings and he loaned him the needed funds for the publication of Noli.

THE WRITING AND PRINTING OF NOLI

His reading of Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’ Cabin inspired him to prepare a novel which depict the miseries of his people under the lash of Spanish tyrants. At this time, he was a student at the University of Madrid and during the reunion of Filipinos at Paterno’s residence in Madrid; he presented the idea of writing the novel about the Philippines by a group of Filipinos. His proposal is unanimously approved by those present (The Paternos, Graciano Lopez Jaena, Evaristo Aguirre, Eduardo de Lete, Julio Llorenete, Melecio Figueroa and Valentin Ventura) but didn’t materialized so he decided to write the novel alone.

Toward the end of 1884, Rizal began writing the novel in Madrid and the final revision is done in Berlin during the winter days where he was sick, penniless and discouraged but his wealthy friend Dr. Maximo Viola agreed to finance the printing cost of Noli Me Tangere and he also loaned some cash to him for his living expenses. The printing shop is Berliner Buchdruckrei—Action—Gesselschaft—which charged the lowest rate in about three hundred pesos for 2,000 copies of the novel.

On March 29, 1887, Rizal in token of His appreciation and gratitude, gave Viola the gallery proofs or original copy of the Noli carefully rolled around the pen that he used in writing it and a complimentary copy, with the following inscription: “To my dear friend, Maximo Viola , the first to read and appreciate my work—Jose Rizal.

THE TITLE OF THE NOVEL

The title Noli Me Tangere is a Latin phrase which means “Touch Me Not”. It is not originally conceived by Rizal, for he admitted that it was taken from the Bible. He mentioned it in writing to Felix R. Hidalgo in French on March 5, 1887, Rizal said, “Noli Me Tangere”, words taken from the Gospel of St. John (Chapter 20 verses 13 to 17). According to St. John, on the first Easter Sunday when Mary Magdalene visited the Holy Selpulcher of the Lord Jesus had seen Jesus Christ just risen from the dead and He said: “Touch me not, I am not yet ascended to my Father, but go to my brethren and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father, and your Father, and to my God and Your God.”


THE NOLI BASED ON TRUTH

The Noli Me Tangere was not like many works of fictional literature. It was a true and real story of the Philippine conditions during the last decadeds of Spanish rule. The places, characters and situations really existed. The facts, he narrated here were all true and had happened.

The characters—Ibarra, Ma.Clara, Elias, Tasio, Capitan Tiago, Padre Damaso, Padre Sa;vi, etc.—were drawn by Rizal from persons who actually existed during his times. Ma.Clara was Leonor Rivera, although in real life she became unfaithful unlike the heroine of the novel and married an Englishman. Ibarra and Elias represented Rizal himself. Tasio the philosopher was his elder brother, Paciano, Padre Salvi was identified by a friar in Cavite whos was killed by the patriots during the revolution. Captain Tiago was Captain Hilarion Sunico of San Nicolas. Doña Victorina was Doña Agustin Medel. The two brother Basilio and Crispin were the Crisostomo brothers of Hagonoy. Padre Damaso was a typical of a domineering friar during the days of Rizal,who was arrogant, immoral, and anti-Filipino.

RIZAL’S FRIENDS PRAISE HIM

All of the friend of Rizal praised the Noli and appreciated it with glowing colors, while the enemies condemned it. He received many letters of congratulations and the most significant was from Blumentritt and Dr. Antonio Ma.Regidor.


Reference:Module in the Memories of the Great Filipino Heroes by Leodegario Magdaleno for NCBA

Joyce Ann Osorio said...

Group 6
Joyce Ann Osorio
Chiney Rose Eleria
Camille Angelique Lopez
Arichel Cabildo
Marianne Mejia
Madelaine Sophie Paje
Carmina Castro
Boa 1-10D
Philippine Literature
March 28, 2008
“JAPANESE PERIOD”


Japan withdrew from the League of Nations in 1935 after it had
virtually annexed the Islands into the Empire.
By 1936 a thriving fishing industry had developed as well as a
sugar industry which occupied 68 percent of the arable land on
Saipan, 80 percent on Tinian and 33 percent on Rota.
The resident population grew to 23,800 on Saipan (of which only
3,222 were originally from the islands); 1,530 on Tinian (25
Chamorros) and 5,600 on Rota (791 Chamorros).
By the time the dark clouds of war had gathered over the western
Pacific, some 29,692 Japanese military personnel were garrisoned
on Saipan.
The islands were assaulted by American forces on June 15, 1944
and one of the most hotly contested battles of the entire war was
fought on its sandy beaches and mountainous terrain. American
forces gained control of the island on July 1944 and the construction
of bases and airfields began.
It was from such airfield on Tinian that the first nuclear weapon was
dropped on Hiroshima by the B -29 aircraft Enola Gay hastening the
end of hostilities. The airfields on Tinian which in 1945 were the
busiest in the world are now largely abandoned.

Early Japan (until 710)

During the Jomon Period (13000 BC to 300 BC), the inhabitants of the Japanese islands were gatherers, fishers and hunters. Jomon is the name of the era's pottery.

During the Yayoi Period (300 BC to 300 AD), the rice culture was imported into Japan around 100 BC. With the introduction of agriculture, social classes started to evolve, and parts of the country began to unite under powerful land owners. Chinese travellers during the Han and Wei dynasties reported that a queen called Himiko (or Pimiku) reigned over Japan at that time. The Yayoi period brought also the introduction of iron and other modern ideas from Korea into Japan. Again, its pottery gave the period its name.

By the beginning of the Kofun Period (300 - 538), a center of power had developed in the fertile Kinai plain, and by about 400 AD the country was united as Yamato Japan with its political center in and around the province of Yamato (about today's Nara prefecture). The period's name comes from the large tombs (kofun) that were built for the political leaders of that era. Yamato Japan extended from Kyushu to the Kinai plain, but did not yet include the Kanto, Tohoku and Hokkaido.

The emperor was ruler of Yamato Japan and resided in a capital that was moved frequently from one city to another. However, the Soga clan soon took over the actual political power, resulting in the fact that most of the emperors only acted as the symbol of the state and performed Shinto rituals.

Due to friendly relations to the kingdom of Kudara (or Paikche) on the Korean peninsula, the influence from the mainland increased strongly. Buddhism was introduced to Japan in the year 538 or 552 and was promoted by the ruling class. Prince Shotoku is said to have played an especially important role in promoting Chinese ideas. He also wrote the Constitution of Seventeen Articles about moral and political principles. Also the theories of Confucianism and Taoism, as well as the Chinese writing system were introduced to Japan during the Yamato period.

In 645, Nakatomi no Kamatari started the era of the Fujiwara clan that was to last until the rise of the military class (samurai) in the 11th century. In the same year, the Taika reforms were realized: A new government and administrative system was established after the Chinese model. All land was bought by the state and redistributed equally among the farmers in a large land reform in order to introduce the new tax system that was also adopted from China.


Nara and Heian Periods (710 - 1185)

In the year 710, the first permanent Japanese capital was established in Nara, a city modelled after the Chinese capital. Large Buddhist monasteries were built in the new capital. The monasteries quickly gained such strong political influence that, in order to protect the position of the emperor and central government, the capital was moved to Nagaoka in 784, and finally to Heian (Kyoto) in 794 where it should remain for over one thousand years.

One characteristic of the Nara and Heian periods is a gradual decline of Chinese influence which, nevertheless, remained strong. Many of the imported ideas were gradually "Japanized". In order to meet particular Japanese needs, several governmental offices were established in addition to the government system which was copied after the Chinese model, for example. In the arts too, native Japanese movements became increasingly popular. The development of the Kana syllables made the creation of actual Japanese literature possible. Several new Buddhist sects that were imported from China during the Heian period, were also "Japanized".

Among the worst failures of the Taika reforms were the land and taxation reforms: High taxes resulted in the impoverishment of many farmers who then had to sell their properties and became tenants of larger land owners. Furthermore, many aristocrats and the Buddhist monasteries succeeded in achieving tax immunity. As a result, the state income decreased, and over the centuries, the political power steadily shifted from the central government to the large independent land owners.

The Fujiwara family controlled the political scene of the Heian period over several centuries through strategic intermarriages with the imperial family and by occupying all the important political offices in Kyoto and the major provinces. The power of the clan reached its peak with Fujiwara Michinaga in the year 1016. After Michinaga, however, the ability of the Fujiwara leaders began to decline, and public order could not be maintained. Many land owners hired samurai for the protection of their properties. That is how the military class became more and more influential, especially in Eastern Japan.

The Fujiwara supremacy came to an end in 1068 when the new emperor Go-Sanjo was determined to rule the country by himself, and the Fujiwara failed to control him. In the year 1086 Go-Sanjo abdicated but continued to rule from behind the political stage. This new form of government was called Insei government. Insei emperors exerted political power from 1086 until 1156 when Taira Kiyomori became the new leader of Japan.

In the 12th century, two military families with aristocratic backgrounds gained much power: the Minamoto (or Genji) and Taira (or Heike) families. The Taira replaced many Fujiwara nobles in important offices while the Minamoto gained military experience by bringing parts of Northern Honshu under Japanese control in the Early Nine Years War (1050 - 1059) and the Later Three Years war (1083 - 1087).

After the Heiji Rising (1159), a struggle for power between the two families, Taira Kiyomori evolved as the leader of Japan and ruled the country from 1168 to 1178 through the emperor. The major threats with which he was confronted were not only the rivalling Minamoto but also the increasingly militant Buddhist monasteries which frequently led wars between each other and disturbed public order.

After Kiyomori's death, the Taira and Minamoto clans fought a deciding war for supremacy, the Gempei War, which lasted from 1180 to 1185. By the end of the war, the Minamoto were able to put an end to Taira supremacy, and Minamoto Yoritomo succeeded as the leader of Japan. After eliminating all of his potential and acute enemies, including close family members, he was appointed Shogun (highest military officer) and established a new government in his home city Kamakura.

Kamakura Period (1192 - 1333)

In 1185, the Minamoto family took over the control over Japan after defeating the Taira clan in the Gempei war. Minamoto Yoritomo was appointed shogun in the year 1192 and established a new government, the Kamakura Bakufu. The new feudal government was organized in a simpler way than the one in Kyoto and worked much more efficient under Japanese conditions.

After Yoritomo's death in 1199, quarrels for supremacy started between the Bakufu of Kamakura and the Imperial court in Kyoto. Those quarrels for supremacy found an end in the Jokyu disturbance in 1221 when Kamakura defeated the Imperial army in Kyoto, and the Hojo regents in Kamakura achieved complete control over Japan. By redistributing the land gained during the Jokyu disturbance, they were able to achieve loyalty among all the powerful people throughout the country. The emperor and the remaining governmental offices in Kyoto lost practically all effective power.

Chinese influence continued to be relatively strong during the Kamakura period. New Buddhist sects were introduced: the Zen sect (introduced 1191) found large numbers of followers among the samurai, which were now the leading social class. Another new Buddhist sect, the radical and intolerant Lotus Sutra sect was founded in 1253 by Nichiren.

In 1232 a legal code, the Joei Shikimoku was promulgated. It stressed Confucian values such as the importance of loyalty to the master, and generally attempted to suppress a decline of morals and discipline. Tight control was maintained by the Hojo clan, and any signs of rebellions were destroyed immediately.

The shogun stayed in Kamakura without much power while deputies of him were located in Kyoto and Western Japan. Stewards and constables controlled the provinces tightly and loyally. Indeed, the Hojo regents were able to bring several decades of peace and economic expansion to the country until an external power began to threaten Japan.

By 1259, the Mongols had conquered China and became also interested in Japan. Several threatening messages of the powerful Mongols were ignored by Kamakura. This resulted in the first Mongol invasion attempt in 1274 on the island of Kyushu. After only a few hours of fighting, however, the large naval invasion fleet, was forced to pull back because of bad weather conditions. This was very fortunate for the Japanese since their odds against the large and modern Mongol force were not favourable at all.

Due to good preparations, the Japanese were able to maintain a strong defence for several weeks during a second invasion attempt which occurred in 1281. But again, the Mongols were finally forced to withdraw mainly because of bad weather. Kyushu remained in alert for a possible third invasion attempt, but the Mongols soon had too many problems on the mainland in order to care about Japan.

The consequences of the many years of war preparations against the Mongols were fatal to the Kamakura government since they resulted only in expenditures and no profits. Many of the loyal men who were fighting for Kamakura, were now waiting for rewards that the government could not pay. Hence, financial problems and decreasing loyalty among the powerful lords were some of the reasons for the fall of the Kamakura government.

By 1333 the power of the Hojo regents had declined to such a degree that the emperor Go-Daigo was able to restore imperial power and overthrow the Kamakura Bakufu.

Muromachi Period (1333 - 1573

The emperor Go-Daigo was able to restore imperial power in Kyoto and to overthrow the Kamakura Bakufu in 1333. However, the revival of the old imperial offices under the Kemmu restoration (1334) did not last for long because the old administration system was out of date and practice, and incompetent officials failed gaining the support of the powerful landowners.

Ashikaga Takauji, once fighting for the emperor, now challenged the imperial court and succeeded in capturing Kyoto in 1336. Go-Daigo, consequently, fled to Yoshino in the South of Kyoto where he founded the Southern court. At the same time, another emperor was appointed in Kyoto. This was possible because of a succession dispute that had been going on between two lines of the imperial family since the death of emperor Go-Saga in 1272.

In 1338 Takauji appointed himself shogun and established his government in Kyoto. The Muromachi district where the government buildings were located from 1378 gave the government and the historical period their names.

Two imperial courts existed in Japan for over 50 years: the Southern and Northern courts. They fought many battles against each other. The Northern court usually was in a more advantageous position; nevertheless, the South succeeded in capturing Kyoto several times for short time periods resulting in the destruction of the capital on a regular basis. The Southern court finally gave in in 1392, and the country became emperor-wise reunited again.

Religion in Japan

Shinto and Buddhism are Japan's two major religions. They have been co-existing for several centuries and have even complemented each other to a certain degree. Most Japanese consider themselves Buddhist, Shintoist or both.
Religion does not play a big role in the everyday life of most Japanese people today. The average person typically follows the religious rituals at ceremonies like birth, weddings and funerals, may visit a shrine or temple on New Year and participates at local festivals (matsuri), most of which have a religious background.

Postwar (since 1945)

After World War II had ended, Japan was devastated. All the large cities (with the exception of Kyoto), the industries and the transportation networks were severely damaged. A severe shortage of food continued for several years.

The occupation of Japan by the Allied Powers started in August 1945 and ended in April 1952. General MacArthur was its first Supreme Commander. The whole operation was mainly carried out by the United States.

Japan basically lost all the territory acquired after 1894. In addition, the Kurile islands were occupied by the Soviet Union, and the Ryukyu Islands, including Okinawa, were controlled by the USA. Okinawa was returned to Japan in 1972, however a territorial dispute with Russia concerning the Kurile Islands has not been resolved yet.

The remains of Japan's war machine were destroyed, and war crime trials were held. Over 500 military officers committed suicide right after Japan surrendered, and many hundreds more were executed for committing war crimes. Emperor Showa was not declared a war criminal.

A new constitution went into effect in 1947: The emperor lost all political and military power, and was solely made the symbol of the state. Universal suffrage was introduced and human rights were guaranteed. Japan was also forbidden to ever lead a war again or to maintain an army. Furthermore, Shinto and the state were clearly separated.

MacArthur also intended to break up power concentrations by dissolving the zaibatsu and other large companies, and by decentralizing the education system and the police. In a land reform, concentrations in land ownership were removed.

Especially during the first half of the occupation, Japan's media was subject to a rigid censorship of any anti-American statements and controversial topics such as the race issue.

The co-operation between the Japanese and the Allied powers worked relatively smooth. Critics started to grow when the United States acted increasingly according to her self interests in the Cold War, reintroduced the persecution of communists, stationed more troops in Japan, and wanted Japan to establish an own self defence force despite the anti-war article in the constitution. Many aspects of the occupation's so called "reverse course" were welcomed by conservative Japanese politicians.

With the peace treaty that went into effect in 1952, the occupation ended. Japan's Self Defence Force was established in 1954, accompanied by large public demonstrations. Great public unrest was also caused by the renewal of the US-Japan Security Treaty of 1960.

After the Korean War, and accelerated by it, the recovery of Japan's economy flourished. The economic growth resulted in a quick rise of the living standards, changes in society and the stabilization of the ruling position of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), but also in severe pollution.

Japan's relations to the Soviet Union were normalized in 1956, the ones to China in 1972.

The 1973 oil crisis shocked the Japanese economy which was heavily depended on oil. The reaction was a shift to high technology industries.


Militarism and WW2 (1912 - 1945)

During the era of the weak emperor Taisho (1912-26), the political power shifted from the oligarchic clique (genro) to the parliament and the democratic parties.

In the First World War, Japan joined the Allied powers, but played only a minor role in fighting German colonial forces in East Asia. At the following Paris Peace Conference of 1919, Japan's proposal of amending a "racial equality clause" to the covenant of the League of Nations was rejected by the United States, Britain and Australia. Arrogance and racial discrimination towards the Japanese had plagued Japanese-Western relations since the forced opening of the country in the 1800s, and were again a major factor for the deterioration of relations in the decades preceeding World War 2. In 1924, for example, the US Congress passed the Exclusion Act that prohibited further immigration from Japan.

After WW1, Japan's economical situation worsened. The Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923 and the world wide depression of 1929 intensified the crisis.

During the 1930s, the military established almost complete control over the government. Many political enemies were assassinated, and communists persecuted. Indoctrination and censorship in education and media were further intensified. Navy and army officers soon occupied most of the important offices, including the one of the prime minister.

Already earlier, Japan followed the example of Western nations and forced China into unequal economical and political treaties. Furthermore, Japan's influence over Manchuria had been steadily growing since the end of the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-05. When the Chinese Nationalists began to seriously challenge Japan's position in Manchuria in 1931, the Kwantung Army (Japanese armed forces in Manchuria) occupied Manchuria. In the following year, "Manchukuo" was declared an independent state, controlled by the Kwantung Army through a puppet government. In the same year, the Japanese air force bombarded Shanghai in order to protect Japanese residents from anti Japanese movements.


Edo Period (1603 - 1867)

Tokugawa Ieyasu was the most powerful man in Japan after Hideyoshi had died in 1598. Against his promises he did not respect Hideyoshi's successor Hideyori because he wanted to become the absolute ruler of Japan.

In the battle of Sekigahara in 1600, Ieyasu defeated the Hideyori loyalists and other Western rivals. Hence, he achieved almost unlimited power and wealth. In 1603, Ieyasu was appointed Shogun by the emperor and established his government in Edo (Tokyo). The Tokugawa shoguns continued to rule Japan for a remarkable 250 years.

Ieyasu brought the whole country under tight control. He cleverly redistributed the gained land among the daimyo: more loyal vassals (the ones who supported him already before Sekigahara) received strategically more important domains accordingly. Every daimyo was also required to spend every second year in Edo. This meant a huge financial burden for the daimyo and moderated his power at home.

Ieyasu continued to promote foreign trade. He established relations with the English and the Dutch. On the other hand, he enforced the suppression and persecution of Christianity from 1614 on.

After the destruction of the Toyotomi clan in 1615 when Ieyasu captured Osaka Castle, he and his successors had practically no rivals anymore, and peace prevailed throughout the Edo period. Therefore, the warriors (samurai) were educating themselves not only in the martial arts but also in literature, philosophy and the arts, e.g. the tea ceremony.

In 1633, shogun Iemitsu forbade travelling abroad and almost completely isolated Japan in 1639 by reducing the contacts to the outside world to very limited trade relations with China and the Netherlands in the port of Nagasaki. In addition, all foreign books were banned.

Despite the isolation, domestic trade and agricultural production continued to improve. During the Edo period and especially during the Genroku era (1688 - 1703), popular culture flourished. New art forms like kabuki and ukiyo-e became very popular especially among the townspeople.

The most important philosophy of Tokugawa Japan was Neo-Confucianism, stressing the importance of morals, education and hierarchical order in the government and society: A strict four class system existed during the Edo period: at the top of the social hierarchy stood the samurai, followed by the peasants, artisans and merchants. The members of the four classes were not allowed to change their social status. Outcasts (eta), people with professions that were considered impure, formed a fifth class.


Meiji Period (1868 - 1912)

In 1867/68, the Tokugawa era found an end in the Meiji Restoration. The emperor Meiji was moved from Kyoto to Tokyo which became the new capital; his imperial power was restored. The actual political power was transferred from the Tokugawa Bakufu into the hands of a small group of nobles and former samurai.

Like other subjugated Asian nations, the Japanese were forced to sign unequal treaties with Western powers. These treaties granted the Westerners one-sided economical and legal advantages in Japan. In order to regain independence from the Europeans and Americans and establish herself as a respected nation in the world, Meiji Japan was determined to close the gap to the Western powers economically and militarily. Drastic reforms were carried out in practically all areas.

The new government aimed to make Japan a democratic state with equality among all its people. The boundaries between the social classes of Tokugawa Japan were gradually broken down. Consequently, the samurai were the big losers of those social reforms since they lost all their privileges. The reforms also included the establishment of human rights such as religious freedom in 1873.

In order to stabilize the new government, the former feudal lords (daimyo) had to return all their lands to the emperor. This was achieved already in 1870 and followed by the restructuring of the country in prefectures.

The education system was reformed after the French and later after the German system. Among those reforms was the introduction of compulsory education.

After about one to two decades of intensive westernization, a revival of conservative and nationalistic feelings took place: principles of Confucianism and Shinto including the worship of the emperor were increasingly emphasized and taught at educational institutions.

Catching up on the military sector was, of course, a high priority for Japan in an era of European and American imperialism. Universal conscription was introduced, and a new army modelled after the Prussian force, and a navy after the British one were established.

In order to transform the agrarian economy of Tokugawa Japan into a developed industrial one, many Japanese scholars were sent abroad to study Western science and languages, while foreign experts taught in Japan. The transportation and communication networks were improved by means of large governmental investments. The government also directly supported the prospering of businesses and industries, especially the large and powerful family businesses called zaibatsu.

The large expenditures led to a financial crisis in the middle of the 1880's which was followed by a reform of the currency system and the establishment of the Bank of Japan. The textile industry grew fastest and remained the largest Japanese industry until WW2. Work conditions in the early factories were very bad, but developing socialist and liberal movements were soon suppressed by the ruling clique.

On the political sector, Japan received its first European style constitution in 1889. A parliament, the Diet was established while the emperor kept sovereignty: he stood at the top of the army, navy, executive and legislative power. The ruling clique, however, kept on holding the actual power, and the able and intelligent emperor Meiji agreed with most of their actions. Political parties did not yet gain real power due to the lack of unity among their members.

Conflicts of interests in Korea between China and Japan led to the Sino-Japanese War in 1894-95. Japan defeated China, received Taiwan, but was forced by Russia, France and Germany to return other territories. The so called Triple Intervention caused the Japanese army and navy to intensify their rearmament.

New conflicts of interests in Korea and Manchuria, this time between Russia and Japan, led to the Russo-Japanese War in 1904-05. The Japanese army also won this war gaining territory and finally some international respect. Japan further increased her influence on Korea and annexed her completely in 1910. In Japan, the war successes caused nationalism to increase even more, and other Asian nations also started to develop national self confidence.

In 1912 emperor Meiji died, and the era of the ruling clique of elder statesmen (genro) was about to end.


Emperor

According to mythology, Japan's first Emperor Jimmu, a descendant of the Sun Goddess Amaterasu, was enthroned in the year 660 BC. While the myths are not considered historically accurate, it is a commonly accepted fact that emperors have reigned over Japan for more than 1500 years, and that they have all descended from the same imperial family.

Despite the fact that the effective power of the emperors was limited or purely symbolic throughout most of Japan's history, all actual rulers, from the Fujiwara and Hojo regents to the Minamoto, Ashikaga and Tokugawa shoguns respected the emperor and were keen in having the imperial legitimization for their position as rulers of Japan.

With the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the Tokugawa shogunate was overthrown, and Emperor Meiji became the head of state. Under the new Meiji constitution, the Emperor held sovereign power, and his political and military power was theoretically close to absolute. In praxis, however, the real power first laid with the oligarchic genro and later with the generals and admirals.

The postwar constitution of 1946 states that the emperor has only a symbolic function. He now mainly participates at ceremonies and diplomatic meetings, but has no effective political power.

In 1989, Emperor Akihito became Japan's 125th emperor. He is married to Empress Michiko, the first empress who did not come from the nobility. Their eldest son is Crown Prince Naruhito. The imperial family resides in the Imperial Palace in Tokyo.


SOURCE:
http://www.japan-guide.com
http://www.cnmi-guide.com/history/japanese/

BOA1-10D said...

REPORT IN PHILIPPINE LITERATURE

(LT110)

BACHELOR OF OFFICE ADMINISTRATION

(BOA I-10D)

SUBMITTED BY: GROUP 6

ELDRINE PAUL BUGTONG

SEAN NATHANIEL DE CASTRO

LEO DELINA

DAN JOSEPH LOPOS

JUAN CARLO GRUTA

EDWARSON DIAMZON

CHRISTIAN CONSTANTINO

JONATHAN SELGA

RUDOLF DELA CRUZ

JOSEFINO ICABALES

SUBMITTED TO:

PROF. A. R. S. FUECONCILLO

Philippine literature in English has its roots in the efforts of the United States, which had been engaged in a war with Filipino nationalist forces at the end of the 19th century, to establish in the country a government based on the ideals of "universality, practicality, and democracy." By 1901, public education had been institutionalized in the Philippines, with English serving as the medium of instruction. That year saw the arrival of around 600 educators in the S.S. Thomas (the "Thomasites") to replace the soldiers who had been serving as the first teachers. Outside the acadme, the wide availability of reading materials, such as books and newspapers in English, helped Filipinos learn the language quickly. Today, around 52% of the population can understand or speak English to some extent (see List of countries by English-speaking population).

The Commonwealth Period

The founding of Silliman University by Presbyterian missionaries and the Philippine Normal School (PNS) in 1901 and the University of the Philippines (U.P.) in 1908, as well as of English newspapers like the Daily Bulletin (1900), The Cablenews (1902), and the Philippines Free Press (1905), helped boost the spread of English. The first ten years of the century witnessed the first verse and prose efforts of Filipinos in student publications such as The Filipino Students’ Magazine (first issue, 1905), a short-lived quarterly published in Berkeley, California, by Filipino pensionados (or government scholars); the U.P. College Folio (first issue, 1910); The Coconut of the Manila High School (first issue, 1912); and The Torch of the PNS (first issue, 1913).

However, the beginnings of anything resembling a professional market for writing in English would not be realized until the 1920's with the founding of other newspapers and magazines like the Philippines Herald in 1920, the Philippine Education Magazine in 1924 (renamed Philippine Magazine in 1928), and later the Manila Tribune, the Graphic, Woman’s Outlook, and Woman’s Home Journal. The publications helped introduce the reading public to the works of Paz Marquez Benitez, Jose Garcia Villa, Loreto Paras, and Casiano Calalang, among others. Cash incentives were given to writers in 1921 when the Free Press started to pay for published contributions and awarded P1,000 for the best stories. The organization in 1925 of the Philippine Writers Association and in 1927 of the University of the Philippines National Writers Workshop, which put out the Literary Apprentice, also helped encourage literary production. In 1939, the Philippine Writers League was put up by politically conscious writers, intensifying their debate with those in the "art for art’s sake" school of Villa.

Among the significant publications of this fertile period were: Filipino Poetry (1924) by Rodolfo Dato; English-German Anthology of Filipino Poets (1934) by Pablo Laslo; Jose Garcia Villa’s Many Voices (1939) and Poems of Doveglion (1941); Poems (1940) by Angela Manalang Gloria; Chorus for America: Six Philippine Poets (1942) by Carlos Bulosan; Zoilo Galang’s "A Child of Sorrow" (1921), the first Filipino novel in English, and "Box of Ashes and Other Stories" (1925), the first collection of stories in book form; Villa’s Footnote to Youth: Tales of the Philippines and Others (1933); "The Wound and the Scar" (1937) by Arturo Rotor, a collection of stories; "Winds of April" (1940) by N. V. M. Gonzalez; "His Native Soil" (1941) by Juan C. Laya; Manuel Arguilla’s "How My Brother Leon Brought Home a Wife and Other Stories" (1941); Galangs’s "Life and Success" (1921), the first volume of essays in English; and the influential "Literature and Society" (1940) by Salvador P. Lopez. Dramatic writing took a backseat due to the popularity of Filipino vaudeville (bodabil) and Tagalog movies, although it was kept alive by the playwright Wilfredo Ma. Guerrero.

The Post-War Period

During the Japanese occupation, when Tagalog was favored by the Japanese military authority, writing in English was consigned to limbo. It picked up after the war, however, with a fervor and drive for excellence that continue to this day. Stevan Javellana’s "Without Seeing the Dawn" (1947), the first postwar novel in English, was published in the United States. In 1946, the Barangay Writers Project was founded to help publish books in English.

Against a background marked by political unrest and government battles with Hukbalahap guerrillas, writers in English in the postwar period honed their sense of craft and techniques. Among the writers who came into their own during this time were: Nick Joaquin, N. V. M. Gonzalez, Francisco Arcellana, Carlos Bulosan, F. Sionil José, Ricaredo Demetillo, Kerima Polotan Tuvera, Carlos Angeles, Edilberto K. Tiempo, Amador Daguio, Estrella Alfon, Alejandrino Hufana, Gregorio Brillantes, Bienvenido Santos, Dominador Ilio, T.D. Agcaoili, Alejandro R. Roces, Sinai C. Hamada, Linda Ty-Casper, Virginia Moreno, Luis Dato, Gilda Cordero-Fernando, Abelardo and Tarrosa Subido, Manuel A. Viray, Vicente Rivera Jr., and Oscar de Zuñiga, among many others.

Fresh from studies in American universities, usually as Fulbright or Rockefeller scholars, a number of these writers introduced New Criticism to the country and applied its tenets in literature classes and writing workshops. In this way were born the Silliman Writers Summer Workshop (started in 1962 by Edilberto K. Tiempo and Edith L. Tiempo) and the U.P. Writers Summer Workshop (started in 1965 by the Department of English at the U.P.). To this day, these workshops help discover writing talents and develop them in their craft.

Literary awards and competitions

In 1940, the first Commonwealth Literary Awards were given by President Manuel L. Quezon to Salvador P. Lopez for "Literature and Society" (essay), Manuel Arguilla for "How My Brother Leon Brought Home a Wife and Other Stories" (short story), R. Zulueta da Costa for "Like the Molave" (poetry), and Juan C. Laya for "His Native Soil" (novel).

Government recognition of literary merit came in the form of the Republic Cultural Heritage Awards (1960), the Pro Patria Awards for Literature (1961), and the National Artist Awards (1973). Only the last of these three awards survives today. Writers in English who have received the National Artist award include: Jose Garcia Villa (1973), Nick Joaquin (1976), Carlos P. Romulo (1982), Francisco Arcellana (1990), N. V. M. Gonzalez, Rolando Tinio (1997), Edith L. Tiempo, (2000), F. Sionil Jose (2003), and Bienvenido Lumbera (2006).

A select group of local writers have also received the international Magsaysay Award, namely, F. Sionil Jose, Nick Joaquin and Bienvenido Lumbera.

Contemporary Writers

Despite the lack of a professional writer's market, poetry and fiction in English continue to thrive and be written with sophistication, and insight. Among the notable fictionists of recent years are: Cecilia Manguerra Brainard, Linda Ty Casper, F. Sionil Jose, Erwin Castillo, Ninotchka Rosca, Antonio Enriquez, Resil Mojares, Renato Madrid, Wilfredo Nolledo, Alfred A. Yuson, Amadis Ma. Guerrero, Jose Dalisay Jr., Susan Lara, Jaime An Lim, Eric Gamalinda, Charlson Ong, Rosario Cruz Lucero, Lakambini Sitoy, Timothy Montes, Jessica Zafra, Katrina Tuvera, Angelo Rodriguez Lacuesta, Luis Joaquin Katigbak, Dean Francis Alfar, Ian Casocot, Menchu Aquino Sarmiento, Vicente Garcia Groyon, and Ma. Francezca Kwe. Notable poets include: Emmanuel Torres, Cirilo Bautista, Gemino Abad, Federico Licsi Espino Jr, Ophelia Alcantara Dimalanta, Emmanuel Lacaba, Marjorie Evasco, Simeon Dumdum, Jr., Ma. Luisa Igloria, Merlie Alunan, Anthony Tan, Elsa Coscoluella, Ramon Sunico, Ricardo de Ungria, Marne Kilates, J. Neil C. Garcia, Alexis Abola, Danton Remoto, Salvador Bernal, Paolo Manalo, Joel Toledo, Mookie Katigbak, Naya Valdellon, Lourd Ernest De Veyra, Ramil Digal Gulle, and Angelo Suarez

Japanese (日本語 / にほんご Nihongo (help·info)?) is a language spoken by over 140 million people in Japan and in Japanese emigrant communities around the world. It is an agglutinative language and is distinguished by a complex system of honorifics reflecting the hierarchical nature of Japanese society, with verb forms and particular vocabulary to indicate the relative status of speaker and listener. The sound inventory of Japanese is relatively small, and has a lexically distinct pitch-accent system.

The Japanese language is written with a combination of three different types of scripts: Chinese characters called kanji (漢字 / かんじ), and two syllabic scripts made up of modified Chinese characters, hiragana (平仮名 / ひらがな) and katakana (片仮名 / カタカナ). The Latin alphabet, rōmaji (ローマ字), is also often used in modern Japanese, especially for company names and logos, advertising, and when inputting Japanese into a computer. Western style Arabic numerals are generally used for numbers, but traditional Sino-Japanese numerals are also commonplace.

Japanese vocabulary has been heavily influenced by loanwords from other languages. A vast number of words were borrowed from Chinese, or created from Chinese models, over a period of at least 1,500 years. Since the late 19th century, Japanese has borrowed a considerable number of words from Indo-European languages, primarily English. Because of the special trade relationship between Japan and first Portugal in the 16th century, and then mainly Holland in the 17th century, Portuguese and Dutch have also been influential.

angela said...

Angela S. Nakila
BBA-MN IV-3D
HS110 - Rizal
MONDAY & THURSDAY 7:30-9:00AM
"ARTISTIC WORK IN DAPITAN TO ADIOS DAPITAN"

Hunyo 26, 1982; mula sa Hongkong, bumalik si Rizal sa Pilipinas upang matulungan ang mga kababayang taga-Calamba na pinalayas ng mga Prayle. Dumating siya sa Maynila kasama ang kapatid na si Lucia lulan ng SS Don Juan. Makailang araw, pinatawag siya sa Malacañang. May mga natagpuan daw na babasahin sa kanyang higaan na kumukutya sa mga prayle –Pobres Frailes.
Sinundan pa ito ng pagpapatapon sa kanya sa Dapitan noong Hulyo 15, 1982. sa kabila raw ng pagpapayo ng mga Heswitang naging guro niya sa Ateneo, hindi siya gumawa ng anumang retraksiyon hinggil sa pagkakapasok sa Masonerya. Dahil dito, kailangan siyang sumailalim sa pagbabantay ni Don Ricardo Garnicero, ang militar na komandante ng Dapitan.
Habang nasa Dapitan, nakita niya ang mga mahigpit na pangangailangan ng mga tao roon. Nagtayo siya ng klinika para sa lahat. Siningil niya ang mga may kaya at libre naman ang mga wala. Isang mailiit na paaralan din ang kanyang binuksan kung saan binigyang-diin niya ang pagtuturo ng Agham, Ingles, at Matematika. Tumulong din siya sa pangangailangan ng mga tao roon sa tubig at elektrisidad. Bumili siya ng isang pirasong lupa sa Sitio Talisay at tinaniman niya ng niyog, tubo, cacao, at iba pang namumungang mga puno. Sa tula niyang Mi Retiro mababakas ang matindi niyang pangungulila. Nasa tula naman niyang Hymn to Talisay Tree ang tatag ng kanyang kalooban.
Habang siya ay nasa Dapitan, walang patid ang sulatan nila ni Ferdinand Blumentritt. Lumikom siya ng mga hayop at ipinadala sa museo ng Dresden, Alemanya. Bukod sa kanyang malalapit na kaanak na dumadalaw sa kanya, isang dalagang Irish ang dumating sa Dapitan kasama ang ama-amahang nangangailangan noon ng serbisyo ng bayani. May diperensiya ito sa mata, si George Tauffer na isang inhinyero. Ang dalaga ay si Josephine Bracken na naging kabiyak ng kanyang puso.
Nagharap siya ng kahilingan sa pamahalaan na maging duktor ng mga sundalong Kastila sa Cuba na noon ay nagkakasakit habang nakikipaghamok sa mga rebelde sa ilalim ni Jose Marti. Pinayagan siya kaya’t noong Hulyo 31, 1986, naglakbay siya patungong Maynila. Nakaalis na nang barkong sasakyan papuntang Cuba nang siya ay dumating sa lungsod. Sapagkat siya ay itinuturing na isang tapon, inilipat siya sa Castilla na nakadaong doon sa Cavite. Habang naghihintay, nilikha niya ang tulang, The Song of a Traveller.

jude said...

Angela S. Nakila
BBA MN IV-3
HS110 - RIZAL
MONDAY & THURSDAY 7:30-9:00AM
"ARTISTIC WORK IN DAPITAN TO ADIOS DAPITAN"

Hunyo 26, 1982; mula sa Hongkong, bumalik si Rizal sa Pilipinas upang matulungan ang mga kababayang taga-Calamba na pinalayas ng mga Prayle. Dumating siya sa Maynila kasama ang kapatid na si Lucia lulan ng SS Don Juan. Makailang araw, pinatawag siya sa Malacañang. May mga natagpuan daw na babasahin sa kanyang higaan na kumukutya sa mga prayle –Pobres Frailes.
Sinundan pa ito ng pagpapatapon sa kanya sa Dapitan noong Hulyo 15, 1982. sa kabila raw ng pagpapayo ng mga Heswitang naging guro niya sa Ateneo, hindi siya gumawa ng anumang retraksiyon hinggil sa pagkakapasok sa Masonerya. Dahil dito, kailangan siyang sumailalim sa pagbabantay ni Don Ricardo Garnicero, ang militar na komandante ng Dapitan.
Habang nasa Dapitan, nakita niya ang mga mahigpit na pangangailangan ng mga tao roon. Nagtayo siya ng klinika para sa lahat. Siningil niya ang mga may kaya at libre naman ang mga wala. Isang mailiit na paaralan din ang kanyang binuksan kung saan binigyang-diin niya ang pagtuturo ng Agham, Ingles, at Matematika. Tumulong din siya sa pangangailangan ng mga tao roon sa tubig at elektrisidad. Bumili siya ng isang pirasong lupa sa Sitio Talisay at tinaniman niya ng niyog, tubo, cacao, at iba pang namumungang mga puno. Sa tula niyang Mi Retiro mababakas ang matindi niyang pangungulila. Nasa tula naman niyang Hymn to Talisay Tree ang tatag ng kanyang kalooban.
Habang siya ay nasa Dapitan, walang patid ang sulatan nila ni Ferdinand Blumentritt. Lumikom siya ng mga hayop at ipinadala sa museo ng Dresden, Alemanya. Bukod sa kanyang malalapit na kaanak na dumadalaw sa kanya, isang dalagang Irish ang dumating sa Dapitan kasama ang ama-amahang nangangailangan noon ng serbisyo ng bayani. May diperensiya ito sa mata, si George Tauffer na isang inhinyero. Ang dalaga ay si Josephine Bracken na naging kabiyak ng kanyang puso.
Nagharap siya ng kahilingan sa pamahalaan na maging duktor ng mga sundalong Kastila sa Cuba na noon ay nagkakasakit habang nakikipaghamok sa mga rebelde sa ilalim ni Jose Marti. Pinayagan siya kaya’t noong Hulyo 31, 1986, naglakbay siya patungong Maynila. Nakaalis na nang barkong sasakyan papuntang Cuba nang siya ay dumating sa lungsod. Sapagkat siya ay itinuturing na isang tapon, inilipat siya sa Castilla na nakadaong doon sa Cavite. Habang naghihintay, nilikha niya ang tulang, The Song of a Traveller.

REFERENCE: Ang Pilibusterismo ni Jose Rizal
(Corazon G. Magbaleta, Erlinda R. Berdin, Cid V. Alcaraz)

(mam, pinost ko lang po ulit kasi nakalimtan ko po ilagay ang reference, thanks..)

mAnu said...

Manuel R. Nadores Jr.
BBA MN 4-3
HS110 - RIZAL
MONDAY & THURSDAY 7:30-9:00AM
"Rizal in his 1st Journey to Europe"


When Rizal finished his fourth year in medical course, being disgusted of the antiquated method of instruction at University of Sto. Thomas and the racial prejudice of Dominican professors against Filipino students, he decided to complete his studies in Spain. But not only that, he also bears an important mission that was secretly given to him on his departure to the land where people is granted of their human rights.

The mission which he conceived with the approval of Paciano, his older brother, was to observe keenly the life and culture, languages and customs, industries and commerce, governments and laws of the European nations. This is such, in order to prepare himself to the mighty task of liberating his oppressed people from Spanish tyrants. And also to finish his studies abroad.

His departure for Spain was kept secret to avoid detection by the Spanish authorities and the friars. His passport was also secretly worked by Manuel Hidalgo and Neneng, his older sister. The financial assistance came from Paciano who remits thirty pesos a month for his departure. His trip also cost his Ate Neneng's diamond ring given to him as a gift. Before he left, he wrote a farewell letter to his beloved parents and to his sweetheart Leonor Rivera.

Chronological Events on his trip to Spain:
The year was 1882:
May 3 : He sailed for Singapore on board of the Spanish streamer “Salvadora”.
May 11 : From Singapore, he board the French streamer “Djemnah” for Europe.
May 17 : He arrived at Point Galle, a seacost town at Southern Ceylon (now Sri Lanka).
May 18 : Djemnah anchored at Colombo. From Colombo, they crossed the Indian Ocean, passed the Cape of Guardafui, Africa. His next stopover was Aden, then Djemnah proceed to the city of Suez, the Red Sea terminal of Suez Canal. From Port Said, port in the city of Suez, Djemnah proceed its way to Europe.
June 11 : Rizal reached the Italian city of Naples.
June 12 : Djemnah docked at Marseilles.
June 15 : He left Marseilles by train to Spain.
June 16 : He arrived at Barcelona, Spain. Rizal was welcomed by Filipinos, some were his classmates in Ateneo.

In Barcelona, He wrote a nationalistic essay entitled “Amor Patrio” (Love of Country), his first article written in Spanish soil. And then he sent it to Basilio Teodoro Moran, publisher of Diariong Tagalog in Manila, under the pen name of “Laong Laan”.

His brother Paciano advice him to finish his medical course in Madrid, Spain. So, on November 3, 1882 Rizal enrolled at the Universidad Central de Madrid in two course – Medicine, and Philosophy and Letters.Healso took up painting and sculpture in the Academy of Fine Arts in San Fernando, and lessons in languages such as French, German, and English under private instructor; and also practiced fencing and shooting in the Hall of Arms of Sanz y Carbonell. He spent his leisure time in reading and writing at his boarding house, then attending reunions of Filipino students at the house of the Paterno brothers who were also practising fencing and shooting at the gymnasium.

Every Saturday evening, there was a home where he always visit. The house of Don Pablo Y Rey Ortega, who lived with his son (Rafael) and daughter (Consuelo).

After completing his sudies in Madrid, Rizal went to Paris and Germany to specialize in opthalmology. He served as assistant to the famous oculists in Europe.

Chronological Events on his Journey to Berlin:
The year was 1886:
February 1 : Rizal left Paris for Germany after he experience being and opthalmologist.
February 3 : He lived in a boarding house in Heidelberg. Later on, he transferred to a boarding house which was near the University of Heidelberg. He worked at the University Eye Hospital.
In the spring, his fondness for the flowwers along the cool banks of the Neckar River and his mood of homesickness, he wrote “A Las Flores de Heidelberg” (To the Flowers of Heidelberg)
August 6 : He left for Leipzig three days after the centenary celebration of the Univerity of Heidelberg.
August 14 : He then arrived at Leipzig and then attended some lectures at the University of Leipzig about history and psychology. Rizal translated Schiller's William Tell from German to Tagalog so that Filipinos will know the story of the champion of Swiss Independence. He corrected some chapters of his second novel in this city.
October 29 : He left Leipzig for Dresden where he met Dr. Adolph Meyer the Director of the Ethnological Museum.
November 1 : Rizal left Dresden for Berlin and reached the place in the evening of the same day.

He lived in Berlin in several reasons. Some of it are to observe the economic and political conditions of the German nation, to further his studies of sciences and languages, to gain further knowledge of opthalmology, to publish his novel entitled “Noli Me Tangere”, to associate with famoouss scientists and scholars, and many more.

Reference: Module in “The Memories of the Great Filipino Hero" by Leodegario Magdaleno

BOA1-10D said...

Edonna Dulay
Humille Anne Cabral
Karen Cajayon
Anna Delfa Casapao
Melanie Lansangan
Gretchel Yabut
Shierley Alarin
BOA 1-10D

Philippine Literature
LT310

Tue.-Fri. 10:30-12:00

"PROPAGANDA"

THE PROPAGANDA MOVEMENT (1872-1896)

This movement was spearheaded mostly by the intellectual middle class like Jose Rizal, Marcelo Del Pilar, Graciano Lopez Jaena, Antonio Luna, Mariano Ponce, Jose Ma. Pnganiban and Pedro Paterno.

OBJECTIVES OF THIS MOVEMENT
1. To get equal treatment for the Filipinos and the Spaniards/ Equality
2. To make the Filipinos a colony.
3. To restore Filipinos representation in the Spanish Cortes.
4. To filipinize the pariches.
5. To give the Philippine Freedom of the speech of the press, assembly and for redress of grievance.

HIGHLIGHTS OF PROPAGANDA MOVEMENT
There was 3 principal leaders of the propaganda movement. They were Jose P. Rizal, Marcelo Del Pilar and Graciano Lopez Jaena. Here are highlights about them and what they have done for our country.

Dr. Jose P. Rizal

Jose Protacio Rizal Mercado Alonza Y Realonda was born on June 19, 1861 at Calamba, laguna. His forst teacher was his mother Teodora Alonzo. He studied at the Ateneo de Manila, started Medicine at UST and finished at the Unibersidad Central of Madrid. He also studied at the University of Berlin, Leipzig and Heidelberg. He died by musketry in the hands on the Spaniards on December 30,1896 on charges of sedition and rebellion against the Spaniards. His pen name was Laong-laan and Dimasalang.


His Books and Writings

1. Noli Me Tangere
In this book, he courageously exposed the evils in the Spanish run government in the Philippines.
2. El Filibusterismo
3. Mi Ultimo Adios(My Last Farewell/ Huling Paalam)
4. Sobre la Indolencia de los Filipionos (on the indolence of the Filipinos)
5. Filipinos Dontro de cien Años ( The Philippine within a century)
6. A la Juventud Filipina (To the Filipino)
7. El Concejo de los Dioses ( the council of the Gods)
8. Junto al Pasig (Beside the Pasig River)
9. Me piden Versos (you asked me for verses) and A las flores de Heidelberg (To the flowers of Hiedelberg).
10. Notas A las obra sucesos de las Filipinas for El Dr. Antonio de Morga.
11. P. Jacinto: Memorias de Un Estudiante de Manila
12. Diario de Vianje de Norte America.

Marcelo H . Del Pilar

Marcelo H. Del Pilar is popularly known for his pen name of Plaridel, Pupdoh, Piping Dilat and Dolores Manapat. He was born at Cupang, San Nicolas Bulacan on August 30, 1850.
His parents were Julian H. Del Pilar, noted Filipino writer and Biasa Gatmaitan. His brother was the priests for the banished to Mariones in 1878. His name was Fr. Toribio del Pilar. He gave up his share of inheritance for his brothers and sisters.
Marcelo started schooling at the school of Mrs. Flores and then transferred to that of San Jose before UST. He established the Diaryong Tagalog in 1882. where he exposed the evil of Spanish Government. Due to his was forced to travel in Spain in 1888.
Marcelo Stayed in Spain but it sis not last long because he got sick and even when he was gravely ill and could hardly walk he attempted to reach Hongkong from where he could arouse his countrymen. He died of Tubercolosis.

WRITINGS OF MARCELO
1. Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa: (love of country)
2. Kaiingat Kayo (Ben Careful)
3. Dasalan at Tuksuhan (Prayers and Jokes)
4. Ang Cadaquilaan ng Dios (God’s Goodness.
5. Sagot sa Espanya sa Hibik ng Pilipinas (Answer to Sapin on the Plea of the Filipinos)
6. Dupluhan …Dalit..Mga bugtong (A poeticsl contest in narrative, sequence, psalms, riddles)
7. La soberania En Pilipinsa ( Sovereignty in the Philippines)
8. Por Telepono (by Telephone)
9. Pasiong Dapat Ipag-alab ng Puso ng Taong Babasa (passion that should arouse the hearts of the readers)


Graciano Lopez Jaena (1856-1896)

A most notable hero and genius of the Philippines were born on December 18, 1856. He gained the acquaintance of high officials like Pily Morgall, Morayta, Moret, Castelar and Salmeron. From Valencia, he moved to Barcelona where he established the first magazine La Solidaridad.


HIS WRITINGS
1. Ang Fray Botod (Friar Botod)
2. La hija del Fradile (the child of the Friar)
3. Sa mga Pilipino..1891
4. Ang Talumpating Paggugunita kay kulombus (An Orationto Commemorate Columbus)
5. En Honor de los presidente Morayta deal Associacion Hispano 1884.
6. En Honor se lod Artistas Luna Y Resurrecion Hidalgo 1884.
7. Amor A España o las Jovenes de Malolos (Love fot Spain or to the youth of Malolos)
8. El bandolerismo En Pilipinas (Bandirity in the Philippines)
9. Honor En Pilipinas (Honor in the Philippines)
10. Pag-alis sa buwis sa Pilipinas
11. Institucion ng Pilipinas (Sufferings of the Philippines.

Other Protagonists

Antonio Luna
• A Pharmacist who banished by the Spaniards to Spain.
• Joined Propaganda movement and contributed his writings to La Solidaridad.
• “Taga-ilog” was his pen name.
• Died at the age od 33 in June 1899.
Some of his works:
1. Noche Buena
2. Se Devierten
3. La terbiulia Filipina
4. Por Madrid
5. La Casa de huespedes


Mariano Ponce
• Editor in Chief, biographer and researcher of the Propaganda movment.
• “Tikbalang”, “Kalipulaka”, “Naning”
• Values of education were the common themes of his works.
• He wrote about how Filipinos were oppressed by the Foreigners.
His Writings:
1. Mga Alamat ng Bulacan
2. Pagpugot kay Longinos
3. Solore Filipinos
4. The Filipino in Indo China.

Pedro Paterno
• Scholar, dramatic, researcher and novelist of the Propaganda movement.
• Joined the Confraternity of Masons and the Association Hispano-Pilipino.
• The first Filipino writer who escaped censorship of the press during last day of Spanish Colonization.
His writings:
1. Ninay-first social novel in Spanish by a Filipino.
2. A Mi Mardre
3. Sampaguita Y Poesios varias

Jose Maria Panganiban
• “Jormapa” was his pen name
• Member of a number of movement for the country.

carla said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
carla said...

Maricar C. Panotes
BBA-MN IV-3
Rizal
MONDAY & THURSDAY 7:30-9:00AM
"RIZAL'S EXILE IN DAPITAN - RIZAL'S ENCOUNTER WITH THE FRIAR'S SPY"

RIZAL'S EXILE IN DAPITAN, 1892-96

Rizal lived in exile in far-away Dapitan, a remote town in Mindanao which was under the missionary jurisdiction of the Jesuits, from 1892 to 1896. This four-year inter regnum in his life was tediously unexciting, but was abundantly fruitful with varied achievements. He practiced medicine, pursued scientific studies, continued his artistic and literary works, widened his knowledge of languages, established a school for boys, promoted community development projects, invented a wooden machine for making bricks, and engaged in farming and commerce. Despite his multifurious activities, he kept an extensive correspondence with his family, relatives, fellow reformists, and eminent scientists and scholars of Europe, including Blumentritt, Reinhold Rost, A. B. Meyer, W. Joest of Berlin, S. Knuttle of Stuttgart, and N.M. Keihl of Prague.
Beginning of Exile in Dapitan
The streamer Cebu which brought Rizal to Dapitan carried a letter from Father Pablo Pastells, Superior of the Jesuits parish priest of Dapitan. In this letter, Father Superior Pastells informed Father Obach that Rizal could live at the parish convent on the following conditions:
1."That Rizal publicly retract his errors concerning religion, and make statements that
were clearly pro-Spanish and against revolution".
2."That he perform the church rites and make a general confession of his past life".
3.That henceforth he conduct himself in an exemplary manner as a Spanish subject and
a man of religion."
Rizal did not agree with these conditions. Conse- quently, he lived in the house of the commandant, Captain Carnicero. The relations between Carnicero (the warden) and Rizal (the prisoner) were warm and friendly. Carnicero came to know that Rizal was not a common felon, much less a filibustero. He gave good reports on his prisoner to Governor Despujol. He gave him complete freedom to go anywhere, reporting only once a week at his office, and permitted Rizal, who was a good equestrian, to ride his chestnut horse. Rizal on his part, admired the kind, generous Spanish captain. He then wrote a poem, A Don Ricardo Carnicero, on August 26, 1892 on the occassion of the captain's birthday.
Wins in Manila Lottery
On September 21, 1892 the mail boat Butuan was approaching the town of Dapitan carrying a Lottery ticket No. 9736 jointly owned by Captain Carnicero, Dr. Rizal and Francisco Equilior (Spanish resident of Dipolog, a neighboring town of Dapitan) won the second prize of P20,000 in the government-owned Manila Lottery.
Rizal's share of the winning lottery ticket was P6,200, He gave P2,000 to his father and P200 to his friend Basa in Hong Kong and the rest he invested well by purchasing agricultural lands along the coast of Talisay about one kilometer away from Dapitan.
Rizal's winning in the Manila Lottery reveals an aspect of his lighter side. He never drank hard liquor and never smoked but he was a lottery addict. "This was his only vice," commented Wenceslao E. Retana, his first Spanish biographer and former enemy.

Rizal-Pastells Debate on Religion
During his exile in Dapitan, Rizal had a long and scholarly debate with Father Pastells on religion which revealed Rizal's anti-Catholic ideas acquired in Europe and the embitterment at his persecution by bad friars. It is understandable why he was bitter against the friars who committed certain abuses under the cloak of religion. As he wrote to Blumentritt from Paris on January 20, 1890: "I want to hit the friars, but only friars who utilized religion not only as a shield, but also as a weapon, castle, fortress, armor, etc.; I was forced to attack their false and superstitious religion in order to fight the enemy who hid himself behind it."
According to Rizal, individual judgment is a gift from God and everybody should use it like a lantern to show the way and that self-esteem, if moderated by judgment, saves man from unworthy acts. He also argued that the pursuit of truth may lie in different paths, and thus "religions may vary, but they all lead to the light."
Father Pastells tried his best to win back Rizal to the fold of Catholicism. Divine faith, he told Rizal, supersedes everything, including reason, self esteem, and individual judgment. No matter how wise a man is, he argued, his intelligence is limited, hence he needs the guidance of God. He refuted Rizal's attacks on Catholic dogmas as misconceptions of rationalism and naturalism, errors of misguided souls.
This interesting debate between two brilliant pole- micists ended inconclusively. Rizal could not be convinced by Pastells arguments so that he lived in Dapitan beyond the pale of his Mother Church but inspire of their religious differences Rizal and Pastells remained good friends. Father Pastells gave Riza l a copy of the Imitacion de Cristo (Imitation of Christ), a famous Catholic book by Father Thomas a Kempis. And Rizal in grateful reciprotion gave his Jesuit opponent in debate a bust of St. Paul which he had made.
Although Rizal did not subscribe to Pastells' religious interpretation of Catholic dogmas, he continued to be Catholic. He hears mass at the Catholic Church of Dapitan and celebrate Christmas and other religious fiestas in the Catholic way. His Catholicism, however was the Catholi- cism that inquires and enlightens, the "Catholicism of Renan and Teilhard de Chardin".
Rizal Challenges A Frenchman to a Duel
Rizal was involved in a quarrel with a French acquaintance in Dapitan, Mr. Juan Lardet, a businessman. This man purchased many logs from the lands of Rizal and it so happened that some of the logs were of poor quality.
Lardet, in a letter written to Antonio Miranda, a Dapitan merchant and friend of Rizal, expressed his disgust with the business deal and stated that "if he (Rizal - Z.) were a truthful man, he would have told me that the lumber not included in the account were bad.
Miranda indiscreetly forwarded Lardet's letter to Rizal. When he read Lardet's letter, he flared up in anger, regarding the Frenchman's unsavory comment as an affront to his integrity. Immediately, he confronted Lardet and challenged him to a duel . When commandant Carcinero heard the incident, he told the frenchman to apologize rather than accept the challenge, " My Friend, you have not a Chinaman's chance in a fight with Rizal on a field of honor. Rizal is an expert in martial arts particularly in fencing and pistol shooting.
Heeding the commandant's advice, Lardet wrote to Rizal in French, dated Dapitan, March 30,1893 apologizing for the insulting comment. Rizal, as a gentleman and a well-versed in pun donor (Hispanic Chivalric Code) accepted the apology, and good relations between him and the Frenchman were restored.
It is interesting to know that one of the hero's weak- nesses is his sensitivity.
Rizal and Father Sanchez
Father Pastells, aside from his personal efforts to persuade Rizal to discard his "errors of religion'', instructed two Jesuits in Mindanao - Father Obach, cura of Dapitan and Father Jose Vilaclara, cura of Dipolog to try their best to bring back Rizal within the Catholic fold. He assigned Fr. Francisco de Paua Sanchez, Rizal's favorite teacher at the Ateneo de Manila, to Dapitan. He was the only Spanish priest to defend Rizal's Noli Me Tangere in public.
Upon his arrival, Fr. Sanchez lost no time in meeting his former favorite student. Of all the Jesuits, he was the most beloved and esteemed by Rizal. They argued theologically in a friendly manner but all the efforts of Sanchez were in vain.
Despite his failures to persuade Rizal to discard his unorthodox views on the Catholic religion, Fr. Sanchez enjoyed the latters company and he even assisted Rizal in beautifying the town plaza. On his birthday, Rizal gave him a precious birthday gift - a manuscript entitled Estudios sobre la lengua tagala (Studies on the Tagalog Language).


Idyllic Life in Dapitan
Since August 1893, members of his family took turns in visiting him in order to assuage his loneliness in the isolated outpost of the Spanish power in the Moroland. Among them were his mother, Sisters Trinidad, Maria, Narcisa; and nephews Teodosio, Estanislao, Mauricio, and Prudencio. He built his house by the seashore of Talisay, surrounded by fruit trees and another house for his school boys and a hospital for his patients.

Describing his life in Dapitan, Rizal wrote to Blumentritt on Dec. 19, 1893:
I shall tell you how we live here. I have three houses; one square, another hexagonal, and a third octagonal, all of bamboo, wood and nipa. In the square house we live, my mother , sister Trinidad, a nephew and I; in the octagonal live my boys or some good youngsters whom I teach arithmetic, Spanish and English; and in the hexagonal live my chickens. From my house I hear the murmur of a crystal clear brook which comes from the high rocks ; I see the seashore , the sea where I have small boats, two canoes or barotos, as they say here. I have many fruit trees, mangoes, lanzones, guayabanos, baluno, nangka, etc. I have rabbits, dogs, cats,etc. I rise early - at five - visit my plants, feed the chickens, awaken my people and put them in movement. At half-past seven we breakfast with tea, pastries, cheese, sweetmeats, etc. Later I treat my poor patients who come to my land; I dress, I go to the town in my baroto, treat the people there, and return at 12 when my luncheon awaits me. Then I teach the boys until 4 P.M. and devote the after- noon to agriculture. I spend the night reading and studying.

Rizal's Encounter with the Friar's Spy
During the early days of November 1893 Rizal was living peacefully and happily at his house in Talisay when suddenly jolted by a strange incident involving a spy of the friars. The spy with the assumed name of "Pablo Mercado" and posing as a relative, secretly visited Rizal at his house on the night of November 3, 1893. He introduced himself as a friend and a relative, showing a photo o f Rizal and a pair of buttons with the initials "P.M."(Pablo Mercado) as evidence of his kinship with the Rizal family.
In the course of their conversation the strange visitor offered his services as a confidential courier of Rizal's letter and writings for the patriots in Manila. Rizal, being a man of prudence and keen perception became suspicious. Irked by the mpostor's lies, he wanted to throw him out of the house, but mindful of his duty as a host and considering the late hour of the night and the heavy rainfall, he hospitably invited the unwanted visitor to stay at his house for the night. And early the next day, he sent him a way.
Later, he learned that the rascal was still in Dapitan, telling people that he was a beloved relative of Dr. Rizal. Losing his cool, he went to the comandancia and denounced the impostor to Captain Juan Sitges (who succeeded Captain Carnacio on May 4, 1893 as commandant of Dapitan). Without much ado, Sitges ordered the arrest of "Pablo Mercado" and instructed Anasticio Adriatico, to investigate him immediately.
The truth came out during this investigation and the real name of "Pablo Mercado" was Florencio Namanan. He was a native of Cagayan de Misamis, single and about 30 years old. He was hired by the Recollect friars to a secret mission in Dapitan to filch the letters and writings of Rizal which might incriminate him in the revolutionary movement. Commandant Sitges quashed the investiga- tion and released the spy. He promptly forwarded the transcripts of the investigation together with his official report to Governor General Blanco who kept the documents highly confidential. Rizal requested for a copy of the proceedings of the investigation but Sitges denied his request. As now declassified and preserved at the Biblioteca Nacional in Madrid, these documents contain certain mysterious deletions.
These documents have been quoted by three Rizalist biographers - Retana(1907), Palma(1949), and Jose Baron Fernandez(1982). But none of these biographers quoted the text of another document which is more reliable and valuable in clarifying the whole incident. It is Rizal's letter to his brother-in-law, Manuel T. Hidalgo written in Dapitan, December 20, 1893, as follows:

My Dear Brother-in-Law Maneng,
I was unable to write you by the previous mail for lack of time, for the boat left unexpectedly.
With regards to Pablo Mercado, I tell you that he came here presenting himself as a courteous friend in order to get from me my letters, writings, etc; but I found him out soon, and if I did not throw him out of the house brusquely, it was because I always want to be nice and polite to everyone. Nevertheless, as it was raining, I let him sleep here, sending him away very early the next day. I was going to let him alone in contempt but the rascal went around saying secretly that he was my cousin or brother-in-law, reported him to the commandant who had him arrested. It was revealed in his declaration that he was sent by the Recollects who gave him P72 and promised him more if he succeeded in wrestling from me my letter for certain persons in Manila. The rascal told me that he was the cousin of Mr. Litonjua, son of Luis Chiquita, according to him and brother-in-law of Marcia no Ramirez. He wanted me to write these gentlemen. He brought along besides a picture of mine, saying that it was given to him by one Mr. Legaspi of Tondo or San Nicolas. I don't remember him exactly. It seems that he belongs to a good family of Cagayan de Misamis. Be careful of him, he is a tall boy, somewhat thickset, slightly squint-eyed, dark, slender, broad shoulders, and of impudent manners. He smokes much, spits more and has thin lips.
Merry Christmas and Happy New Year.
Your brother-in-Law who loves you,
(Signed) Jose Rizal

Based upon all these available documentary sources the incident of the secret mission of "Pablo Mercado" in Dapitan was not an "Assassination Attempt on Rizal". It was merely an espionage plot concocted by the friars.

As Physician in Dapitan
Rizal practiced medicine in Dapitan. He had many patients but most of them were poor so that he even gave them free medicine. To his friend in Hong Kong, Dr. Marquez, he wrote: "Here the people are so poor that I even have to give medicine gratis." He had, however, some rich patients who paid him handsomely for his surgical skill.
In August 1893 his mother and sister (Maria) arrived in Dapitan and lived with him for one year and a half. He operated on his mother's right eye. The operation was successful but Dona Teodora ignored her son's instruc- tions by removing the bandages from her eyes, t hereby causing the wound to be infected.Thus Rizal told Hidalgo his brother-in-law; "Now I understand very well why a physician should not treat the members of his family. Fortunately, the infection was arrested and Dona Teodora's sight was restored.
Rizals fame as a physician particularly as an eye specialist pave way to patients from different parts of the Philippines from Luzon, Bohol, Cebu, Panay, Negros, and Mindanao and even from Hong Kong. Because of his ophthalmic skill he was paid P3000 by Don Ignacio Tuma- rongin for the restoration of his sight, P500 from an Englishman and a cargo of sugar given as payment by a rich hacendero in Aklan, Don Florencio Azacarraga who was cured of eye ailment.
Rizal became interested in local medicine and the use of medicinal plants. He studied their curative values for the poor patients who could not afford to buy imported medicine, he prescribed the local medicinal plants.



Water System for Dapitan
Rizal held the title of expert surveyor (perito agrimensor), which he obtained from Ateneo. He supplemented his training as a surveyor by reading engineering books. In Dapitan, he applied his knowledge in engineering by constructing a system of waterworks in order to furnish clean water to the townspeople.
Without any aid from the government, he succeeded in giving good water system to Dapitan.
An American engineer, Mr. H. F. Cameron, praised Rizal's engineering feat in the following words:
Another famous and well-known water supply is that of Dapitan, Mindanao, designed and constructed by Dr. Rizal during his banishment in that municipality by the Spanish authorities... this supply comes from a little mountain stream across the river from Dapitan and follows the contour of the country for the whole distance. When one considers that Doctor Rizal had no explosives with which to block the hard rocks and no resources save his own ingenuity, one cannot help but honor a man, who against adverse conditions, had the courage and tenacity to construct the aqueduct which had for its bottom the fluted tiles from the house roofs, and was covered with concrete made from limed burned from the sea coral. The length of this aqueduct is several kilometers, and it winds in and out among the rocks and is carried across gullies in bamboo pipes upheld by rocks or brick piers to the distribution reservoir.

Community Projects for Dapitan
When Rizal arrived in Dapitan, he decided to improve it, to the best of his God-given talents, and to awaken the civic consciousness of its people. He wrote to Fr. Pastells: " I want to do all I can do for this town."
Aside from constructing the towns first water system, he spent many months in draining the marshes in order to get rid of malaria that infested Dapitan.
The P500 which an English patient paid him was used by him to equip the town with its lighting system which consist of coconut oil lamps placed in dark streets of Dapitan. Electric lighting was unknown then in the Philippines not until 1894 when Manila saw the first electric lights.
The beautification and remodeling of the town plaza with the help of Father Sanchez enhances the beauty as jokingly remarked that it could "rival the best in Europe". In front of the church, Rizal and Fr. Sanchez made a huge relief map of Mindanao out of earth, stones, and grass. This map still adorns the town plaza of Dapitan.

Ref: http://dapitan.com/rizalsadapitaninsert.htm

guia said...

Guia Joanna V. Gregorio
MN 4-3
Rizal HS110
MONDAY & tHURSDAY 7:30-9:00AM
"Jose Rizal's last trip abroad and arrival in Barcelona as a prisoner"

• Jose Rizal’s last trip abroad


Early in '91 Rizal went to Paris, visiting Mr. Baustead's villa in
Biarritz en route, and he was again a guest of his hospitable friend
when, after the winter season was over, the family returned to their
home in Brussels.

During most of the year Rizal's residence was in Ghent, where he had
gathered around him a number of Filipinos. Doctor Blumentritt suggested
that he should devote himself to the study of Malay-Polynesian
languages, and as it appeared that thus he could earn a living in
Holland he thought to make his permanent home there. But his parents
were old and reluctant to leave their native land to pass their last
years in a strange country, and that plan failed.

He now occupied himself in finishing the sequel to "Noli Me Tangere,"
the novel "El Filibusterismo," which he had begun in October of 1887
while on his visit to the Philippines. The bolder painting of the
evil effects of the Spanish culture upon the Filipinos may well have
been inspired by his unfortunate experiences with his countrymen in
Madrid who had not seen anything of Europe outside of Spain. On the
other hand, the confidence of the author in those of his countrymen
who had not been contaminated by the so-called Spanish civilization,
is even more noticeable than in "Noli Me Tangere."

Rizal had now done all that he could for his country; he had shown
them by Morga what they were when Spain found them; through "Noli Me
Tangere" he had painted their condition after three hundred years of
Spanish influence; and in "El Filibusterismo" he had pictured what
their future must be if better counsels did not prevail in the colony.

These works were for the instruction of his countrymen, the fulfilment
of the task he set for himself when he first read Doctor Jagor's
criticism fifteen years before; time only was now needed for them to
accomplish their work and for education to bring forth its fruits.



As soon as he had set in motion what influence he possessed in Europe
for the relief of his relatives, Rizal hurried to Hongkong and from
there wrote to his parents asking their permission to join them. Some
time before, his brother-in-law, Manuel Hidalgo, had been deported
upon the recommendation of the governor of La Laguna, "to prove to
the Filipinos that they were mistaken in thinking that the new Civil
Code gave them any rights" in cases where the governor-general agreed
with his subordinate's reason for asking for the deportation as well
as in its desirability. The offense was having buried a child, who
had died of cholera, without church ceremonies. The law prescribed
and public health demanded it. But the law was a dead letter and the
public health was never considered when these cut into church revenues,
as Hidalgo ought to have known.

Upon Rizal's arrival in Hongkong, in the fall of 1891, he received
notice that his brother Paciano had been returned from exile in
Mindoro, but that three of his sisters had been summoned, with the
probability of deportation.

A trap to get Rizal into the hands of the government by playing
upon his affection for his mother was planned at this time, but it
failed. Mrs. Rizal and one of her daughters were arrested in Manila
for "falsification of cedula" because they no longer used the name
Realonda, which the mother had dropped fifteen years before. Then,
though there were frequently boats running to Kalamba, the two women
were ordered to be taken there for trial on foot. As when Mrs. Rizal
had been a prisoner before, the humane guards disobeyed their orders
and the elderly lady was carried in a hammock. The family understood
the plans of their persecutors, and Rizal was told by his parents
not to come to Manila. Then the persecution of the mother and the
sister dropped.

In Hongkong, Rizal was already acquainted with most of the Filipino
colony, including Jose M. Basa, a '72 exile of great energy, for whom
he had the greatest respect. The old man was an unceasing enemy of all
the religious orders and was constantly getting out "proclamations,"
as the handbills common in the old-time controversies were called. One
of these, against the Jesuits, figures in the case against Rizal
and bears some minor corrections in his handwriting. Nevertheless,
his participation in it was probably no more than this proofreading
for his friend, whose motives he could appreciate, but whose plan of
action was not in harmony with his own ideas.

Letters of introduction from London friends secured for Rizal the
acquaintance of Mr. H. L. Dalrymple, a justice of the peace--which is
a position more coveted and honored in English lands than here--and
a member of the public library committee, as well as of the board
of medical examiners. He was a merchant, too, and agent for the
British North Borneo Company, which had recently secured a charter
as a semi-independent colony for the extensive cession which had
originally been made to the American Trading Company and later
transferred to them.

Rizal spent much of his time in the library, reading especially the
files of the older newspapers, which contained frequent mention of
the Philippines. As an oldtime missionary had left his books to the
library, the collection was rich in writings of the fathers of the
early Church, as well as in philology and travel. He spent much time
also in long conversations with Editor Frazier-Smith of the Hongkong
Telegraph, the most enterprising of the daily newspapers. He was
the master of St. John's Masonic lodge (Scotch constitution), which
Rizal had visited upon his first arrival, intensely democratic and
a close student of world politics. The two became fast friends and
Rizal contributed to the Telegraph several articles on Philippine
matters. These were printed in Spanish, ostensibly for the benefit of
the Filipino colony in Hongkong, but large numbers of the paper were
mailed to the Philippines and thus at first escaped the vigilance
of the censors. Finally the scheme was discovered and the Telegraph
placed on the prohibited list, but, like most Spanish actions, this
was just too late to prevent the circulation of what Rizal had wished
to say to his countrymen.

With the first of the year 1892 the free portion of Rizal's family came
to Hongkong. He had been licensed to practice medicine in the colony,
and opened an office, specializing as an oculist with notable success.

Another congenial companion was a man of his own profession, Doctor
L. P. Marquez, a Portuguese who had received his medical education in
Dublin and was a naturalized British subject. He was a leading member
of the Portuguese club, Lusitania, which was of radically republican
proclivities and possessed an excellent library of books on modern
political conditions. An inspection of the colonial prison with him
inspired Rizal's article, "A Visit to Victoria Gaol," through which
runs a pathetic contrast of the English system of imprisonment for
reformation with the Spanish vindictive methods of punishment. A
souvenir of one of their many conferences was a dainty modeling in
clay made by Rizal with that astonishing quickness that resulted from
his Uncle Gabriel's training during his early childhood.

In the spring, Rizal took a voyage to British North Borneo and with
Mr. Pryor, the agent, looked over vacant lands which had been offered
him by the Company for a Filipino colony. The officials were anxious
to grow abaca, cacao, sugar cane and coconuts, all products of the
Philippines, the soil of which resembled theirs. So they welcomed the
prospect of the immigration of laborers skilled in such cultivation,
the Kalambans and other persecuted people of the Luzon lake region,
whom Doctor Rizal hoped to transplant there to a freer home.

A different kind of governor-general had succeeded Weyler in the
Philippines; the new man was Despujol, a friend of the Jesuits
and a man who at once gave the Filipinos hope of better days,
for his promises were quickly backed up by the beginnings of their
performance. Rizal witnessed this novel experience for his country
with gratification, though he had seen too many disappointments to
confide in the continuance of reform, and he remembered that the like
liberal term of De la Torre had ended in the Cavite reaction.

He wrote early to the new chief executive, applauding Despujol's policy
and offering such cooeperation as he might be able to give toward
making it a complete success. No reply had been received, but after
Rizal's return from his Borneo trip the Spanish consul in Hongkong
assured him that he would not be molested should he go to Manila.

Rizal therefore made up his mind to visit his home once more. He
still cherished the plan of transferring those of his relatives
and friends who were homeless through the land troubles, or
discontented with their future in the Philippines, to the district
offered to him by the British North Borneo Company. There, under the
protection of the British flag, but in their accustomed climate, with
familiar surroundings amid their own people, a New Kalamba would be
established. Filipinos would there have a chance to prove to the world
what they were capable of, and their free condition would inevitably
react on the neighboring Philippines and help to bring about better
government there.

Rizal had no intention of renouncing his Philippine allegiance, for
he always regretted the naturalization of his countrymen abroad,
considering it a loss to the country which needed numbers to play
the influential part he hoped it would play in awakening Asia. All
his arguments were for British justice and "Equality before the Law,"
for he considered that political power was only a means of securing
and assuring fair treatment for all, and in itself of no interest.

With such ideas he sailed for home, bearing the Spanish consul's
passport. He left two letters in Hongkong with his friend Doctor
Marquez marked, "To be opened after my death," and their contents
indicate that he was not unmindful of how little regard Spain had
had in his country for her plighted honor.

One was to his beloved parents, brother and sisters, and friends:

"The affection that I have ever professed for you suggests this
step, and time alone can tell whether or not it is sensible. Their
outcome decides things by results, but whether that be favorable or
unfavorable, it may always be said that duty urged me, so if I die
in doing it, it will not matter.

"I realize how much suffering I have caused you, still I do not
regret what I have done. Rather, if I had to begin over again, still
I should do just the same, for it has been only duty. Gladly do I go
to expose myself to peril, not as any expiation of misdeeds (for in
this matter I believe myself guiltless of any), but to complete my
work and myself offer the example of which I have always preached.

"A man ought to die for duty and his principles. I hold fast to
every idea which I have advanced as to the condition and future of
our country, and shall willingly die for it, and even more willingly
to procure for you justice and peace.

"With pleasure, then, I risk life to save so many innocent persons--so
many nieces and nephews, so many children of friends, and children,
too, of others who are not even friends--who are suffering on my
account. What am I? A single man, practically without family, and
sufficiently undeceived as to life. I have had many disappointments
and the future before me is gloomy, and will be gloomy if light does
not illuminate it, the dawn of a better day for my native land. On the
other hand, there are many individuals, filled with hope and ambition,
who perhaps all might be happy were I dead, and then I hope my enemies
would be satisfied and stop persecuting so many entirely innocent
people. To a certain extent their hatred is justifiable as to myself,
and my parents and relatives.

"Should fate go against me, you will all understand that I shall die
happy in the thought that my death will end all your troubles. Return
to our country and may you be happy in it.

"Till the last moment of my life I shall be thinking of you and
wishing you all good fortune and happiness."


……………

• Jose Rizal’s arrival in Barcelona as a prisoner

Upon the arrival of the steamer in Barcelona the prisoner was
transferred to Montjuich Castle, a political prison associated with
many cruelties, there to await the sailing that very day of the
Philippine mail boat. The Captain-General was the same Despujol
who had decoyed Rizal into the power of the Spaniards four years
before. An interesting interview of some hours' duration took place
between the governor and the prisoner, in which the clear conscience
of the latter seems to have stirred some sense of shame in the man
who had so dishonorably deceived him.

He never heard of the effort of London friends to deliver him at
Singapore by means of habeas-corpus proceedings. Mr. Regidor furnished
the legal inspiration and Mr. Baustead the funds for getting an opinion
as to Rizal's status as a prisoner when in British waters, from Sir
Edward Clarke, ex-solicitor-general of Great Britain. Captain Camus, a
Filipino living in Singapore, was cabled to, money was made available
in the Chartered Bank of Singapore, as Mr. Baustead's father's
firm was in business in that city, and a lawyer, now Sir Hugh Fort,
K.C., of London, was retained. Secretly, in order that the attempt,
if unsuccessful, might not jeopardize the prisoner, a petition was
presented to the Supreme Court of the Straits Settlements reciting the
facts that Doctor Jose Rizal, according to the Philippine practice of
punishing Freemasons without trial, was being deprived of his liberty
without warrant of law upon a ship then within the jurisdiction of
the court.

According to Spanish law Rizal was being illegally held on the Spanish
mail steamer Colon, for the Constitution of Spain forbade detention
except on a judge's order, but like most Spanish laws the Constitution
was not much respected by Spanish officials. Rizal had never had a
hearing before any judge, nor had any charge yet been placed against
him. The writ of habeas corpus was justified, provided the Colon were
a merchant ship that would be subject to British law when in British
port, but the mail steamer that carried Rizal also had on board Spanish
soldiers and flew the royal flag as if it were a national transport. No
one was willing to deny that this condition made the ship floating
Spanish territory, and the judge declined to issue the writ.

Rizal reached Manila on November 3 and was at once transferred to
Fort Santiago, at first being held in a dungeon "incomunicado" and
later occupying a small cell on the ground floor. Its furnishings
had to be supplied by himself and they consisted of a small rattan
table, a high-backed chair, a steamer chair of the same material,
and a cot of the kind used by Spanish officers--canvas top and
collapsible frame which closed up lengthwise. His meals were sent in
by his family, being carried by one of his former pupils at Dapitan,
and such cooking or heating as was necessary was done on an alcohol
lamp which had been presented to him in Paris by Mrs. Tavera.

An unsuccessful effort had been made earlier to get evidence against
Rizal by torturing his brother Paciano. For hours the elder brother had
been seated at a table in the headquarters of the political police,
a thumbscrew on one hand and pen in the other, while before him
was a confession which would implicate Jose Rizal in the Katipunan
uprising. The paper remained unsigned, though Paciano was hung up by
the elbows till he was insensible, and then cut down that the fall
might revive him. Three days of this maltreatment made him so ill
that there was no possibility of his signing anything, and he was
carted home.

It would not be strictly accurate to say that at the close of the
nineteenth century the Spaniards of Manila were using the same tortures
that had made their name abhorrent in Europe three centuries earlier,
for there was some progress; electricity was employed at times as
an improved method of causing anguish, and the thumbscrews were much
more neatly finished than those used by the Dons of the Dark Ages.

Rizal did not approve of the rebellion and desired to issue a manifesto
to those of his countrymen who had been deceived into believing that
he was their leader. But the proclamation was not politic, for it
contained none of those fulsomely flattering phrases which passed
for patriotism in the feverish days of 1896. The address was not
allowed to be made public but it was passed on to the prosecutor to
form another count in the indictment of Jose Rizal for not esteeming
Spanish civilization.

The following address to some Filipinos shows more clearly and
unmistakably than any words of mine exactly what was the state of
Rizal's mind in this matter.


COUNTRYMEN:

On my return from Spain I learned that my name had been in use,
among some who were in arms, as a war-cry. The news came as a painful
surprise, but, believing it already closed, I kept silent over an
incident which I considered irremediable. Now I notice indications of
the disturbances continuing and if any still, in good or bad faith, are
availing themselves of my name, to stop this abuse and undeceive the
unwary I hasten to address you these lines that the truth may be known.

From the very beginning, when I first had notice of what was being
planned, I opposed it, fought it, and demonstrated its absolute
impossibility. This is the fact, and witnesses to my words are now
living. I was convinced that the scheme was utterly absurd, and,
what was worse, would bring great suffering.

I did even more. When later, against my advice, the movement
materialized, of my own accord I offered not alone my good offices,
but my very life, and even my name, to be used in whatever way
might seem best, toward stifling the rebellion; for, convinced of
the ills which it would bring, I considered myself fortunate if, at
any sacrifice, I could prevent such useless misfortunes. This equally
is of record. My countrymen, I have given proofs that I am one most
anxious for liberties for our country, and I am still desirous of
them. But I place as a prior condition the education of the people,
that by means of instruction and industry our country may have an
individuality of its own and make itself worthy of these liberties. I
have recommended in my writings the study of the civic virtues,
without which there is no redemption. I have written likewise (and I
repeat my words) that reforms, to be beneficial, must come from above,
that those which come from below are irregularly gained and uncertain.

Holding these ideas, I cannot do less than condemn, and I do condemn
this uprising--as absurd, savage, and plotted behind my back--which
dishonors us Filipinos and discredits those who could plead our
cause. I abhor its criminal methods and disclaim all part in it,
pitying from the bottom of my heart the unwary who have been deceived.

Return, then, to your homes, and may God pardon those who have worked
in bad faith!

Jose Rizal.

Reference:
LINEAGE LIFE AND LABORS of JOSE RIZAL
PHILIPPINE PATRIOT

A Study of the Growth of Free Ideas in the Trans-Pacific American
Territory

BY

AUSTIN CRAIG
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR ORIENTAL HISTORY
UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES

AUTHOR OF "THE STUDY OF JOSE RIZAL,"
"EL LINEAJE DEL DOCTOR RIZAL," ETC.

ken said...

Catherine B. Aban
MN 4-3
HS110
MONDAY & THURSDAY 7:30-9:00AM
"Rizal as a physician in Dapitan and his linguistic studies"

Linguistic Studies
A born linguist, Rizal continued his studies of languages. In Dapitan he learned the Bisayan, Subanon, and Malay languages.
On April 5, 1896, his last year of exile in Dapitan, he wrote to Blumentritt: "Iknow already Bisayan and I speak it quite well. by this time, Rizal could rank with the worlds great linguists. He knew 22 languages, as follows: Tagalog, Ilokano, Bisayan, Subanon, Spanish, Latin, Greek, English, French, German, Arabic, Malay, Hebrew, Sanskrit, Dutch, Catalan, Italian, Chinese, Japanese, Portuguese, Swedish, and Russian.

Artistic Works in Dapitan
As an artist he contributed his painting skills to the Sisters of Charity who were preparing the sanctuary of the Holy Virgin in their private chapel. For the sake of economy, the head of the image was "procured from abroad". The vestments concealing all the rest of the figure except the feet, which rested upon a globe encircled by a snake in whose mouth is an apple, were made by the sisters. Rizal modeled the right foot of the image, the apple and the serpent' head. He also designed the exquisite curtain, which was painted in oil by an artist Sister under his direction.
In 1894 he modeled a statuette representing the mother-dog killing the crocodile by way of avenging her lost puppy and called it "The Mother's Revenge".
Other sculptural works of Rizal in Dapitan were a bust of Father Guerrico (one of his Ateneo professors), a statue of a girl called "The Dapitan Girl", a woodcarving of Josephine Bracken (his wife), and a bust of St. Paul which he gave to Father Pastells.

Rizal as Farmer
In Dapitan, Rizal bought 16 hectares of land in Talisay, where he built his home, school, and hospital and planted cacao, coffee, sugarcane, coconuts and fruit trees. "My land"' he wrote to his Sister Trinidad, "is half an hour from the sea. It is very poetic and very picturesque. If you and our parents come I will build a big house we can all live in".
Later, the total land holdings reached 70 hectares containing 6,000 hemp plants, 1,000 coconut trees, and numerous fruit trees, sugarcane, corn, coffee and cacao.
He introduced modern agricultural methods to Dapitan farmers and imported agricultural machinery from the United States.

Rizal as Businessman
Rizal engaged in business in partnership with Ramon Carreon on May 14, 1893, a Dapitan Merchant which has a profitable business ventures in fishing, copra, and hemp industries. He invited his relative Saturnia and Hidalgo to come to Mindanao for some business opportunities.
In a letter to Hidalgo, dated January 19, 1893, he expressed his plan to improve the fishing industry in Dapitan and instructed Hidalgo to help him buy a big net for trawl fishing (pukutan) and send him two good Calamba fisherman who could teach the Dapitan folks better methods of fishing.
One of his profitable business venture was the hemp industry. To break the Chinese Monopoly on business in Dapitan Rizal organized on January 1, 1895 the Cooperative Association of Dapitan Farmers and according to its constitution, its purpose were "to improve the farm products, obtain better outlets for them, collect funds for their purchases and workers by establishing a store where in they can buy prime commodities at moderate prices.

Rizal's Inventive Ability
Rizal was also an inventor and to remember that in 1887 while practicing medicine in Calamba, he invented a cigarette lighter which he sent to Blumentritt and called it "sulpukan" made of wood and its mechanism is based on the principle of compressed air.
In Dapitan, he i nvented a wooden machine for making bricks. This machine could manufacture about 6,000 bricks daily.
Rizal and Josephine Bracken
In the silent house of the night after the days hard work, Rizal was often sad. He missed his family and relatives, his good friends in foreign lands, the exhilarating life in the cities of Europe and his happy days in Calamba. The death of Leonora Rivera on August 28, 1893 left a poignant void in his heart. He needed somebody to cheer him up in his lonely exile.
In God's own time, Josephine Bracken an Irish girl of sweet eighteen, "slender, a chestnut blond, with blue eyes, dressed with elegant simplicity, with an atmosphere of light gayety", born in Hong Kong on October 3,1876 of Irish parents James Bracken, a corporal in the British garrison, and Elizabeth Jane MacBride which died during her childbirth and so Josephine was an adopted daughter by Mr. George Taufer who later became blind.
No ophthalmic specialist in Hong Kong could cure Mr. Taufer's blindness and so Mr. Taufer and Josephine seek the services of the famous ophthalmic surgeon, Dr. Rizal.
They presented to Rizal a card of introduction by Julio Llorente, his friend and schoolmate.
Rizal and Josephine fell in love with each other at first sight. After a whirlwind romance of one month, they agree to marry but for Fr. Obach, priest of Dapitan, refused to marry them without the permission of the Bishop of Cebu.
When Mr. Taufer heard of their projected marriage, he flared up in violent rage trying to commit suicide but Rizal prevented him from killing himself. To avoid tragedy, Josephine went away with Taufer to Manila. The blind man went away uncured because his ailment was venereal in nature, hence, incurable.
Mr. Taufer returned alone in Hong Kong and Josephine stayed in Manila with Rizal's family. Later she returned to Dapitan and since no priest would marry them, they held hands together and married themselves before the eyes of God. They lived as man and wife.
Rizal and Josephine lived happily in Dapitan and for him Dapitan was a heaven of bliss.

In the early part of 1896 Rizal and Josephine was expecting a baby but unfortunately she prematurely gave birth to an eight month old baby boy who lived only for three hours. The lost son was named "Francisco" in honor of Don Fraancisco (the hero's father) and was buried in Dapitan.

.

Adios, DAPITAN
On July 31, 1896, Rival's four-year exile in Dapitan came to an end. At midnight of that date, he embarked on board the steamer España.
He was accompanied by Josephine, Narcisa, Angelica (Narcisa's daughter), his three nephews, and six pupils. Almost all Dapitan folks, young and old , were at the shore to bid him goodbye. Many wept especially the other pupils who were poor to accompany their beloved teacher to Manila. As farewell music, the town brass band strangely played the dolorous Funeral March of Chapin.
As the steamer pushed out into the sea, Rizal gazed for the last time on Dapitan waving in farewell salute to its kind and hospitable folks and with a crying heart filled with tears of nostalgic memories. When he could no longer see the dim shoreline , he sadly went to his cabin and wrote in his diary: "I have been in that district four years, thirteen days, and a few hours".
"I have always loved my poor country, and I am sure that I shall love her until death, if by chance men are unjust to me; and I shall enjoy the happy life, contented in the thought that all I have suffered, my past, my present and my future, my life, my loves, my pleasures, I have sacrificed all of these for love of her. Happen what may, I shall die blessing her and desiring the dawn of her redemption."

Jose Rizal

"Not only is Rizal the most famous man of his own people, but the greatest man the Malayan race has produced."
Ferdinand Blumentritt

"Dr. Jose Rizal was an exceptional man, unsurpassed by other Filipino heroes in talent, nobility of character and patriotism. His exile in Dapitan possesses a keen sense of history and an aura of destiny. He himself kept and preserved his numerous poetical and prose writings personal and travel diaries, scientific treatises and hundred of letters written to, and received from, his parents, brothers, sisters, relatives, friends and enemies. Indeed, Rizal was a man of excellence, discipline and disposition........."

As Physician in Dapitan
Rizal practiced medicine in Dapitan. He had many patients but most of them were poor so that he even gave them free medicine. To his friend in Hong Kong, Dr. Marquez, he wrote: "Here the people are so poor that I even have to give medicine gratis." He had, however, some rich patients who paid him handsomely for his surgical skill.
In August 1893 his mother and sister (Maria) arrived in Dapitan and lived with him for one year and a half. He operated on his mother's right eye. The operation was successful but Dona Teodora ignored her son's instruc- tions by removing the bandages from her eyes, t hereby causing the wound to be infected.Thus Rizal told Hidalgo his brother-in-law; "Now I understand very well why a physician should not treat the members of his family. Fortunately, the infection was arrested and Dona Teodora's sight was restored.
Rizals fame as a physician particularly as an eye specialist pave way to patients from different parts of the Philippines from Luzon, Bohol, Cebu, Panay, Negros, and Mindanao and even from Hong Kong. Because of his ophthalmic skill he was paid P3000 by Don Ignacio Tuma- rongin for the restoration of his sight, P500 from an Englishman and a cargo of sugar given as payment by a rich hacendero in Aklan, Don Florencio Azacarraga who was cured of eye ailment.
Rizal became interested in local medicine and the use of medicinal plants. He studied their curative values for the poor patients who could not afford to buy imported medicine, he prescribed the local medicinal plants.

Reference:

http://dapitan.com/rizalsadapitaninsert.htm

PHILLIP said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
PHILLIP said...

Name: JOHN PHILLIP RAMIREZ
Course, Year and Sec.:BBA MN IV-3
Subject: HS 110 RIZAL
Date: MONDAY - THURSDAY 7:30 - 9:00am
Title of your report: "THE LAST MOMENT"

Summary and/ or Analysis:

Rizal was implicated in the activities of the nascent rebellion and in July 1892, was deported to Dapitan in the province of Zamboanga.[citation needed] There he built a school, a hospital and a water supply system, and taught and engaged in farming and horticulture. Abaca, then the vital raw material for cordage and which Rizal and his students planted in the thousands, was a memorial.

The boys' school, in which they learned English, considered a prescient if weird option then, was conceived by Rizal and antedated Gordonstoun with its aims of inculcating resourcefulness and self sufficiency in young men.[citation needed] They would later enjoy successful lives as farmers and honest government officials. One, a Muslim, became a datu, and another, Jose Aseniero, who was with Rizal throughout the life of the school, became Governor of Zamboanga.

In Dapitan, the Jesuits mounted a great effort to secure his return to the fold led by Father Sanchez, his former professor, who failed in his mission. The task was resumed by Father Pastells, a prominent member of the Order. In a letter to Pastells, Rizal sails close to the ecumenism familiar to us today.

"We are entirely in accord in admitting the existence of God. How can I doubt his when I am convinced of mine. Whoso recognizes the effect recognizes the cause. To doubt God is to doubt one's own conscience, and in consequence, it would be to doubt everything; and then what is life for? Now then, my faith in God, if the result of a ratiocination may be called faith, is blind, blind in the sense of knowing nothing. I neither believe nor disbelieve the qualities which many attribute to him; before theologians' and philosophers' definitions and lucubrations of this ineffable and inscrutable being I find myself smiling. Faced with the conviction of seeing myself confronting the supreme Problem, which confused voices seek to explain to me, I cannot but reply: 'It could be; but the God that I foreknow is far more grand, far more good: Plus Supra!...I believe in (revelation); but not in revelation or revelations which each religion or religions claim to possess. Examining them impartially, comparing them and scrutinizing them, one cannot avoid discerning the human 'fingernail' and the stamp of the time in which they were written... No, let us not make God in our image, poor inhabitants that we are of a distant planet lost in infinite space. However, brilliant and sublime our intelligence may be, it is scarcely more than a small spark which shines and in an instant is extinguished, and it alone can give us no idea of that blaze, that conflagration, that ocean of light. I believe in revelation, but in that living revelation which surrounds us on every side, in that voice, mighty, eternal, unceasing, incorruptible, clear, distinct, universal as is the being from whom it proceeds, in that revelation which speaks to us and penetrates us from the moment we are born until we die. What books can better reveal to us the goodness of God, his love, his providence, his eternity, his glory, his wisdom? 'The heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament showeth his handiwork'."

As a gift to his mother on her birth anniversary he wrote the other of his poems of maturity, "Mi Retiro," with a description of a calm night overlaid with a million stars.The poem, with its concept of a spontaneous creation and speaking of God as Plus Supra, is considered his accommodation of evolution.

His best friend, Ferdinand Blumentritt, kept him in touch with European friends and fellow-scientists who wrote a stream of letters which arrived in Dutch, French, German and English and which baffled the censors, delaying their transmittal.Those four years of his exile coincided with the development of the Philippine Revolution from inception and to its final breakout, which, from the viewpoint of the court which was to try him, suggested his complicity in it. He condemned the uprising, although all the members of the Katipunan made him honorary president and used his name as a war-cry. Near the end of his exile he met and courted the stepdaughter of a patient, an Irishwoman named Josephine Bracken. He was unable to obtain an ecclesiastical marriage because he would not return to the religion of his youth and was not known to be clearly against revolution. He nonetheless considered Josephine to be his wife and the only person mentioned in the poem, Farewell, sweet stranger, my friend, my joy.

By 1896, the rebellion fomented by the Katipunan, a militant secret society, had become a full blown revolution, proving to be a nationwide uprising and leading to the proclamation of the first democratic republic in Asia. To dissociate himself, Rizal volunteered and was given leave by the Spanish Governor General Ramon Blanco to serve in Cuba to minister to victims of yellow fever. Blanco later was to present his sash and sword to the Rizal family as an apology.

Before he left Dapitan, he issued a manifesto disavowing the revolution and declaring that the education of Filipinos and their achievement of a national identity were prerequisites to freedom. Rizal was arrested en route, imprisoned in Barcelona, and sent back to Manila to stand trial. He was implicated in the revolution through his association with members of the Katipunan and was to be tried before a court-martial for rebellion, sedition, and conspiracy. During the entire passage, he was unchained, no Spaniard laid a hand on him, and had many opportunities to escape but refused to do so. Rizal was convicted on all three charges and sentenced to death. Governor General Blanco, who was sympathetic to Rizal, had been forced out of office, and the friars had intercalated Polavieja in his stead, sealing Rizal's fate.

His poem, undated and believed to be written on the day before his execution, was hidden in an alcohol stove and later handed to his family with his few remaining possessions, including the final letters and his last bequests. Within hearing of the Spanish guards he reminded his sisters in English, "There is something inside it," referring to the alcohol stove given by the Pardo de Taveras which was to be returned after his execution, thereby emphasizing the importance of the poem. This instruction was followed by another, "Look in my shoes," in which another item was secreted. Exhumation of his remains in August, 1898, under American rule, revealed he had been uncoffined, his burial not on sanctified ground granted the 'confessed' faithful, and whatever was in his shoes had disintegrated.

In his letter to his family he wrote: "Treat our aged parents as you would wish to be treated...Love them greatly in memory of me...30 December 1896. n his final letter, to the Sudeten-German professor Ferdinand Blumentritt - Tomorrow at 7, I shall be shot; but I am innocent of the crime of rebellion.He had to reassure him that he had not turned revolutionary as he once considered being, and that he shared his ideals to the very end. He also bequeathed a book personally bound by him in Dapitan to his 'best and dearest friend.' When Blumentritt received it he broke down and wept.

Moments before his execution by a firing squad of Filipino native infantry, backed by an insurance force of Spanish troops, the Spanish surgeon general requested to take his pulse; it was normal. Aware of this, the Spanish sergeant in charge of the backup force hushed his men to silence when they began raising 'vivas!' with the partisan crowd. His last words were that of Jesus Christ: "consummatum est",--it is finished.

He was secretly buried in Paco Cemetery in Manila with no identification on his grave. His sister Narcisa toured all possible gravesites and found freshly turned earth at the cemetery with civil guards posted at the gate. Assuming this could be the most likely spot, there being ever no ground burials there, she made a gift to the caretaker to mark the site "RPJ."

A monument, with his remains, now stands at the place where he fell, designed by the Swiss Richard Kissling of the famed William Tell sculpture.The statue carries the inscription I want to show to those who deprive people the right to love of country, that when we know how to sacrifice ourselves for our duties and convictions, death does not matter if one dies for those one loves – for his country and for others dear to him.

Attempts to debunk legends surrounding Rizal, and the tug of war between free thinker and Catholic, have served to keep him a living issue. While some leaders, Gandhi for one, have been elevated to high pedestals and even deified, Rizal has remained a controversial figure. In one recorded fall from grace he succumbed to the temptation of a 'lady of the camelias.' The writer, Maximo Viola, a friend of Rizal's, was alluding to Dumas's 1848 novel, La dame aux camelias, about a man who fell in love with a courtesan. While the affair was on record, there was no account in Viola's letter whether it was more than a one-night event and if it was more of a business transaction than an amorous affair

Others present him as a man of contradictions. Miguel de Unamuno in "Rizal: the Tagalog Hamlet", said of him, "a soul that dreads the revolution although deep down desires it. He pivots between fear and hope, between faith and despair." His critics assert this character flaw is translated into his two novels where he opposes violence in Noli and appears to advocate it in Fili, contrasting Ibarra's idealism to Simoun's cynicism. His defenders insist this ambivalence is trounced when Simoun is struck down in the sequel's final chapters, reaffirming the author's resolute stance, Pure and spotless must the victim be if the sacrifice is to be acceptable. In the same tenor, Rizal condemned the uprising when Bonifacio asked for his support. Bonifacio, in turn, openly denounced him as a coward for his refusal. Rizal believed that an armed struggle for independence was premature and ill-conceived. Here Rizal is speaking through Father Florentino: ...our liberty will (not) be secured at the sword's point...we must secure it by making ourselves worthy of it. And when a people reaches that height God will provide a weapon, the idols will be shattered, tyranny will crumble like a house of cards and liberty will shine out like the first dawn.

Rizal never held a gun or sword in the battlefield to fight for freedom. This fact leads some to question his ranking as the nation's premier hero, with a few who believe in the beatification of Bonifacio in his stead. In his defense, the historian, Rafael Palma, contends that the revolution of Bonifacio is a consequence wrought by the writings of Rizal and that although the sword of Bonifacio produced an immediate outcome, the pen of Rizal generated a more lasting achievement.

Rizal's advocacy of institutional reforms by peaceful means rather than by violent revolution makes him Asia's first modern non-violent proponent of political reforms. Forerunner of Gandhi and contemporary of Tagore and Sun Yat Sen, all four created a new climate of thought throughout Asia, leading to the attrition of colonialism and the emergence of new Asiatic nations by the end of World War II. Rizal's appearance on the scene came at a time when European colonial power had been growing and spreading, mostly motivated by trade, some for the purpose of bringing Western forms of government and education to peoples regarded as backward. Coinciding with the appearance of those other leaders, Rizal from an early age had been enunciating in poems, tracts and plays, ideas all his own of modern nationhood as a practical possibility in Asia. In the Noli he stated that if European civilization had nothing better to offer, colonialism in Asia was doomed. Such was recognized by Gandhi who regarded him as a forerunner in the cause of freedom. Jawaharlal Nehru, in his prison letters to his daughter Indira, acknowledged Rizal's significant contributions in the Asian freedom movement. These leaders regarded these contributions as keystones and acknowledged Rizal's role in the movement as foundation layer.

Rizal, through his reading of Morga and other western historians, knew of the genial image of Spain's early relations with his people.In his writings, he showed the disparity between the early colonialists and those of his day, with the latter's atrocities giving rise to Gomburza and the Philippine Revolution of 1896. His biographer, Austin Coates, and writer, Benedict Anderson, believe that Rizal gave the Philippine revolution a genuinely national character; and that Rizal's patriotism and his standing as one of Asia's first intellectuals have inspired others of the importance of a national identity to nation-building.

Reference: Frank Laubach , Rizal: Man and Martyr (Manila: Community Publishers, 1936) ; Austin Craig, Lineage, Life and Labors of Rizal (Manila: Philippine Education Co., 1913)

Donna said...

Donna R. Manaois
BBA MN 4-3
Rizal
Monday and Thursday 7:30 - 9:00am
"RIZAL AND HIS TRAVELS"

"ELIAS AND SALOME" - MISSING CHAPTER OF THE NOLI

This chapter was included in the original manuscript, written in Rizal’s own handwriting. It was originally intended by the author to follow Chapter 25, “In The Woods”. It was, however, crossed out in blue pencil, so that it was deleted from the printed novel. It relates of Elias’ escape from the picnic when the Guardia Civil came to arrest him and his sad parting with his sweetheart, Salome, who was a pretty orphan girl.

Why Rizal Deletes the Chapter. It should be recalled that Rizal was in dire financial situation in Berlin during the days when he was putting the finishing touches to the Noli. He knew that the cost of printing is in proportion with the number of pages of the manuscript. Inasmuch as he was harassed by lack of funds, he had to shorten the manuscripts.

The only reason why this particular chapter was deleted was economic, that is, to save printing expenses. Elias was adversely affected. Its seems that Rizal considered Ibarra a more important character, although Elias was a nobler. He even killed Elias in the novel, and let Ibarra live.

Elias and Salome
If the honorable civil guards, after disturbing the fiesta, had directed themselves to a place that we know before the sun set that same afternoon, they would have without doubt encountered the one whom they were looking for.
It is a small but picturesque hut built along the shores of the lake on an elevation which spares it from the rise of the waters, among luxuriant bamboo groves, betelnut and coconut trees. Little red flowers like kamantigi and maravilla grow at the foot of the thick rustic wall made out of cut rocks, not appearing that it was really some sort of stairway which led to the lake. The upper part is made out of nipa palm leaves and cut wood, held down by strips of bamboo and adorned with leaves blessed on Palm Sunday, as well as with artificial flowers of tinsim, which come from China. An ilang-ilang tree pushes through the open window, an intrusive branch saturates the air with aroma. An the apex of the roof cocks and hens roost from time to time, while the rest keep the company of ducks, turkeys and pigeons to finish off the last grains of rice and corn scattered on some kind of
patio.
On a batalan or bamboo porch, taking advantage of the light of day, a young girl of some seventeen years is sewing a shirt of brilliant colors and transparent weave. Her clothes are ragged but clean and decent. Her blouse, like her skirt and tapis are covered with patches and stitches. All her adornment, all her jewelry, consist of a plain turtleshell comb to keep her simply dressed hair in place, and a
rosary of black beads hanging from her neck over her blouse.
She is graceful because she is young, has beautiful eyes, a small nose, a diminutive mouth; because there is harmony in her features, and a sweet expression animates them; but hers is not a beauty which instantly arrests attention at sight. She is like one of those little flowers in the field without color or fragrance, on which we step unwittingly, and whose beauty manifests itself to us only when we examine them with care - unknown flowers, flowers of elusive perfume.
Now and then she would look towards the lake whose waters are somewhat
disturbed, suspend her work and listen crefully, but not discovering anything, return anew to her sewing with a slight sigh.
Her face lights up at the sound of footsteps; she lets go of her sewing, stands up, smooths the creases on her skirts and waits, smiling, by the small stairway of bamboo.
The pigeons fly, the ducks and chickens squawk and cackle as the taciturn-looking helmsman appears, carrying firewood and a bunch of bananas which he deposits silently on the floor, while he turns over to the young girl a mudfish still stirring and wiggling its tail.
She examines the young man with a worried look, then places the fish in a basin filled with water and returns to pick up her sewing, seating herself beside the helmsman who has remained silent.
"I thought you would come from the lake, Elias," she says, opening the conversation.
"No, I could not, Salome," answers Elias in a low voice. "The launch came and scoured the lake. On board is one who knows me."
"God, my God," murmurs the young woman, looking anxiously at Elias.
A lengthy pause follows. The helmsman silently contemplates the swaying bamboos moving from one side t oanother, rustling their lance-shaped leaves.
"Did you enjoy yourself much?" asks Salome.
"Enjoy! They, they enjoyed themselves," replies the young man.
"Tell me how you passed the day; hearing it from your lips will please me much, as though I had been with all of you."
"Well...they went...they fished...they sang...and they enjoyed themselves," he answers, distracted.
Salome, not being able to contain herself any longer, questions him with a look and tells him:
"Elias, you are sad!"
"Sad?"
"I know you well!" exclaims the young woman. "Your life is sad...are you afraid they might discover you?"
Something like the shadow of a smile crosses the young man's lips.
"Is there anything you lack?"
"I do not have your friendship, perhaps? Are we not poor, one like the others?" replies Elias.
"Then why are you like this?"
"You have told me many times, Salome, that I do not say much."
Salome lowers herhead and continues sewing, then in a voice which attempts to appear indifferent, asks once more:
"Were there many of you?"
"There were many of them!"
"Many women?"
"Many."
"Who were... the young women...the beautiful ones?"
"I do not know all of them...one was the betrothed of the rich young man who arrived from Europe," answers Elias in an almost imperceptible voice.
"Ah, the daughter of the rich Capitan Tiago! They say she has become very beautiful?"
"Oh, yes! very beautiful and very kind-hearted," the young man answers, drowning a sigh.
Salome looks at him for a moment and then bows her head.
If Elias had not been looking at the clouds which at sunset often take capricious shapes, he would have surely seen that Salome was crying and that two teardrops fell from her eyes on what she was sewing. This time it is he who breaks the silence, standing up and saying:
"Farewell, Salome, the sun is gone, and as you think it is not good that the neighbors can say that the night has caught me here...but you have been crying!" changing his tone and frowning. "Do not deny it with your smile, you have been crying."
"Well, yes!" she answers smiling, as her eyes fill anew with tears. "It is because I, too, am very sad."
"And why are you sad, my good friend?"
"Because soon I will have to leave this home where I was born and where I have grown up," answers Salome, wiping away her tears.
"And why?"
"Because it is not good that I live alone. I will go and live with my relatives in Mindoro...soon I will be able to pay the debts my mother left me when she died; the town fiesta comes, and my chickens and turkeys are well-fattened. To leave a home where one has been born and raised is much more than to leave half of one's own self...the flowers, the gardens, my doves! A storm comes, a flood, and everything goes down to the lake!"
Elias becomes thoughtful, and then, taking her by the hand and fixing his eyes on her, asks:
"Have you heard anybody speak ill of you? No? Did I ever molest you once? Neither? Therefore you have become tired of my friendship and want to avoid me."
"No, do not speak that way! If only I would get tired of your friendship!" she interrupts. "Jesus, Mary! I live the day and night thinking of the hour in the afternoon in which you would come. When I did not know you, whey my poor mother lived, the morning and the evening were for me the best that God had created: the morning, because I would see the sun rising, reflecting itself on the waters of the lake in whose dark depths rests my father; because I woud see my fresh flowers, their leaves which had wilted the day before grown green again; my doves and chickens would greet me happily as if offering me good mornings. I loved the morning because after fixing the hut, I would go in my little boat to sell food to the fishermen who would give me fish or who would allow me to take what was left in the folds of their nets. I loved the evening which provided me with the sleep of the day, which would allow me to dream in silence under these bamboo trees to the music of their leaves, making me forget reality - and because the night would bring back my mother, whom the panginggi separated from my side during the day.
"But since I met you, the mornings and the evenings have lost their
enchantment, and only the afternoon is beautiful to me. I sometimes think that the morning was created to prepare oneself to enjoy the delights of the afternoon, and the evening to dream and relish the memories and awakened feelings. If only it were my choice to forever live the life I bear...God knows I am happy with my lot; I do not desire more than health to work; I don't envy the rich girls their wealth but..."
"But?"
"Nothing, I do not envy them anything while I have your friendship."
"Salome," the young man says with sharp regret, "you know my cruel past and you know my misfortune is not of my own making. If it were not for that fate which at times makes me think with bitterness about the love of my parents, if it were not because I do not want my children to suffer that which my sister and I suffered and what I still suffer, months ago you would have been my spouse in the eyes of God, and today we should be living deep in the forest and far away from men. But for this same love, for this future family, I have sworn to extinguish in me the misfortune that from father to son we have come to inherit, and it is necessary that this has to be, because
neither you nor I would like to hear our children cursing our love from which only miseries can be thier legacy. You do well to go to your relatives' home. Forget me, forget a foolish and useless love. Perhaps there you may find someone who is not like me."
"Elias!" exclaims the maiden with reproach.
"You have understood me wrongly; I speak to you as I would speak to my
sister if she were alive; in my words, there is not a single complaint against you, nor hidden thoughts. Why should I hurt you with a reproach? Believe me, go to the home of your relatives; forget me. That, with your forgetfulness, I may be less unfortunate. Here, you have nobdy but me, and the day that I fall into the hands of those who persecute me, you will be left alone and solitary for the rest of your life, if it is discovered that you were a friend of Elias's. Take advantage of your youth and your beauty to look for a good husband whom you deserve. No, no, you stilll do not know wht it is to live alone, alone in the midst of humanity."
"I was counting on your accompanying me..."
"ay!" replies Elias,shaking his head, "impossible, and today more than
ever. I have not yet found that which I came to look for here. Impossible. This day I have lost my freedom."
And Elias recounts in a few words what transpired that morning.
"I did not ask him to save my life; I am not grateful for what he did, but for the feeling that inspired him, and I should pay that debt. For the rest of it, in Mindoro s anywhere else, the past will always be there, and will inevitably be discovered."
"Well then," Salome says to him, looking at him lovingly, "at the very least, when I have left, live here, live in this home. It will make you remember me and I will not think, in those faraway places, that my little house has been carried away by the hurricane or the waves. When my thoughts go back to these shores, the memory of you and that of my home will present themselves together. Sleep here where I have slept and dreamed....it would be as if I myself were living with you, as if I were at your side."
"Oh!" exclaims Elias, twisting his arms with despair, "woman, you are going to make me forget..." His eyes burn, but only for a moment.
And pulling himself away from the arms of the young woman, he flees, losing himself in the shadows of the trees.
Salome follows him with her eyes, remaining still and listening to the sound of the footsteps gradually fading away.

RIZAL IN DRESDEN, ITALY

29 October 1886
Rizal arrived at Dresden at 8:20 in the morning.

30 October 1886
He visited the Palacio Japonais and many other interesting places in Dresden.

31 October 1886
In Dresden, he met Dr. A.B. Mayer, naturalist of the Dresden University. He was shown interesting things taken from the Palaos Islands and from tombs in the Philippines.

1 November 1886
He left Dresden this morning for Berlin. In the station, he was nearly cheated by the taxi driver.



RIZAL”S GRAND TOUR TO EUROPE WITH VIOLA

11 May 1887
Accompanied by Maximo Viola, Rizal left Berlin to visit the cities of Eurupe, including Dresden, Leitmeritz, Prague, Vienna, Munich, Nuremberg, Ulm, Lausanne, and Geneva.

13 May 1887
Rizal and Viola arrived at Leitmeritz at 1:30 in the afternoon. They were met at the station by Prof. Blumentritt who conducted them to the Krebs Hotel, Room No. 12.

14 May1887
Rizal and Viola attended the session of the Board of Directors of the Tourist Club in Leitmeritz thru the invitation of Prof. Blumentritt who was the club secretary. They were cordially received by the President of the Club, Jose Krombholz. Rizal delivered an extemporaneous speech in German, which was very much applauded by the audience for his fluency.

15 May 1887
With Prof. Blumentritt as their guide, Rizal and Viola visited the churches , the residence of the Bishop and other important buildings of the city. They also visited the special friend of Prof. Blumentritt, Dr. Carlos Czepelak, who wanted very much to see Rizal personally.

16 May 1887
Professor Roberto Klutschak invited Rizal, Viola, and Prof Blumentritt to dine in his house , and in the evening in return, Rizal and Viola invited them in Krebs Hotel. At 9:45 that same evening Rizal And Viola , accompanied by the whole family of Prof. Blumentritt and Prof. Kluschk, left Leitmeritz for Prague.

RIZAL IN VIENNA, LINTZ, RHEINFALL, MUNICH AND GENEVA,SWITZERLAND

20-24 May 1887
Rizal and Maximo Viola arrived in Vienna at 2:30 P.M. of May 20th and both boarded at the Hotel Metropole. 24 May 1887
For the last 3 days, they were conducted around the city by Mr. Masner to see the points of interest, especially the Museum. On this day, Rizal was interviewed by Mr. Alder of the newspaper Extra Blatt.

25 May 1887
With Viola, Rizal left Vienna for Salzburg which the, too, left the following day, May 26, for Munich.

26-30 May 1887
Rizal and Viola were boarders of Rheinischer Hof or Rhine Hotel in Munich for five days. On May 29, 1887, they drunk beer in the business establishment, LowerbranKeller Munich.

30 May 1887
they left for Stuttgart.

Rizal and Viola arrived at the Geneva and boarded at the Hotel Merquardt. They left for Basel the following day, June 1.

3 June 1887
Rizal and Viola drank beer in Baverieche, Bierhalle, Basel, Switzerland. A paper napkin with the trademark of the said establishment proves that they were in this place on their way to Geneva. They left the place the following day, June 4.

6 June 1887
Rizal and Viola arrived at Geneva and boarded at Rue due Rhone 3, Pension Bel-Air. Here Rizal expressed his feeling against the exhibition of the Igorots in Madrid side by side with the animals and plants. In a letter to Blumentritt, he wished the Igorots would die immediately to avoid further sufferings.

10 June 1887
Rizal changed the original plan for his trip. He wanted now to pass Italy, te country of European Laws, before leaving Europe. He hoped to stay in Geneva up to the 20th of the month.

13 June1887
Rizal sent a letter to Fernando Canon requesting the latter to sell the copies of the Noli, not less than 5 pesetas per copy. Canon was given 10% commission for the copies sold.

19 June 1887
With Maximo Viola, Rizal celebrated his 26th birthday in Geneva, Switzerland. His attitude towards revolution was manifested in his letter to Blumentritt on the following terms: "I do not have interest of taking part in any conspiracy, which seems to me very premature and risky. But if the government obliges it to us, meaning, when no other hope is left for us than search for our perdition in war, when the Filipinos prefer to die supporting misery, then I shall also become supporter of violent means. It is on the hands of Spain whether to select peace or perdition because it is an evident fact which all know that we are patient, very patient and peaceful."

23 June 1887
Rizal and Maximo Viola parted at Geneva, after visiting European cities

-Rizal going to Rome and Viola to Barcelona


RIZAL IN ITALY

27 June 1887
Rizal arrived at Rome and walked around the whole day. He visited the Capitolio, the Roca Tarperya, the Palatinum, the Forum Romanun, the Museum Capitolinum and the church of Santa Maria, the maggiore. He tool a flower from the Palace of Septimius Severus, which he sent to Blumentritt

29 June 1887
From Rome, Rizal wrote his father: "I was in Turin, Milan, Venice, Florence, and for some days I have been here." Heannounced his return to the Philippines between the 15th and 30th of August.

30 June 1887
He considered the day a lucky one for him, meeting on the railway an Italian priest who treated him like an old friend and whom he considered his Father Confessor.

BACK TO CALAMBA, PHILLIPPINES

Rizal did not forget his fatherland. Although he acquired knowledge abroad had experienced the alluring beauties of foreign nations and enjoyed the friendships of many great men of the western world; but he remained at heart a true Filipino with great love for the Philippines and with unshakeable determination to die in his own country.

His decision was apprehended by members of his family and friends. Because of the publication of the Noli Me Tangere which caused an uproar among friars. They advised him not to return home but Rizal was determined and did not heed their warning for the following reasons:

1. To operate on his mother’s eyes.
2. To serve his people who had long been oppressed by tyrants.
3. To find out for himself how the Noli and his writings were affecting the Filipinos and Spaniards in the Phillippines.
4. To inquire why Leonor Rivera remained silent.


On July 3, 1887, Rizal boarded the steamer Djemnah. He had a delightful and pleasant trip reaching Manila rear midnight of August 5, 1887. He went ashore with a happy heart, stayed in the city for a short time to visit his friends and on August 8, 1887, he went to Calamba to join his parents, brothers, sisters and other members of his family. His family welcomed him affectionately with tears of joy.


REFERENCES:
www.joserizal.ph
“Module in the Memories of the Great Filipino Hero “ by Leodegario Magdaleno

faye said...

Marie Faye Pizarro
BBA mn 4-3
Rizal
Mon/Thu 730-900
When Rizal Left New York for London


From May 13-16, 1888, Dr. Jose P. Rizal stayed at the Fifth Avenue Hotel. It was one of the best hotels in New York City at the time and the building is now the location of the International Pencil Factory located at the Madison Park (incidentally where the Filipino Independence Day festival is held every year.)

On May 16th, Jose Rizal gathered enough funds for a trip to London onboard the luxurious liner CITY OF ROME. The Statue of Liberty was only 2 years old when the ship departed the New York harbor.


“There is a certain 'poetic justice' in the fact that the ship that Rizal traveled on was also the same ship that carried defeated Spanish troops back to Spain.”

The Barrow Shipbuilding Co. built the second largest steamer in 1881. She was a 8415 gross ton vessel - length 560.2ft beam 52.3ft, clipper stem, three funnels, four masts, iron construction, single screw and a speed of 16 knots. There was accommodation for 271-1st, 250-2nd and 810-3rd class passengers. In September 1898 she was used to repatriate 1690 Spanish troops from Portsmouth, USA to Santander, Spain after the Spanish - American war. She was considered by many to be the most beautiful steamer ever built.

There is a certain 'poetic justice' in the fact that the ship that Rizal traveled on was also the same ship that carried defeated Spanish troops back to Spain. I think that Rizal would have appreciated that. (noted by Ian Rogers, Hong Kong, China.)

Another irony was that Rizal might have boarded the ship again in September 1898, because he was accepted as a volunteer physician to work with the Spanish army in Cuba. Instead he was brought back to Manila in 1896 for his trial. He was sentenced to death by firing squad on Dec 30.

May 24, 1888 -- Arrived in Liverpool
He enjoyed himself aboard the CITY of ROME, then the second largest ship making the transatlantic crossing, by showing off his prowess with the yo-yo. He landed at Liverpool on the 24th of May 1888 and went on to London, where he eventually settled down at No.37 Chalcot, Crescent, part of what the English call a terrace or row of adjoining houses in a quiet street off Regent's Park, as a lodger with the Beckett family.

He wrote to Bluementritt (from London)
I live here with an English family who esteem me. I don't believe that its esteem is due to the two pounds weekly. That would be humiliating for your friend Rizal and would be ill-considered. At times when I receive news from Spain, it seems to me that I ought to hate all Europeans, but then I believe I shall go to Austria to live there if I cannot live in the Philippines, because Austria has no colonies and for being an Austrian he who has done so much for my country and loves her greatly.

It is interesting to note that Maria Clara who we associate our woman and Rizal's early sweetheart was Leonor Rivera who broke his heart when she married an English engineer who was working on the first Filipino railway. Rizal in his early letters to his friend Bluementritt wrote from Manila, "The first hammer-blow in the railway has fallen on me!"

He had political explanation; "I do not blame her for preferring Kipping..an Englishman is a free man and I am not."

Rizal to his family, 13th June 1888 (from London)
I am not in a bad place. I have two rooms, a bedroom, small and cozy, and another room where I can study, write and receive visitors. The family is made up of man and wife, four daughters and two sons; the daughters are called Gertrude (Tottie), Blance (Sissie), Flory and Grace. The first two are young ladies and have their sweethearts, Tottie sings rather well; Sissie accompanies her on the piano. One of the two sons is employed; the other signs in a church choir. Board and lodging cost me at least $45. Everything is more expensive in England than in other parts of Europe.

He was very fun of Tottie according to other books written, but I was able to get this info from the 1881 UK census. I was excited so I will post it here just to say that the girls of Rizal were real.

Here is the BECKETT family in 1881 (7 years earlier)
Dwelling: 37 Chalcot Cres
Census Place: St Pancras, London, Middlesex, England
Source: FHL Film 1341040 PRO Ref RG11 Piece 0183 Folio 15 Page 23


He stayed in an affluent place in London and that was probably the reason that there are no jokers among us who could connect him to the most vicious crime of the century that started few days after he arrived. The killing stopped after he left for continental Europe in the beginning of 1889. Jack the Ripper's victims were found in the East End, the poor gut section of London badly cut with precision that could only attributed to some one who has medical training. Eyewitnesses claim that Jack wore a dark overcoat, but again JR had a small frame that his shadow would stand short. It was the first known serial killer that remained unsolved.

Source: http://www.filipinohome.com/02_03_01rizal_london.html
www.joserizal.ph/tr32.html

austin pearl putosa said...

magandang hapon po mam!

lee woo said...

Any truth is better than indefinite doubt. See the link below for more info.

#indefinite
www.ufgop.org