Tuesday, March 8, 2011

ABE 1-2: Essay requirement

Please post your essay here. Thanks

21 comments:

Gerard said...
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Gerard said...

The Spaniards as Colonial Masters:

Spain reigned over the Philippines for 333 years, from 1565 to 1898. So
laws and taxes were implemented, Church and the State we're not yet separated at that time because of the Spanish tradition. Catholicism has influenced the Spanish government so much. Laws like the penal code, the galleon trade and different taxes were implemented. but a certain law did hit me. The Galleon Trade. Governor General Jose Basco y Vargas implemented the free trade of the Philippines with Mexico and China, The Galleon trade was thought so that the Filipino farmers could start the Philippine's self-sufficiency, but the other side of the trade was that the Spaniards could ask for taxes so easily. It was still on their benefit. Positively, the trade was advantageous and disadvantageous at the same time because at least workers, farmers and laborers would easily have their hard work pay off with at least a thing that they are sufficient with, and at the same time, they can sell the items so they can pay taxes. I think it's a very smart move for Governor General Basco because he thought of a “general economic plan” that could benefit both parties.He established the “Economic Society of Friends of the Country”, which gave incentives to farmers for planting cotton, spices, and sugarcane; encouraged miners to extract gold, silver, tin, and copper; and rewarded investors for scientific discoveries they made.

Reference: www.philippine-history.org

Submitted by: John Gerard Casaclang- ABE 1-2

Gerard said...

The Origins of Filipinos:

The origin of Filipinos were believed
to have occurred in he Pleistocene period. Two theories were made. The Migration Theory and the Jocano’s “Evolution Theory”.
The Migration theory states that "The first migrants were what Beyer caked the “Dawnmen” (or “cavemen” because they lived in caves.). The Dawnmen resembled Java Man, Peking Man, and other Asian Home sapiens who existed about 250,000 years ago. They did not have any knowledge of agriculture, and lived by hunting and fishing. It was precisely in search of food that they came to the Philippines by way of the land bridges that connected the Philippines and Indonesia. Owing perhaps to their migratory nature, they eventually left the Philippines for destinations unknown."

Then came the second group of migrants called the “Aetas’ or “Negritoes”. Composed of dark-skinned pygmies, which migrated 30,000 years ago. They crossed the land bridges from Malaya, Borneo, and Australia until they reached Palawan, Mindoro and Mindanao.

They used spears and small flint stones weapons, goes around practically naked and were good at hunting, fishing and food gathering.

The Jocano's theory was made by renowned Filipino anthropologist Felipe Landa Jocano. He stated that "it is difficult to prove that Negritoes were the first inhabitants of this country. The only thing that can positively concluded from fossil evidence,is that the first men who came to the Philippines also went to New Guinea, Java, Borneo, and Australia.". Jocano advances the Evolution Theory as a way better theory with the use of the Migration theory. Jocano believes that the first people of Southeast Asia were products of a long process of evolution and migration. Studies show that the fossils and the evidences found in New Guinea, Java and Borneo, had the same culture, same physical classification, same weapons. Basically, same of everything.
Both theories may be combined, no doubt, because studies, evidences and fossils show the same things, although found in different locations in south east asia.

reference: http://www.philippine-history.org

Submitted by: John Gerard Casaclang, ABE 1-2

emoboyprince said...
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Fatima said...
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Fatima said...
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Fatima said...

Fatima B. Dela Cruz
ABE 1-2


The American and Japanese Regimes: A Comparison

By the end of the 1890’s, the Philippines’ liberation from the Spanish rule is just a stone’s throw away. Every Filipino was expecting that, through American intervention, they will defeat the Spanish and have them thrown out. However, the smiles in their faces were wiped out when they found out that the Spanish regime was only replaced by the Americans, leading to battles between the Filipinos and the Americans. In the end though, this was resolved when American president, Theodore Roosevelt ordered officials at the Philippines to prepare the country for its independence.

After the American-Philippine war, numerous Acts were passed in order for the Philippines to be prepared for its independence. The Jones Act for example gave the Filipinos rights such as freedom of the press, religion, speech, etc. Another Act, w/c helped shape the Philippine government at that time was the Tydings-McDuffie Act; w/c established the ten-year Commonwealth of the Philippines. Throughout this period, the Americans improved the lives of the Filipinos by improving roads, infrastructures, industries, health system, etc. They also introduced new forms of transportation like cars, buses, bikes, and even trains. They also introduced our first airline in 1935. Communication improved greatly too as the Philippines got hold of phonographs, telegrams, telephone, radios and the like. Education too was improved as American teachers, famously known as the Thomasites (they came to the Philippines through a ship named Thomas) taught young Filipinos the English language. Public and private schools were established as an addition. The Americans affected our culture too, as they brought with them new clothing, food, etc, but one of the probably most important of all is they brought with them Democracy, w/c helped shape the present government of the Philippines.

--NEXT please. >

Fatima said...
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Fatima said...
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fatimadelacruz said...
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sarah grace said...

Ang Pinagmulan ng Ating Lahi

Napaka importante na malaman natin ang pinagmulan ng ating lahi. Binubuo nito ang ating katauhan, tinutulungan tayo na madetermina kung saan nga ba tayo galing at kung ano ang pwede nating patunguhan.

Maraming teorya ang sa ngayon ay umuusbong na nagtatalo talo kung saan nga ba galing ang lahing Pilipino. Ngunit ano nga ba ang isang Pilipino? Ayon sa Webster's New World Collegiate Dictionary, ang Pilipino ay mga taong naninirahan sa Pilipinas, o mamamayang Pilipino. Kung gayon, napakalaki ng papel na ginagampanan ng ating heograpiya sa pagiging Pilipino. Tototo nga naman, sapagkat ang ating lupang sinilangan ang kumpkop sa atin. At, ito rin ang kumupkop sa ating mga ninuno, na siyang dahilan kung bakit tayo ay buhay ngayon, at nakakatamasa ng kalayaan sa ating bayan.

Napakaraming teorya na naglalahad ng mga kaisipan ukol sa pinagmulan ng ating lahi. Ngunit, nais ko lamang talakayin ang ilan sa mga pinaka kilalang teorya. Isa dito ay ang Teorya ng Migrasyon ni Otley Beyer.

Simula aking pagkabata, aking pinaniwalaan ang teoryang ito. Tinuro ng aking guro sa Sibika't Kultura, at Hekasi na ang mga unang Pilipino umano ay naglakbay sa "land bridges" o tulay na lupa mula sa ibang lupalop ng mundo, at dito na nanirahan sa Pilipinas. Ni hindi ko man lang kwinestiyon ang teoryang ito sapagkat ang aking pinakaginagalang na guro ang nagturo ng kaalaman na ito, at ano nga ba ako't isang maunting paslit?

Ngunit nang ako'y tumanda't nagkaisip, namulatang aking isipan sa maraming bagay, at ang Teorya ng Migrasyon ay naging kwestiyuanble. Napatunayan na ang teorya na ito ay hindi gumamit ng siyemtipikong paraan ng pagreresearch. At isa pa, walang karapatan si Otley Beyer na magsabi kung ano ang pinagmulan natin sapagkat hindi siya historyador o arkeyologo.

Dumating ang ibang teorya tulad ng Ebolusyon Kontra Migrasyon, at ang Teorya ng Austronesyano. Sa Teorya ng Ebolusyon Kontra Migrasyon, binigyang diin ni Jocano "ang pagbubuong panloob kung saan iniakma ng tao ang kilos at gawain ayon sa pangangailangan at hamon ng kanyang kalikasan" (Rosales 24).

sarah grace said...

(PART 2 ANG PINAGMULAN NG ATING LAHI)

Samakatwid, tinatalakay ng teorya ni Jocano na bagama't may mga nakaimpluwensiya sa atin, ay nabuo ang ating kultura sa pamamagitan ng pag adapt sa ating kalikasanat mga hamon ng pang araw-araw na buhay.

Ang Teoryang Austronesyano naman ay sinusulong nina Peter Bellwood, Wilheim Solheim, at Zeus Salazar (Rosales, 24). Marami sa mga dalubhasa sa larangang pre-historiko ang naniniwala na ang mga Austronesyano ang ninuno ng lahing Pilipino. Sino nga ba ang mga Austronesyano? Ayon kay Rosales at Sebastian, ang mga Austronesyano umano ay bunga ng mga Mongoloid mula sa Hilagang Tsina, at mga Austroloid mula sa isla sa Pasipiko. Sila ay magagaling na manglalayag, kaya't narating nila ang Pilipinas.

Ayon sa teoryang ito, ang mga Austronesyano ang ninuno ng ating lahi at sila ang nakaapekto ng malaki sa ating kultura.

Marami pang ibang teorya, ngunit ang 3 ito ang pinakapopular. Marahil dahil mas marami itong siyentipikong basehan, o dahil sa mas katanggap tanggap ito sa masa. Hanggang sa ngayon ay patuloy parin ang pagtatalo ukol sa ating pinagmulan.

Ngunit anuman o sinuman ang ating mga ninuno, maging sila man ay Ita, Hindu, Malay, Tsino, Hapon, Español, o Amerikano, dapat natin silang pasalamatan dahil kung wala sila, ay wala tayo ngayon.


Nabuo at nagsama sama ang iba't ibang lahi, kultura, at paniniwala ng iba't ibang mga tao upang mabuo ang Pilipino na "tayo" nagyon. Iba't iba man ang ating hitsura, kulay, diyalekto, o ninunong pinagmulan, ang dugong PIlipino ay nananalaytay sa ating mga ugat, at ito ay dapat nating ipagmalaki.


Ang tunay na Pilipino ay matapat, magalang, masayahin, at matulungin. Ang Pilipino ay hindi lamang sa panlabas nakikita kundi pati narin sa panloob. Sana tayo'y maging tunay na Pilipino, at gayahin ang magagandang asal na tinuro ng ating mga ninuno, at ituro rin ito sa mga susunod na henerasyon.Taas noo kong sasabihin - ako'y Pilipino!

sarah grace said...

MGA POLISIYA NOONG PANAHON NG ESPANYA
(PART 1)

Panahon ng Espanya. Isang madilim at masalimuot napanahon para sa ating mga Pilipino. Hindi mabilang ang pananamantala mila sa ating bansa at sa ating mga ninuno. Napakaraming namatay, at hindi rin mabilang ang mga pinsala na ginawa nila sa atin bilang mga Pilipino.

Marahil ay iniisip ninyo na napaka subhektibo ng aking panimula. Ngunit hindi maikakaila na iyon tlaga ang nangyari. Bago dumating ang mga Kastila, ang namamahala sa mga Pilipino ay ang mga Raha at mga Datu. Mayroong sistemang pulitikal na pinaiiral sa mga katutubo. Ngunit nang dumating ang mga Kastila, binuwag nila ang ating dating sistema at pinalitan ng mga bagong patakaran.

Pagkarating na pagkarating nila sa ating lupa, inangkin nila ang mga lupa ng mga mamamayan, pinagbayad ng buwis sa Hari ng Espanya, at pinagserbisyo ng libre ang mga kalalakihan. Pwinersa nila ang kanilang relihiyon sa satin, at nang mahalin ito ng ilang mga Pilipino at naghangad na maging pari, kanila itong ipinagbawal. Ginawa nilang ekslusibo ang mga paaralan upang panatilihin tayong mangmang at bulag sa kanilang pananamantala. Ang mga nagaalsa laban sa gobyerno ay pinarurusahan, kung hindi man ay papatayin o ipapatapon. Na kung iisipin ay wala naman silang karapatan na gawin, dahil sila'y mga dayuhan lamang at ang lupain na ito ay pag mamay0ari ng mga Pilipino. (Rosales at Sebastian)

Sa dami ng mga pagmamaltrato na ating naranasan mula sa mga Español, ang isang polisiya na nais kong pagtuunanng pansin ay ang pangongolekta nila ng buwis o tributo sa mga Pilipino.


Sa aking paniniwala, isa ito sa mga pinaka malupit na ginawa sa atin ng mga Espanyol. Ginawa tayong alipin sa sarili nating bayan sa pamamagitan ng pagpataw sa sarili nating mga produkto ng buwis para masuportahan ang kolonya ng Espanya, na wala namang ibang ginawa kundi ang pahirapan ang mga mamayang Pilipino.


Pinagbabayad sila ng buwis o tributo na puwede sa pamamaraang pera o produkto tulad ng manok, tabako, ginto, bigas, etc., depende sa espesyalidad o inilalabas ng bawat rehiyon (www.wikipedia.org) na dapat ay nagkakahalaga ng walong sentimos lahat. Makalipas ang ilang panahon, tumaas ang halag ng tributo sa labinlimang sentimos, na nahahati sa sumusunod: sampung sentimos sa buwis, isang sentimo sa diezmos prediales (tithes), isang sentimo para sa kaban ng bayan, isang sentimo para sa santum, at tatlong sentimo para sa suporta sa simbahan.(www.wikipedia.com/index.history)

sarah grace said...

MGA POLISIYA NOONG PANAHON NG ESPANYA
(PART 2)

Ang tributo ay napakamalaking pahirap sa mga Pilipino noon, sapagkat dahil sa naangkin ng pamahalaang Espanya ang mga lupain, ay ang suweldo ng mga ordinaryong Pilipino, halimbawa nalang ang mga magsasaka, ay napupunta sa pagbabayad ng buwis. Karamihan sa mga Pilipino noon ay mahirap, dahil narin sa maling pamamalakad ng gobyerno. At hindi lamang ang tributo ang paraan ng Espanya upang pagnakawan ang ating bayan kundi pari narin sa bandala, at marami pang iba. At dahil pinagsama samang lahat ng pagpapahirap na ito, naging halos imposible na para sa mga Pilipino na bayaran ang tributo.

Ngunit bakit nga ba nagpataw ang Espanya ng ganitong mga patakaran? Para sa akin, simple lamang ang sagot diyan. Sapagkat nais nilang ipakita sa mga Pilipino na sila ang makapngyarihan, na sila ang hari sa dayuhang bansa na kanilang nasakop.

Kung tutuusin, hindi sila yayaman sa konting tributo na inaalay ng mga Pilipino, bagkus ang paghahangad sa kapangyarihan ang nakikita kong pinakamalaking motibo kaya't pinahirapan nila ang ating mga ninuno.

Ngunit ang bawat pagpapahirap ay may katapusan din. Nang matapos ang rehimen ng Espanya ay nabawasan ang bigat ng tributo, nang magkaroon na tayo ng sariling republika at gobyerno. Isa itong malaking tagumpay para sa mga Pilipino. Subalit, namana ng ilan sa mga pinuno sa ating pamahalaan ang pagiging sakim at corrupt ng mga Espanyol, at hanggang sa ngayon ay talamak ang korupsyon sa ating gobyerno.

Ang buwis na ating binabayaran ngayon ay napupunta sa pamahalaan at pinagkukunan ng sweldo ng mga manggagawa. Maraming mga empleyado ang dumadaing sa laki ng kaltas ng buwis sa kanilang suweldo. Napupunta kaya sa tamang lugar ang pinaghihirapan ng mga Pilipino, o napupunta lamang sa bulsa ng mga may kapangyarihan? Isang kuwestiyon na marahil kailanman ay hindi masasagot.

Passed by Sarah Grace Acobera ABE 1-2

Carlo Miguel Muros said...

Rehimeng Kastila at Rehimeng Amerikano

Hindi lingid sa kaalaman natin na ang Pilipinas ay minsan ng nasakop ng mga dayuhan, pangunahin na rito ay ang mga kastila. Ang mga kastila ay dumating dito sa ating bansa noong taong 1521 at dito na unti unting nagsimula ang pagsakop nila sa atin. Nagsimula sila na makipagkaibigan sa mga pinuno ng mga barangay. Naganap ang sanduguan sa ilang kastila at mga datu, lingid sa kaalaman ng mga unang Pilipino ang layunin ng mga kastila na masakop at kamkamin ang yaman nila. Ng masakop ng mga kastila ang Cebu nagpatuloy na ang pamamayagpag nila hanggang sa tuluyan ng napasailalim ang buong Pilipinas. Mahigit 300 taon tayong naghirap sa pamamalakad ng mga dayuhan kabilang dito ang hirap na dinanas sa Polo y servicios o sapilitang paggawa, ang pagbabayad ng buwis at bandala. Dahil sa mga ito ay naglayon ang mga pilipino na maghimagsik upang makamit ang kalayaan. Ilang himagsikan ang naganap at nabigo, ang tanging tagumpay na rebolusyon ay ang rebolusyong pinangunahan ng mga Katipunero na pinamunuan nila Andres Bonifacio, Emilio Aguinaldo atbp. Di nagtagal sumiklab ang digmaang Estados Unidos laban sa Espanya ito ay dahil sa pagsabog ng isang bapor pandigma ng Estados Unidos na naka daong sa Cuba na kilalang kolonya ng Espanya. Dahil dito hinangad ng Amerika na masakop ang Puerto Rico, Hawaii, Guam at Pilipinas na kolonya ng Espanya. Nagkaroon ng labanan sa look ng Maynila kung saan naganap ang pagkatalo ng mga kastila. At dito isunuko na ng Espanya ang Pilipinas sa ilalim ng Kasunduan sa Paris.

Carlo Miguel Muros said...

Ang mga amerikano ,ng matapos ang digmaang Amerikano-Kastila, ay nagsimula ng pumasok sa Pilipinas dala ang tulong na kanilang ipinangako. Kabaliktaran sa mga kastila tinuruan ng mga amerikano ang mga Pilipino sa iba’t-ibang larangan. Nagbukas muli ng mga paaralan at itinuro ang ingles sa mga pilipino. Gaya ng mga kastila nagdala din ng relihiyon ang mga amerikano kabilang dito ang Protestantismo,Metodista atbp. . Ngunit kasabay ng mga pagtulong nila ay nakinabang ang mga kano sa pagkuha ng mga “raw materials” na kailangan nila sa kanilang produksyon. Naging bunsod din ito ng pagtangkilik ng mga Pilipino sa mga produkto na “imported” na hindi nakatulong sa paglago ng sariling industriya ng mga pilipino.
Sa ilalim ng Pamahalaang Amerikano sa Pilipinas ay inihanda ang mga Pilipino sa pagsasarili. Isa sa mga hakbang na ginawa upang maisakatuparan ito ay ang paglalagay ng mga matatalinong pilipino sa posisyon upang makibahagi sa pamumuno. Nagkaroon din ng mga delegado na ipinapadala sa kongreso ng Estados Unidos upang makibahagi sa pagtatalo kaugnay sa sa mga panukalang batas na may kinalaman sa Pilipinas. Ngunit ng Maglaon ay sinikil ng mga amerikano ang kalayaang binigay sa pilipinas sa pamamagitan ng Batas sa Bandila. Ngunit di naman naisantabi ang Paglalagay ng Pilipino sa pamahalaan sa panahon ni Harisson ay lumiit ang bilang ng amerikano na nasa posisyon dahil pinalitan sila ng mga pilipinong may kakayahan.
Ng tumagal ay itinatag ang Pamahalaang komonwelt kung saan nagsimula na ang paglaya ng mga pilipino sa Estados Unidos. Nagtagumpay si Manuel L. Quezon na makuha ang bagong batas sa pagsasarili ng pilipinas ang batas na ito ay ang Batas Tydings-Mcduffie na ginawa nina Sen. Milliard Tydings at kinatawang John Mucduffie. Di nagtagal pinasinayan ang pamahalaang komonwelt na ang pangulo ay si Manuel L. Quezon at kanyang pangalawang pangulo ay si Sergio Osmeña. Sa ilalim ng kanilang pamunuan ay unti-unting nakapagsarili ang pilipinas.

Sa dalawang rehimen ay makikita natin na sa mahigit 40 taong pananatili ng amerikano sa Pilipinas ay nakapagdulot sila ng pag unlad at pagbabago tungo sa modernisasyon. Kumpara sa nagawa ng mga kastila sa loob ng mahigit 300 taong pananatili nila na tanging hinangad lang na tayo ay gawing alipin sa sarili nating bayan. Ngunit magkagayon man ay malaki ang naging bahagi ng mga rehimeng ito sa kasaysayan at sa pagkahubog ng kasalukuyan lipunan nating mga pilipino. Masama man o mabuti ang kanilang nagawa para sa atin sila ay habang buhay ng bahagi ng kasaysayan ng paglaban at panghahangad sa kalayaan tinatamasa natin ngayon.
-Carlo Miguel Muros
ABE 1-2

venice jastine said...

“SPANISH AND AMERICAN REGIME”

Philippines is a simple country but rich in natural resources. That’s the reason why many other countries want to conquer it. One of those countries is the Spain. During those times Philippines don’t have a national government they are just divided by a ruler.
When the Spaniard policy arrived everything change. Church and State were inseparably linked in Spanish policy, with the state assuming responsibility for religious establishments. One of Spain’s objectives in colonizing the Philippines was the conversion of Filipinos to Catholicism. The work of conversion was facilitated by the absence of other organized religions, except for Islams, which predominated in the south. The pageantry of the church had a wide plea, reinforced by the incorporation of Filipino social customs into religious observances. The eventual outcome was a new Christian majority of the main Malay lowland population, from which the Muslims of Mindanao and the upland tribal Peoples of Luzon remained detached and separated.
In terms of Political stability , Philippines is rule under the king of Spain with the help of what they call it “Konseho ng Indies” since 1565 to 1821 until the Mexico sets free from the Spaniards. At levels of administration of co-opting local leaders. The Gobernador-Heneral is the highest administration during that time; he has given the power by the king “The Cumplase”. This system of indirect rule helped create in a Filipino upper class, called the “Principalia”. Who had a local wealth. High status and other privileges. This achieved an oligarchic system of Local control. Among the significant changes under Spanish rule was that the Filipino idea of public use and ownership of land was replaced with the concept of private ownership and the granting on titles on members of principalia.
American-Spanish war is the reason why Philippines rule under America. American won this battle, this time Filipino’s sets free after 300 years in the policy of Spanish colonial. After this Aguinaldo acclaims the Independence Day on the Philippines. June 12, 1898 and the inauguration of the first Republic of the Philippines. In Malolos, Bulacan. But William McKinley acclaim the “Patakatarang Asimilasyon” then the Philippines rule under a new conqueror, the Americans
The Americans conquer the Philippines causes the Cuba against the Spain during 1895. Cuba is one of the colony of Spain since Christopher Columbus discovered it. During those time United States is one of the most powerful country. About U.S President McKinley’s war in the Philippines they want it to be democratic. The corporate elite that dominated the McKinley’s administration fought the war to grab what they could of Spain’s colonies. Opposition to that policy. The fight against Filipino nationalist. The United States set out on the path of corporate imperialism which it has now followed for 100 years.
As of now because of this war and this happenings we were still influenced by those countries who conquers our county. We have already adopt their culture and of our ways of living are influenced by this two countries
(Bibliographical citation: Historia: Pag-usbong , Pakikipagtagpo at Pagbuo written by Amalia Cullarin Rosales and Raul Roland Sebastian.)

Ruzel M. Lojica said...

Bilang isang , isa sa mga pangunahing gampanin natin ay ang hubugin ang ating pagkatao , mula sa mga moral na aral hanggang sa ibat ibang aspeto ng ating buhay at bilang isang Pilipino dapat rin nating malaman ang tunay na pinagmulan ng ating lahi.

Many historians and scientists believe that the first inhabitants of the Philippine islands emerged during the Pleistocene period. There are two theories on where the inhabitants (first Filipinos) came from namely: Beyer’s “Migration Theory” and Jocano’s “Evolution Theory”. Noted social scientist Henry Otley Beyer believes that Filipinos descended from different groups that came from Southeast Asia in successive waves of migration. Each group had a distinct culture, with it’s own customs and traditions. While Jocano believes that Asians, including Filipinos are the result of a lengthy process of evolution and migration.


may 2 teoryang nagmula kay Otley Bayer: ang teorya ng ebolusyon at ang teorya ng migrasyon.

The first migrants were what Beyer caked the “Dawnmen” (or “cavemen” because they lived in caves.). The Dawnmen resembled Java Man, Peking Man, and other Asian Home sapiens who existed about 250,000 years ago. They did not have any knowledge of agriculture, and lived by hunting and fishing. It was precisely in search of food that they came to the Philippines by way of the land bridges that connected the Philippines and Indonesia. Owing perhaps to their migratory nature, they eventually left the Philippines for destinations unknown.



The second group of migrants was composed of dark-skinned pygmies called “Aetas’ or “Negritoes”. Negrito woman | Aeta womanAbout 30,000 years ago, they crossed the land bridged from Malaya, Borneo, and Australia until they reached Palawan, Mindoro and Mindanao. They were pygmies who went around practically naked and were good at hunting, fishing and food gathering. They used spears and small flint stones weapons.



The Aetas were already in the Philippines when the land bridges disappeared due to the thinning of the ice glaciers and the subsequent increase in seawater level. This natural events “forced” them to remain in the country and become its first permanent inhabitants.



Because of the disappearance of the land bridges, the third wave of migrants was necessarily skilled in seafaring. These were the Indonesians, who came to the islands in boats. They were more advanced than the Aetas in that: they had tools made out of stone and steel, which enabled them to build sturdier houses: they engaged in farming and mining, and used materials made of brass; they wore clothing and other body ornaments.



Last to migrate to the Philippines, according to Beyer, were Malays. They were believed to have come from Java, Sumatra, Borneo, and the Malay Peninsula more than 2,000 years ago. Like the Indonesians, they also traveled in boats.



The Malays were brown-skinned and of medium height, with straight black hair and flat noses. Their technology was said to be more advanced than that of their predecessors. They engaged in pottery, weaving, jewelry making and metal smelting, and introduced the irrigation system in rice planting.


ito ang panukala ni henry bayer sa ating lahi at ayon naman kay Jocano:

next..

Ruzel M. Lojica said...

continuation..

Renowned Filipino anthropologist Felipe Landa Jocano disputes Beyer’s belief that Filipinos descended from Negritoes and Malays who migrated to the Philippines thousands of years ago. According to Jocano, it is difficult to prove that Negritoes were the first inhabitants of this country. The only thing that can positively concluded from fossil evidence, he says is that the first men who came to the Philippines also went to New Guinea, Java, Borneo, and Australia.



In 1962, a skullcap and a portion of a jaw-presumed to be a human origin-were found in the Tabon Caves of Palawan by archaeologist Robert Fox and Manuel Santiago, who both worked for the National Museum. Carbon dating placed their age at 21,000 to 22,000 years. This proves, Jocano argues, that man came earlier to the Philippines than to the Malay Peninsula; therefore, the first inhabitants of our islands could not have come from the region. The “Tabon Man” is said to resemble Java Man and Peking Man. He gathered fruits, leaves and plants for his food. He hunted with weapons made of stone. Although further research is still being done on his life and culture, evidence shows that he was already capable of using his brain in order to survive and keep himself safe.



Instead of the Migration Theory, Jocano advances the Evolution Theory, as a better explanation of how our country was first inhabited by human beings, Jocano believes that the first people of Southeast Asia were products of a long process of evolution and migration. His research indicates that they shared more or less the same culture, beliefs, practices an even similar tools and implements. These people eventually went their separate ways; some migrated to the Philippines, the others to New Guinea, Java and Borneo. Proof, Jocano says, can be found in the fossils discovered in different parts of Southeast Asia, as well as the recorded migrations of other peoples from the Asian mainland when history began to unfold.


mayroon ding mga nagpahag ng kanilang mga paniniwala sa pamamagitan ng pag gawa ng alamat..

sino ba naman ang hindi nakakaalam ng alamat ni Malakas at ni Maganda? kung saan sinasabing sila ang ating tunay na ninuno na nagmula sa buho ng kawayan.


meron ding mangilan ngilan na nagsasabing nagmula ang mga kauna unahang ninuno natin sa borneo kung saan sila tumakas mula sa pamumuno ng kanilang malupit na sultan..

marami ng paniniwala ang nagsasabi kung saan nagmula ang mga pilipino may mula sa masiyasat na pag aaral, sa alamat, sa sariling paagay at opinyon ngunit, gayun pa man may isang bagay akong nasisiguro sa aking sarili na:

I'M very proud to have here in my veins the blood of our race- the heroes blood.

Ruzel M. Lojica ABE 1-2

Ruzel M. Lojica said...

Spanish rule achieved the political unification of almost the whole archipelago, that previously had been composed by independent kingdoms and communities, pushing back south the advancing Islamic forces and creating the first draft of the nation that was to be known as the Philippines. Spain also introduced Christianity, the code of law, the oldest Universities and the first public education system in Asia, the western European version of printing, the Gregorian calendar and invested heavily on all kinds of modern infrastructures, such as train networks and modern bridges.

The Spanish East Indies were ruled as a territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain and administered from Mexico City, Mexico from 1565 to 1821, and administered directly from Madrid, Spain from 1821 until the end of the Spanish–American War in 1898, except for the brief British occupation of the Philippines from 1762 to 1764. During the Spanish period, numerous towns were founded, infrastructures built, new crops and livestock introduced. The Chinese, British, Portuguese, Dutch, Japanese, and indigenous traders, complained that the Spanish reduced trade by attempting to enforce a Spanish monopoly. Spanish missionaries attempted to convert the population to Christianity and were eventually generally successful in the northern and central lowlands. They founded schools, a university, and some hospitals, principally in Manila and the largest Spanish fort settlements. Universal education was made free for all Filipino subjects in 1863 and remained so until the end of the Spanish colonial era. This measure was at the vanguard of contemporary Asian countries, and led to an important class of educated natives, like Jose Rizal. Ironically, it was during the initial years of American occupation in the early 20th century, that Spanish literature and press flourished.
The Galleon Trade. Governor General Jose Basco y Vargas implemented the free trade of the Philippines with Mexico and China, The Galleon trade was thought so that the Filipino farmers could start the Philippine's self-sufficiency, but the other side of the trade was that the Spaniards could ask for taxes so easily.

Spanish rule in the second part of the 18th Century
The Cross of Burgundy served as the flag of the Viceroyalty of New Spain

In 1766 was established direct communication with Spain and trade with Europe through a national ship based on Spain. Those expeditions were administered since 1785 by the Real Compañía Filipina, which was granted a monopoly of trade between Spain and the islands that lasted until 1834, when the company was terminated by the Spanish crown due to poor management and financial losses.

next..

Ruzel M. Lojica said...

continuation..

In 1781, Governor-General José Basco y Vargas established the Economic Society of the Friends of the Country.[74] The Philippines was administered from the Viceroyalty of New Spain until the grant of independence to Mexico in 1821 necessitated the direct rule from Spain of the Philippines from that year.

During the 19th century Spain invested heavily in education and infrastructures. Through the Education Decree of December 20, 1863, Queen Isabella II of Spain decreed the establishment of a free public school system that used Spanish as the language of instruction, leading to increasing numbers of educated Filipinos.[75] Additionally, the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 cut travel time to Spain, which facilitated the rise of the ilustrados, an enlightened class of Filipinos that had been able to expand their studies in Spain and Europe.
Puente de Claveria (Quezon Bridge)

A great deal of infrastructure projects were undertaken during the 19th century that put the Philippines economy and standard of living ahead of most of its Asian neighbors and even many European countries at that time. Among them were a railway system for Luzon, a tramcar network for Manila, or the Quezon Bridge, that was the first suspension bridge ever built, not only the Philippines but in all of South East Asia.

On August 1, 1851 the Banco Español-Filipino de Isabel II was established to attend the needs of the rapid economic boom, that had greatly increased its pace since 1840 as a result of a new economy based on a rational exploitation of the agricultural resources of the islands. The increase in textile fiber crops such as abacá, oil products derived from the coconut, indigo, that was growing in demand, etc., generated an increase in money supply that led to the creation of the bank. Banco Español-Filipino was also granted the power to print a Philippine-specific currency (the Philippine peso) for the first time (before 1851, many currencies were used, mostly the pieces of eight).

The Philippines were seen during the 19th century as a model of colonial government that effectively put the interests of the original inhabitants of the islands before those of the colonial power. No other country in the Asian continent had seen its standard of living improved after being colonized by a European power. As John Crawfurd put it in its History of the Indian Archipelago, in all of Asia the "Philippines alone did improve in civilization, wealth, and populousness under the colonial rule" of a foreign power.[76] John Bowring, Governor General of British Hong Kong from 1856 to 1860), wrote after his trip to Manila:

Ruzel M. Lojica ABE 1-2